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TO  tfttilisk  f  *mtfo§,H:v>a 


(Sawles    Warde,    and    }?e   Wohunge    of    Ure    Lauerd : 
Ureisuns  of  Ure  Louerd  and  of  Ure  Lefdi,  &c.) 

of  tj)C 

^foelftf)  an*  Wrtcentf)  Centuries 




Author  of  '  Specimen*  of  Early  English;' 

Editor  of  Hampole's  ' Pricke  of  Conscience ;'    'Early  Entilish  Alliterative  Poems;' 

'  The  Story  of  Genesis  and  Exodus  ;'    '  Tlic  Ayenbite  of  Intvyt,'  <J-c. 

Member  of  the  Council  of  the  Philological  Society. 





BY    N.  TRUBNER   &   CO.,  60,  PATERNOSTER   ROW. 





0  X  E  0  R  D  : 

BY   T.   COMBE,  M.  A.,    E.  B.  GARDNER,    E.  P.  HALL,    AND    H.  LATHAM,  M.A., 



THE  present  volume  does  not  consist  of  a  continuous  series  of 
Homilies,  as  was  originally  intended,  but  is  merely  a  bundle  of 
fragments  and  smaller  treatises  arranged  in  the  order  in  which 
the  editor  was  fortunate  enough  to  meet  with  them.  He,  there- 
fore, does  not  think  it  necessary  to  offer  any  apology  to  the  reader 
for  presenting  them  in  their  apparently  unconnected  form,  since 
all  the  pieces  are  of  great  philological  value,  and  many  of  them 
are  not  wanting  in  literary  merit.  The  contents  of  the  Lambeth 
MS.  487  occupy  the  first  and  most  important  place  in  this  series, 
and  form  no  inconsiderable  part  of  the  whole  work.  They  are, 
however,  only  a  portion  of  a  much  larger  and  probably  complete 
collection  of  Homilies  compiled,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  from 
various  sources  of  an  earlier  date  than  the  MS.  that  contains 

The  Homilies  are  immediately  followed  in  the  MS.  by  a  portion 
of  an  old  English  poem2  known  as  "A  Moral  Ode"  (pp.  158-183), 
copies  of  which  are  by  no  means  uncommon  in  our  ancient  MSS. 
It  was  first  printed  by  Hickes  in  his  "Thesaurus,"  vol.  i.  p.  222, 
from  one  of  the  Digby  MSS.,  and  Mr.  Furnivall  afterwards  edited 
an  excellent  version  of  it  in  his  u  Early  English  Poems"  (Philo- 

1  See  p.  xi. 

2  The  handwriting  of  this  poem  is  of  the  same  date  as  the  Homilies  (before  A.D. 
1  200). 


logical  Society's  Transactions,  1858)  from  the  Egerton  MS.  613, 
which  I  found  very  serviceable  in  completing'  the  Lambeth  text 
and  correcting,  in  the  translation,  the  scribal  blunders  that  it 

The  "  Moral  Ode"  is  an  excellent  sermon  in  verse,  remarkably 
free  from  mediaeval  superstitions.  In  its  admonitions  and  warnings 
it  administers  sharp  reproof  to  greedy  niggards  and  oppressors  of 
the  poor,  and  gives  wholesome  advice  to  "rich  men  and  poor." 
It  exhorts  all  men  to  grow  in  love  as  well  as  in  years,  to  think  of 
the  future  (pp.  159,  160),  and  to  lay  up  treasure  in  heaven  by 
performing  deeds  of  mercy  here  on  earth.  All  men  may  purchase 
heaven — the  poor  man  with  his  penny  and  the  rich  man  with  his 
pound  (p.  163).  At  the  Day  of  Doom  every  man  will  be  his  own 
accuser,  for  there  is  no  greater  witness  than  a  man's  own  heart. 
We  should  repent  while  we  have  health  and  strength,  for  it  is  too 
late  to  cry  for  mercy  when  Death  is  at  the  door.  Nor  will  it  avail 
us  to  loathe  evil  deeds  when  we  have  no  longer  the  will  or  power 
to  do  them.  Mercy  is  offered  alike  to  all  who  sincerely  repent 
(p.  167),  but  all  wrongdoers  who  will  not  amend  their  evil  ways 
shall  go  into  hell's  abyss  for  ever ;  Christ  will  never  again  break 
the  gates  of  hell  to  unloose  their  bonds  (p.  170).  Hell  is  a  horrible 
place  of  torment,  where  the  uncharitable  suffer  the  extremes  of 
hunger  and  thirst  (p.  1  73) ;  where  vow-breakers,  traitors,  thieves, 
drunkards,  unjust  judges,  unfaithful  stewards,  and  adulterers  are 
tortured  in  turn  by  fire  and  frost  (pp.  173-175)  ',  and  where  slan- 
derers, envious,  and  proud  men  are  torn  and  fretted  by  adders, 
snakes,  and  ferrets.  There  shall  they  see  Satan  and  "Belzebub  the 
old"  (p.  177).  The  sum  of  human  duty  consists  in  "two  loves" — 
love  to  God  and  to  man  (p.  179).  We  must  forsake  the  broad  way 
(that  is,  our  own  will)  which  leads  to  hell,  and  choose  the  narrow 

1  In  the  Appendix  the  reader  will  find  that  portion  of  the  "  Moral  Ode  "  from  the 
Egerton  MS.  not  included  in  our  text.  I  am  inclined  to  think  that  all  the  existing 
copies  of  this  Ode  are  taken  from  an  older  (Saxon-English)  version,  which  may 
perhaps  turn  up  hereafter. 


and  green  way  (along  the  high  cliffs)  which  leads  to  heaven,  where 
there  are  no  earthly  luxuries,  but  where  the  sight  of  God  alone 
constitutes  the  eternal  life,  bliss,  and  rest  of  His  saints  (p.  1 8 1 ). 
There  they  shall  learn  and  know  more  of  God's  might  and  mercy 
than  they  did  while  on  earth ;  as  in  a  book  they  shall  see  all  that 
they  were  here  ignorant  of.  No  one  is  able  to  describe  the  great- 
ness of  heavenly  bliss,  but  may  God  grant  that  we  may  come  td 
that  bliss  when  our  souls  are  released  from  these  mortal  bonds 

(P-  i83). 

Next  follows  the  little  devotional  piece  (pp.  182-189)  entitled 
"  On  Ureisun  of  ure  Louerde,"  which  is  unfortunately  imperfect. 
It  is  written  in  a  smaller  and  later  hand  than  the  Homilies,  and  was 
probably  added  to  fill  up  the  spare  folios  of  the  manuscript.  Had 
this  "Orison"  been  complete,  our  "Old  English  Homilies"  would, 
in  all  probability,  have  terminated  at  this  point,  and  the  reader 
would  have  been  deprived  of  the  interesting  and  valuable  treatises 
that  now  follow  it. 

On  looking,  however,  over  Cotton  MS.  Nero  A  xiv.,  a  somewhat 
later  but  unmutilated  copy  of  the  "  Orison"  was  found,  under  the 
title  of  "  On  Wei  SwuSe  God  Ureisun  of  God  Almihti"  (pp.  200- 
203) ;  together  with  "  On  God  Ureisun  of  Ure  Lefdi"  (pp.  190-199), 
"  On  Lofsong  of  Ure  Lefdi" l  (pp.  204-207),  "  On  Lofsong  of  Ure 
Louerde"  (pp.  208-216),  and  "  pe  Lesse  Crede"  (pp.  216,  217),  all 
of  which  are  now  for  the  first  time  printed.  These  bear  a  striking 
resemblance  in  their  philological  peculiarities  to  the  u  Ancren 
Riwle"  (which  was  edited  from  this  MS.  for  the  Camden  Society 
by  the  Rev.  R.  Morton,  B.D.,  in  1853),  and  are  excellent  speci- 
mens of  the  Hail  Maries,  Psalms,  and  Orisons  alluded  to  in  that 
work  (p.  44),  of  which  shorter  examples  occur  in  the  first  part, 
treating  of  Divine  Service  (pp.  38-42). 

The  "  Ureisun  of  Ure  Lefdi"  (pp.  190-199)  is  a  rhyming  poem  of 
about  170  lines.     Towards  the  end  the  singer  expresses  a  hope  that 

1  An  imperfect  copy  of  this  piece  is  in  Eoj'al  MS.  17  A  27,  entitled  "  pe  Oreisun 
of  Seinte  Marie. "     As  the  fragment  is  not  a  long  one  it  is  printed  in  the  Appendix. 


her  friends  will  be  all  the  better  for  having  heard  her  English  lay 
(p.  199),  which  seems  originally  to  have  been  composed  (?  in  Latin) 
by  some  monk  (p.  199,  1.  169),  who,  perhaps,  was  the  John  alluded 
to  in  Royal  MS.  17  A  27,  and  at  p.  267  of  the  present  work.1 
The  "  lay"  is  really  deserving  of  its  name,  and  contains  evident 
proof  that  the  writer  or  translator  was  a  skilful  master  of  his  native 
tongue.  In  describing  the  joys  which  the  Virgin  Mary  has  pre- 
pared for  her  friends,  the  poet  says  that  the  golden  bowl  shall  be 
mixed  for  them  from  which  shall  be  poured  out  eternal  life  and 
angelic  pleasures  (p.  193)- 

The  pieces  just  mentioned  are  followed  in  the  text  by  three 
Homilies  and  a  fragment  of  a  fourth  (pp.  216-245),  from  Cotton 
MS.  Vespasian  A  22,  which  have  been  added  on  account  of  the 
additional  illustrations  they  afford  of  the  grammatical  peculiarities 
in  the  Homilies  from  the  Lambeth  MS. 

"Be  Initio  Creature"  (pp.  216-231)  is  transliterated  and  slightly 
abridged  from  iElfric's  homily  entitled  "  Sermo  de  Initio  Creaturae, 
ad  Populum,  quando  volueris."2  The  first  twelve  lines  of  preface 
to  the  homily  in  our  text  are  not  iElfric's,  but  have  been  added  by 
the  compiler,  and  form  a  short  but  excellent  introduction  to  what 

"An  Bispel"  (pp.  230-241),  as  I  have  called  the  next  sermon, 
and  "  Induite  vos  armaturam  Dei "  (pp.  240-243),  which  is  a  dis- 
course on  Ephesians  vi.  11,  are  not  found,  so  far  as  we  know,  in 
iElfric's  edited  or  unedited  works,  nor  are  they  at  all  in  his  style, 
though  by  no  means  inferior  to  anything  that  he  has  written.  A 
very  favourable  instance  occurs  in  the  "  Bispel,"  p.  233,  where, 
after  describing  God  as  our  father,  whose  earth  produces  for  us 
corn  and  cattle,  whose  sun  gives  us  light  and  life,  whose  water 
produces  drink  and  fishes,  and  whose  fire  serves  manifold  purposes, 
the  homilist  asks,  "  May  we,  think  ye,  call  him  at  all  our  mother  ? 
Yea,  we  may.     What  doth  the  mother  to  her  child  ?     First  she 

1  See  description  of  "  Soules  Warde,"  p.  is. 

-  See  JElfric's  Homilies,  vol.  i.  Pt.  I.  p.  8,  edited  by  Thorpe  for  the  ."Elfric  Society. 


cheers  and  gladdens  it  by  the  light,  and  afterwards  puts  her  arm 
under  it,  or  covers  his  head  that  he  may  enjoy  a  quiet  sleep.  This 
does  the  Lord  of  you  all.  He  rejoices  us  with  the  daylight,  and 
sends  us  to  sleep  by  means  of  the  dark  night."  But  the  night 
is  created  for  another  reason — to  fix  some  limits  to  the  insatiable 
greed  of  those  who  are  never  weary  in  heaping  up  worldly  wealth. 

The  homily  commencing  "  Erant  appropinquantes"  (pp.  242-245) 
is  a  mere  fragment,  containing  only  the  text  of  a  discourse,  which, 
if  complete,  would  probably  be  found  to  be  identical  with  ^Elfric's 
sermon  rubricated  Dominica  iiii.  post  Pentecosten.1 

"Soules  Warde"  (pp.  244-267),  the  next  on  our  list,  is  from 
the  Bodleian  MS.  34,  and  has  been  ascribed  to  the  author  of  the 
"Ancren  Riwle,"  "  Hali  Meidenhad,"2  and  the  smaller  treatises 
(pp.  182-217)  already  noticed.3  Copies  of  "  Sawles  Warde"  are 
found  in  the  Royal  MS.  17  A  27  and  the  Cotton  MS.  Titus  D  18, 
but  without  any  title.  The  Bodleian  version  is  certainly  the  oldest, 
though  slightly  imperfect,  and  is  here  for  the  first  time  printed, 
the  missing  portions  being  supplied  from  the  Royal  MS.  17  A  27. 
A  fourteenth-century  version  of  this  interesting  discourse  may  be 
seen  in  the  Early  English  Text  Society's  edition  of  the  "  Ayenbite 
of  Inwyt "  (pp.  263-269). 

The  last,  but  by  no  means  the  least  important  or  interesting,  of 
our  homiletic  treatises  is  "pe  Wohunge  of  Ure  Lauerd"  (pp.  268- 
287),  from  the  Cotton  MS.  Titus  D  j  8,  which  also  contains  ver- 
sions of  the  "  Ancren  Riwle/'  "  Sawles  Warde,"  and  "  Hali 
Meidenhad." 4     From  internal  evidence  I  am  convinced  that  "  The 

1  See  Thorpe's  edition  of  ^Elfric's  Homilies,  vol.  i.  Pt.  IV.  p.  338. 

2  See  "  Hali  Meidenhad,"  ed.  Cockayne,  E.  E.  T.  S.  1866. 

3  For  the  accuracy  of  the  text  I  have  relied  upon  the  fidelity  of  the  transcript  and 
collations  furnished  me  by  Mr.  G.  Parker,  Rose  Hill,  Oxford.  The  marginal  readings 
are  from  Roy;d  MS.  17  A  27  ;  and  in  the  notes  will  be  found  some  collations  from 
Cotton  MS.  Titus  D  18. 

4  A  better  copy  of  this  homily  than  that  printed  for  the  E.  E.  T.  S.,  as  shewn 
by  the  marginal  readings  in  the  Society's  edition,  is  contained  in  the  Bodleian 
MS.  34- 


Wooing,"  in  its  original  form,  was  by  the  same  author  as  the 
u  Ancren  Riwle,"  &c. ;  but  as  now  presented  to  us  by  the  scribe  of 
the  Titus  MS.,  it  abounds  in  dialectical  peculiarities,1  which  are 
altogether  foreign  to  the  compositions,  already  alluded  to,  in 
Bodleian  MS.  34,  Royal  MS.  17  A  27,  and  Nero  A  xiv. 

"  The  Wooing  of  our  Lord"  is  evidently  a  lengthy,  but  by  no 
means  uninteresting,  paraphrase  of  a  portion  of  the  Seventh  Part 
of  the  "Ancren  Riwle"  treating  of  Love  (pp.  397-401),  in  which 
the  wooing  of  Christ  is  distinctly  mentioned.  The  Spouse  is  either 
Holy  Church  or  the  pure  soul,  which  Christ  is  said  to  woo  in  the 
following  terms  : — "  If  it  (love)  is  to  be  given,  where  couldst  thou 
bestow  it  better  than  upon  me  ?  Am  I  not  the  fairest  thing  ? 
Am  I  not  the  richest  king  ?  Am  I  not  of  the  noblest  birth  ?  Am 
I  not  the  wisest  of  men  ?  Am  I  not  the  most  courteous  of  men  ? 
Am  I  not  the  most  liberal  of  men  ?  Am  I  not  of  all  things  the 
stveetest  and  most  gentle  ?  Thus  thou  mayest  find  in  me  all  the 
reasons  for  which  love  ought  to  be  given."  (Ancren  Riwle,  pp. 
398,  399.)  In  our  treatise  Christ  is  wooed  in  almost  the  same 
terms  : — "  Ah  !  who  may  not  love  thee,  lovely  Jesu  ?  For  within 
thee  alone  are  all  the  things  united  that  ever  may  make  any  man 
worthy  of  love  towards  another."  (p.  268.)  "Thou  then  with  thy 
beauty,  thou  with  thy  riches,  thou  with  thy  liberality,  thou  with 
wit  and  wisdom,  thou  with  thy  might  and  strength,  thou  with  noble- 
ness of  birth  and  graciousness  (or  courteousness),  thou  with  meek- 
ness, mildness,  and  great  gentleness,  thou  with  kinship,  thou  with  all 
the  things  that  one  may  purchase  love  with,  hast  bought  my  love." 

(p.  274.) 

Having  thus  briefly  enumerated  the  several  items  of  the  present 
volume,  I  must  now  return  to  the  Homilies  from  the  Lambeth 
MS.  Though  now  for  the  first  time  printed,  they  have  not  been 
altogether  unknown  to  students  of  our  early  literature.  Hickes 
has  very  minutely  and  accurately  described  them,  and  Sir  F. 
Madden,  in  his  valuable  preface  to  "  Lajamoir's  Brut"  (p.  v.),  has 

1  A  summary  of  these  peculiarities  is  given  in  the  Grammatical  Introduction. 


sufficiently  recognised  their  philological  importance;  but  it  has 
never,  I  believe,  been  previously  pointed  out  that .  these  Homilies 
are  a  compilation  from  older  documents  of  the  eleventh  century. 

This  view  was  suggested  by  the  evident  proofs  of  transliteration 
which  occur  in  many  of  the  Homilies,  the  very  blunders  of  the 
scribe  leading  me  in  the  first  instance  to  suspect  what  I  afterwards 
found  to  be  the  fact. 

These  errors  of  transcription  are  of  two  kinds.  The  first  involves 
the  assumption  that  the  scribe  in  copying  from  MSS.  in  the  Saxon 
character  mistook  the  stroke  of  the  letter  p  (r)  for  a  part  of  an  m  or 
n.  Thus  we  find  hem  for  bepn  (p.  u);  iemede  for  lejmebe  (p.  93) ; 
denafo  for  bepiaS  (p.  101).  The  second  blunder  is  just  the  reverse 
of  this,  for  the  copyist  has  read  p  for  n  or  ra,  so  that  we  can  have 
no  difficulty  in  undei'standing  such  errors  as  Jww^  (or  pup3)  for  J?in3 ; 
and  s'lrlat  (or  ppiac)  for  smat  (or  rmac),  which  occurs  no  less  than 
three  times  on  the  same  page.  But  the  proof  of  this  theory  was 
furnished  by  Homilies  IX.  and  X.,  which  are  beyond  a  doubt 
f/y//is/iterations  (with  here  and  there  traces  of  translation  or  the 
substitution  of  a  word  more  familiar  to  the  scribe  than  that  in  the 
original  copy)  of  two  of  iElfric's  Homilies  bearing  the  same  titles.1 

As  instances  of  what  I  have  called  translation  are  by  no  means 
difficult  to  point  out  with  the  originals  before  us,  the  reader  may 
not  be  displeased  by  having  the  following  examples  selected  for  him 
from  the  tenth  homily  : — rixa^S  (rule,  reign)  for  onwinnaft  ;  unmete 
(excessive)  for  ormete ;  more  (root)  for  toyrtruma ;  fikenunge  (deceit) 
for  licetunge  (p.  103);  mihtan  (virtues)  for  magna;  onercnmen  for 
ouersw'vftan ;  to  his  lord  ne  sitte  for  ne  gereordige ;  wisdom  for  ^esceade 
(discretion);  sterhe  (harsh)  for  retyan ;  hihyen  (hasten)  for  efstan  (p. 
105);  stance  (sloth)  for  asolcennysse ;  herynge  (praise)  for  hlisan  ; 

1  For  the  original  of  IX.  see  Thorpe's  edition  of  ^Elfric,  vol.  i.  Pt.  I.,  and  for  that 
of  X.  see  Appendix  to  the  present  volume.  I  am  indebted  for  the  A.  S.  text  to  the 
kindness  of  the  Rev.  W.  M.  SnelL  who  copied  and  collated  it  from  a  MS.  in  Corpus 
Christi  College,  Cambridge.  Unfortunately  my  texts  and  translations  were  in  print 
before  I  saw  the  earlier  versions,  and  I  have  not  therefore  derived  as  much  help  from 
them  as  T  might  otherwise  have  done. 


frewscipe  (religion)  for  eawfesinysse  (p.  107);  \e  ]>e  for  se  ]>e  ;  biho- 
vige  (behove)  for  gedafenige  ;  efre  (ever)  for  symble  j  \>eqf  (thief)  for 
seeafta  (p.  109);  611  ten  clenesse  for  nnsydeful  (unchaste)  (p.  111); 
woh^e  (wrong)  for  riccetere  (violence);  heordom  for  forliger;  nnriht- 
tvise  for  arlease  ;  unlayeliche  for  tmeawfee&tlice  (p.  115);  iinrihtwisra 
dedan  for  \10yrlicra  dada;  uuel  for  sceftftig  (p.  117). 

Of  the  remaining  Homilies  I  have  not  been  successful  in  finding 
the  original  texts  from  which  they  were  copied.1 

In  the  Sermon  for  the  Fifth  Sunday  in  Lent  (pp.  121,  122)  the 
compiler  has  very  ingeniously  inserted  a  long  passage  from  iElfric's 
homily  for  Palm  Sunday.  (See  Notes  at  the  end  of  the  present 
volume,  pp.  317,  318.) 

But  what  strikes  one  very  clearly  is  that  the  first  six  Homilies 
(pp.  1-7 1 )  are  by  one  and  the  same  author.  This,  I  think,  is 
evident  from  the  use  of  the  curious  word  witicrist  (or  witecrist),  "By 
Christ  !"  or  "  So  help  me  Christ  !"  and  the  frequent  employment  of 
the  phrases  "dear  men,"  "good  men/'  "dear  brethren  and  sisters," 
which  do  not  occur  in  the  later  discourses.  These  six  Homilies 
have  really  but  one  theme,  and  that  is  shrift,  which,  as  explained 
by  the  author,  is  to  renounce  the  devil,  to  repent  of  sin,  and  to 
determine  to  lead  a  better  life  for  the  future.  These  points  are 
by  no  means  unskilfully  handled,  and  the  author,  whoever  he  may 
have  been,  stands  before  us  in  these  discourses  as  a  plain  but  earnest 
and  outspoken  instructor  of  the  "lewd."  His  familiar  mode  of 
address  and  homely  illustrations,  as  well  as  his  frequent  appeal  to 
his  flock  as  "  dear  men,"  "  good  men,"  &c,  must  have  done  much 
to  secure  him  attentive  listeners  to  the  end  of  the  sermon.  The 
preacher  is  thoroughly  practical  in  the  lessons  which  he  draws 
from  the  life  and  teaching  of  Christ.  Thus  in  the  sermon  for  Palm 
Sunday  he  reminds  his  hearers  that  though  Jesus  might  have 
ridden  upon  a  rich  steed,  a  palfrey,  or  a  mule,  he  did  not  even  ride 
on  the  big  ass,  but  upon  the  little  foal,  setting  them  an  example  of 

1  The  Trinity  Coll.  MS.  contains  Homilies  XIII.  (De  Sancto  Lanrentio),  XV., 
XVI.  and  XVII.  (De  Sancto  Jacobo). 


humility  which  the  more  prosperous  among*  them  would  do  well  to 
imitate,  by  not  allowing  themselves  to  be  puffed  up  with  their 
riches,  by  being  thankful  to  God,  and  by  relieving  the  necessities 
of  the  destitute  (p.  5).  He  bids  his  hearers  observe  how  much  more 
strictly  the  Jews  keep  their  Saturday,  wherever  they  may  be,  than 
do  Christians  their  Sunday  (p.  8).  The  severity  of  the  Old  Law  is 
mitigated  by  the  New  Dispensation,  so  that  there  is  now  no  more 
need  to  atone  for  sin  by  penalties,  for  Christ  is  satisfied  with 
shrifts,  fasting,  church-going,  and  other  good  works.  It  is  no 
good,  however,  to  offer  prayers  or  sing  masses  for  the  soul  of  the 
proud  and  unrepentant  sinner,  for  "  how  should  other  men's  good 
deeds  profit  him  who  in  this  life  never  took  thought  of  any  good 
thing?  Who  is  he  that  may  water  the  horse  that  refuses  to 
drink?"  (p.  8.)  The  sinner  is  declared  to  be  utterly  lost  in  the 
abyss  of  hell  if  he  thinks  of  delaying  repentance  and  of  continuing  in 
his  sins  until  he  is  older  or  becomes  sick  (p.  23).  He  who  promises 
God  and  his  confessor  to  forsake  his  misdeeds  and  is  shriven 
thereof,  but  still  continues  to  commit  the  same  sins,  is  no  better 
than  the  hound  that  "  now  vomits  and  afterwards  eats  it,"  and 
becomes  thereby  much  fouler  than  he  previously  was  (p.  24).  Some 
go  to  shrift  in  order  to  be  like  other  people,  or  because  they  would 
not  like  to  be  turned  away  from  the  Lord's  table  on  Easter  Sunday; 
but  they  had  far  better  stop  away,  for,  under  these  circumstances, 
there  is  more  harm  in  going  than  in  abstaining.  Though  they 
receive  the  housel,  or  sacrament,  it  will  not  benefit  them  in  the 
least,  for  so  soon  as  the  priest  shall  put  the  hallowed  bread  between 
their  lips  an  angel  will  come  and  take  it  away  with  him  towards 
heaven's  kingdom,  and  instead  thereof  there  will  remain  a  live  coal 
that  will  utterly  consume  them  (p.  26).  He  who  has  wrongfully 
taken  possession  of  another  man's  property,  must  not  fancy  that 
confession  and  fasting,  unaccompanied  by  restitution,  will  avail 
him  anything.  Numbers  will  joyfully  go  to  confession  and  cry 
peccavi,  and  will  willingly  listen  to  the  penance  that  is  enjoined  • 
but  let  the  priest  bid  them  give  back  their  unrighteous  gains,  and 


they  are  no  longer  patient  hearers,  but  will  answer  in  "  fox-like," 
glozing  words,  "We  have  nought  thereof,  we  have  spent  it  all." 
"  This  will  not  do,"  says  the  priest,  "  you  must  take  of  your  own 
goods  and  make  restitution."  The  covetous  sinner  may  perhaps 
reply  that  he  does  not  know  where  to  find  those  whom  he  has 
wronged,  that  they  are  either  dead  or  have  left  the  neighbourhood, 
so  that  he  cannot  find  them.  The  priest  will  still  exhort  him  to 
make  amends,  and  bid  him  go  to  the  district  where  the  theft  was 
committed  and  expend  a  sum  equivalent  to  the  value  of  the  goods 
taken,  in  almsgiving  or  in  the  repairing  of  bridges  and  churches  (p. 
30).  The  increase  of  sin  causes  the  death  of  the  soul,  and  because 
she  is  unable  to  endure  all  the  sins  a  man  putteth  upon  her,  there- 
fore does  she  leave  the  body  (p.  34).  The  priest  cannot  forgive  any 
man  his  sins,  nor  even  his  own;  all  he  can  do  is  to  teach  the  sinner 
how  he  may  obtain  forgiveness  from  God  and  have  Christ's  friend- 
ship through  repentance  and  confession,  which  is  the  second  baptism 
that  every  sincere  Christian  must  undergo  (p.  36). 

The  fourth  homily,  "In  Diebus  Dominicis"  (pp.  40-47),  contains 
the  curious  legend1  of  St.  PauFs  and  St.  Michael's  descent  into 
hell,  and  how  they  obtained  for  the  damned  one  day's  rest  in  the 
week  until  Doomsday.  They  saw  among  other  horrible  sights  a 
bishop  who  in  this  life  was  more  given  to  oppress  his  underlings 
than  to  sing  psalms  or  to  do  other  good  deeds  (p.  42).  The  Sunday 
has  three  estimable  privileges :  on  earth,  men  and  women  rest  from 
their  daily  toil;  in  heaven,  the  angels  rest  longer  than  they  do  on 
any  other  day;  and,  in  hell,  the  wretched  souls  do  not  undergo 
their  accustomed  torments  (pp.  44—46). 

In  the  fifth  homily,  which  is  a  very  curious  discourse  on  Jere- 
miah, we  find  the  fable  of  the  young  crab  and  its  mother  (p. 
50).  The  preacher  compares  slanderers  and  detractors  to  spotted 
adders;  rich  men  who  misuse  their  wealth  are  likened  to  black 
toads  that  cannot  moderately  eat  their  fill  lest  the  earth  on  which 
they  sit  should  play  them  false ;  yellow  frogs  are  apt  emblems  of 
1  Audelay,  the  .Shropshire  poet,  tells  this  in  English  verse  in  MS.  Douce. 


those  women  who  wear  saffron-coloured  clothes  and  who  powder 
their  faces  with  blaunchet  to  made  themselves  fair  and  seductive  to 
the  opposite  sex.  Such  as  these  are  the  devil's  mouse-trap,  and  their 
outer  adornments  are  "  the  treacherous  cheese "  whereby  many  a 
mouse  is  enticed  into  the  trap.  Their  cosmetic  is  the  devil's  soap, 
and  their  mirror  is  the  devil's  hiding-place.  "Wherefore,  good 
men,"  says  the  preacher,  "for  God's  sake  keep  yourselves  from  the 
devil's  mouse-trap,  and  see  that  ye  be  not  the  spotted  adders,  nor 
the  black  toads,  nor  the  yellow  frogs  (p.  52). 

There  is  much  that  is  interesting  in  the  rest  of  the  Homilies 
(as  for  instance  in  the  eighth  discourse,  p.  78)  and  the  other  devo- 
tional treatises  in  this  volume ;  but,  in  the  words  of  our  homilist, 
it  behoveth  the  reader  "  brehe  \as  word  f  alse  me  brekefo  \e  mite  for 
to  habbene  \>ene  camel"  (p.  79),  which  he  will  have  no  difficulty  in 
doing  with  the  help  of  the  translation  (rough  as  it  is)  which 
accompanies  the  old  English  text  throughout.  The  critical  reader 
is  referred  to  the  Notes  and  Emendations  at  the  end  of  the  work. 
The  Glossarial  Index  will  form  part  of  the  second  series, — which 
will  contain  a  collection  of  Homilies  from  MS.  B.  14.  52  in  the 
Library  of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 

In  conclusion,  I  have  the  pleasant  duty  of  acknowledging  the 
kindness  of  his  Grace  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  for  the  long 
and  undisturbed  possession  of  his  manuscript  from  the  Lambeth 
Library,  which,  always  being  at  hand,  has  enabled  me  to  produce 
a  faithful  copy  of  the  original.  My  thanks  are  also  due  to  my 
friend  Mr.  Skeat  for  some  useful  suggestions  while  the  work  was 
passing  through  the  press. 

R.  M. 

Tottenham,  1868. 


'The  language  of  L^amon  belongs  to  that  transition  period  in 
which  the  groundwork  of  Anglo-Saxon  phraseology  and  grammar  still 
existed,  although  gradually  yielding  to  the  influence  of  the  popular 
forms  of  speech.  We  find  in  it,  as  in  the  later  portion  of  the  Saxon 
Chronicle,  marked  indications  of  a  tendency  to  adopt  those  termi- 
nations and  sounds  which  characterize  a  language  in  a  state  of 
change.'  These  remarks,  by  the  editor  of  Lajamon's  Brut,  apply 
with  even  greater  propriety  to  the  language  of  the  present  Homilies 
(pp.  1-183,  216-245),  and  in  fact  to  most  of  our  English  documents 
of  the  twelfth  century.  In  the  Brut  we  have  the  plainest  evidence 
of  an  earlier  transition  stage  (which  I  have  elseAvhere  described  as 
a  period  of  gi'eat  grammatical  change  and  confusion),  wherein  the 
older  inflexions  co-existed  along  with  their  more  modern  varieties, 
thus  indisputably  proving  that  the  former  did  not  go  out  of  use 
without  a  struggle  for  existence,  and  showing  also  that  this  secondary 
or  less  inflexional  (not  non-inflexional)  stage  of  the  language  was 
brought  about  very  gradually  by  changes  that  continued  in  operation 
throughout  the  greater  part  of  the  twelfth  century.1  La3amon's 
work  belongs  to  the  first  half  of  the  thirteenth  century,  and  represents 
the  commencement  of  a  new  period,  in  which  we  plainly  perceive  that 
the  language  is  gradually  settling  down  after  a  long  elemental  war 
in  which  certain  forms  maintained  their  position  to  the  exclusion  of 
all  others ;   and  we   therefore  find,  as  we   might   expect,  a   greater 

1  We  may  divide  the  documents  of  this  period  into  two  classes.  In  the  first, 
belonging  to  the  first  half  of  the  twelfth  century,  the  older  forms  predominate  ; 
in  the  second,  belonging  to  the  latter  half  of  the  twelfth  century,  the  modern  forms 



uniformity  in  its  employment  of  grammatical  inflexions,  than  in  the 
literature  of  the  twelfth  century,  together  with  a  further  simplification 
of  syntactical  structure  ;  and  for  the  next  century  and  a  half,  as  far  as 
the  Southern  dialect  is  concerned,  there  is  scarcely  any  fresh  change 
of  importance  in  the  grammar,  although  the  vocabulary  exhibits  the 
influence  of  the  new  element  introduced  by  the  Norman  Conquest. 

But  our  Homilies  illustrate  the  earlier  transitional  period,  which,  as 
we  have  seen,  is  characterized  by  a  want  of  uniformity,  and  enable  us 
to  trace  with  some  minuteness  the  various  changes  that  took  place 
during  the  latter  half  of  the  twelfth  century.  Here,  perhaps,  for  the 
first  time  we  find  the  provincial,  or,  as  Sir  F.  Madden  terms  them,  the 
popular  elements,  cropping  up,  many  of  which,  at  a  later  period,  became 
the  established  forms.1 

The  appearance  of  these  modern  elements, — such  as  u  for  i  ;  v  for/"; 
ham  for  heom  (them)  ;  es,  his,  is,  for  hi,  heo  (her,  them) ;  ha  for  he,  hi, 
heo  (he,  she,  them)  ;  imperfect  participles  in  -inde  (for  -encle)  and  in- 
finitives in  -ie  (not  very  numerous  as  yet), — together  with  the  uniform 
employment  of  verbal  plurals  in  -eth,  mark  a  Southern  dialect ;  but 
.the  reader  must  bear  in  mind  that  the  criteria  of  this  dialect,  as  they 
are  preserved  for  us  in  the  records  of  the  fourteenth  century,  cannot 
be  rigorously  applied  to  the  literary  remains  of  the  twelfth,  on 
account  of  that  admixture  of  forms  before  alluded  to,  and  because  many 
of  the  grammatical  elements  did  not  become  recognised  as  dialectical 
varieties  until  after  this  transitional  period. 

Comparing  the  present  Homilies  with  ^Elfric's,  we  find  the  following 
noteworthy  points  of  difference  : — (i)  A  simplification  of  the  vowel- 
endings  by  the  change  of  final  -a,  -o,  -u,  into  -e.2  (2)  A  tendency  to 
drop  a  final  n  in  nouns,  verbs,  adverbs  and  prepositions  ending  in  -en 
(or  -an).  (3)  A  tendency  to  add  a  euphonic  n  to  the  final  e  of  the 
genitive  singular  of  feminine  nouns  of  the  complex  order,  of  the  dative 
singular  of  complex  nouns,  of  the  plural  of  nouns  (complex  order)  and 
of  adverbs  and  prepositions.  This  nunnation,  as  it  has  been  called, 
is  very  common  in  La3amon,  who  probably  carried  this  novelty  to  its 
utmost  limits.  At  a  later  period  we  find  it  in  the  East-Midland 
dialect.3  ( 4 )  The  softening  of  c  (initial  and  final)  into  ch,  as  child  for  did; 

1  This  is  seen  by  comparing  these  Homilies  and  Lajamon's  Brut  with  the 
Ayenbite  of  Inwyt,  A..D.  1340,  and  Trevisa's  translation  of  Higden's  Polychronicon. 

2  The  suffixes  -an,  -on,  -um,  -as,  -ath,  became  -en,  -es,  -eth. 

3  See  Preface  to  Genesis  and  Exodus. 


ich  for  ic;  -lie,  -lice,  for  -lich,  -liche  (in  adjectives  and  adverbs)  :  but 
the  initial  sc  is  not  yet  softened  into  sch.  (5)  The  softening  of  g  (medial 
and  final)  into  i  or  y,  as  fein  for  fcegen,  etc.  (6)  The  breaking  up  of 
the  simple  or  n  declension  of  nouns.1  (7)  The  plurals  of  the  complex 
order  of  nouns  originally  terminating  in  -a,  -0,  -u,  become  ( 1  st)  -e,  and 
(2nd)  -en.  (8)  The  genitive  plural  -ena  becomes  -ene  (occasionally  -en 
or  -an).  (9)  The  substitution  of  -ene  for  -e  (representing  an  older  -a) 
in  the  genitive  plural  of  complex  nouns.  (10)  The  dative  plural 
-um  (in  nouns  and  adjectives)  becomes  1st  -an,  2nd  -en,  3rd  -e. 
(11)  Adjectives  of  the  definite  declension  undergo  changes  similar  to 
those  in  the  n  declension  of  nouns,  the  great  tendency  being  to  sub- 
stitute a  final  e  for  an  original  -a  or  -an.  (12)  The  -re  of  the  genitive 
and  dative  case  singular  (feminine)  of  the  indefinite  declension  frequently 
becomes  -e ;  so  in  the  genitive  and  dative  feminine  of  the  indefinite 
article  we  find  ane  for  anre.2  (13)  The  definite  article  se,  seo,  ]>cet 
becomes  be,  \eo  (bo),  \at  (\>et).3  (14)  A  tendency  to  employ  be  for  se 
and  seo,  \eo  (but  not  for  \>at).  (15)  The  genitive  singular  bees  (of  the) 
becomes  ]>es  (occasionally  )>a$).  ( 1 6)  A  tendency  to  change  the  dative  \>am 
into  1st  \>an,  2nd  btf.  (17)  The  accusative  \one  becomes  \ane  or  \ene 
(occasionally  ]>anne)  ;  and  be  is  used  after  all  prepositions.  (18)  The 
nominative  plural  ]>a  (or  bo)  occasionally  becomes  be.  (19)  The  dative 
plural  Jmww  frequently  becomes  \aa.  (20)  The  pronominal  forms  undergo 
a  change  of  form,  as  ich,  ih,  for  ic  (I)  ;4  lieom,  ham,  for  him  (them) ; 
heo  for  hi  (they);  heore,  hare,  for  hira,  heora  (them).  (21)  New  pro- 
nominal forms  make  their  appearance,  as  his  (is),  I;  ha,  he,  she,  they, 
them;  his,  es,  is,  her  (ace),  them.  (22)  A  tendency  to  use  the  dative 
instead  of  the  accusative,  as  him  for  hine;  and  hwam  for  hwcene.5  (23) 
The  future  tense  of  verbs  is  frequently  formed  by  the  aid  of  sceal  and 
wile.  (24)  The  infinitive  mood  occasionally  takes  to  before  it.  (25)  The 
gerundial  infinitive  ends  in  -ene  instead  of  -enne  or  -anne;  sometimes 
the  dative  -e  is  dropped,  and  it  has  the  same  form  as  the  ordinary 
infinitive  in  -en.     (26)  The  imperfect  participle  in  -hide  often  replaces 

1  In  these   Homilies  we  find  four  varieties  of  this  declension  ;  in  La3amon's 
Brut  there  are  two,  with  traces  of  a  third. 

2  We  also  find  alia,  alle,  for  alra,  aire. 

3  In  the  older  Homilies  se,  si,  \>at  still  keep  their  ground.     The  form  Se  and 
<5io  occur  in  the  Northumbrian  Gospels  of  the  Saxon  period. 

4  Ic,  as  well  as  the  other  varieties,  occurs  in  the  present  Homilies. 

5  We  find   hwan  (in  later  Eng.  vxm)  which  seems  to  be  another  foim  of  the 
dative,  just  as  \>an=\>am. 


the  older  form  in  -ende,  and  is  occasionally  confounded  with  the  gerun- 
dial  infinitive  in  -me.  (27)  The  prefix  ge-  of  the  perfect  participle 
for  the  most  part  becomes  i-  or  y-.  (28)  n  falls  off  from  infinitives 
and  perfect  participles.  (29)  Lengthened  forms  are  often  used  for 
contracted  ones  in  the  2nd  and  3rd  persons  singular  present  indica- 
tive. (30)  Some  verbs  of  the  strong  conjugation  adopt  the  inflexions 
of  weak  verbs.  (31)  Adverbs  exhibit  a  tendency  to  add  s  to  a  final 
e  in  conformity  with  genitival  forms.  (32)  n  often  falls  off  from 
adverbial  forms  in  -en  or  -an.  (33)  Prepositions  govern  special  cases, 
as  in  the  older  period,  but  the  government  is  rather  variable,  so  that 
many  govern  an  accusative  that  formerly  took  the  dative  only. 


1.   Gender. — The  gender  of  nouns  is  in  nearly  every  instance  the 
same  as  in  the  oldest  or  Saxon  stage  of  the  language. 
.     2.  Declension. — Nouns  may  be  arranged  in  the  four  following 
Divisions  : — 

Division  I. 

Nouns  of  the  simple  or  n  declension,  containing  masculine,  feminine, 
and  neuter  substantives  in  e  (some  few  masculines  in  -a),  and  forming 
their  plurals  by  -en  (-an,  -e)  originally  in  -an. 

Division  II. 

Class  i.  Nouns  of  the  feminine  gender  ending  in  a  consonant,  and 
forming  the  plural  by  -e  (-a),  -en  (-an),  originally  in  -a. 

Class  ii.  Nouns  of  the  feminine  gender  ending  in  -e  (originally  in 
u  or  0),  and  forming  the  plural  by  -e  (-a,  -en),  originally  in  -a. 

Division  III. 

Class  i.  Nouns  of  the  masculine  gender  which  end  in  a  vowel  or 
consonant,  and  form  their  plurals  by  -es  (-as). 

Class  ii.  Nouns  of  the  masculine  gender,  for  the  most  part  termi- 
nating in  -e  (including  nouns  in  -er),  and  forming  the  plural  by  -e 
(-en,  -an),  originally  in  -u  (-a). 


Division  IV. 

Class  i.  Nouns  of  the  neuter  gender  ending  in  a  consonant,  and 
having  the  singular  and  plural  alike. 

Class  ii.  Nouns  of  the  neuter  gender  ending  in  a  vowel  or  a  con- 
sonant, and  forming  the  plural  by  -e  (-en),  originally  in  -u. 

3.  The  dative  singular  of  all  nouns  of  Divisions  II,  III,  and  IV 
ends  in  -e  (occasionally  in  -en)  ;  the  dative  plural  of  all  declensions 
terminates  in  -e,  -en,  or  -an  (occasionally  in  -um). 

Division  I. 

4.  In  this  declension  no  less  than  four  varieties  of  the  singular  may 
be  distinguished,  all  arising  out  of  the  Saxon  English  form. 

The  first  form  is  identical  with  the  oldest  English  form. 

The  second  form  drops  -n  in  all  the  oblique  cases. 

The  third  form  has  -en  in  all  the  oblique  cases  (of  masc.  and  fern, 

The  fourth  form  has  -e  in  all  cases. 

The  plural  is  quite  as  varied. 

The  first  form  (i.)  is  identical  with  the  Saxon  English  declension  ; 
and  (ii.)  has  -an  in  all  cases. 

The  second  form  drops  -n  in  all  the  oblique  cases. 

The  third  form  has  -en  in  all  cases,  but  -ene  as  well  as  -en  in 
genitive  plural. 

The  fourth  form  has  -e  in  all  cases. 

5.  It  is  of  course  difficult,  within  the  limits  of  a  few  pages,  to  collect 
examples  of  all  these  forms,  and  therefore  in  the  reconstruction  of 
the  varieties  of  this  declension  I  have  often  supplied  the  missing 
links  from  other  works  with  similar  grammatical  peculiarities,  viz. — 
1.  Hatton  Gospels  (St.  Matthew,  ed.  Kemble)  ;  2.  Peri  Didaxeon  (in 
vol.  iii.  of  Cockayne's  Saxon  Leechdoms) ;  3.  Rule  of  St.  Benet 
(Cotton  MS.  Jul.). 

6.  In  Lajamon's  Brut  the  fourth  variety  in  the  singular  and  the 
third  in  the  plural  seem  to  be  the  established  form,  which  prevailed 
until  merged  into  Class  i,  Division  III,  which  was  the  ancient  model 
of  our  modern  declension  of  nouns. 

7.  Masculine  and  neuter  nouns  were  perhaps  the  first  to  adopt  the 
inflexions  of  the  modern  form  ;  but  we  have  only  one  example  of  this 



change  in  these  Homilies  (at  p.  77),  where  likames  (cp.  ures  licliomes, 
127)  occurs  for  licam-e  (  =  licam-en  =  licam-an). 

8.  Feminine  nouns  of  this  declension,  in  a  later  stage  of  the 
language,  became  merged  into  the  feminines  of  Division  II,  forming 
the  genitive  singular  in  -e  and  the  plural  in  -en. 

Examples  of  the  first  declension,  tima  (masc),  time ;  heorte  (fern.), 
heart ;  eare  (neut.),  ear  : — 








Form  I. 



(  Tim-an, 
)  Heort-an, 
(  Ear-an, 




Tim-ena  (-an), 
Heort-ena  (-an) 
Ear-ena  (-an), 
Tim-um  (-an), 
Heort-um  (-an) 
Ear-um  (-an), 

Form  II. 

Form  III. 

Form  IV. 











Tim -en, 




























Tim-ene  (en), 



Heort-ene  (en), 



Ear-ene  (en), 






Heort-en, ' 





Illustrations  op  the  First  Form. 

A.  From  the  present  Homilies. 

(i.)  Singular. — be  witega  het  7  ;  steorfa  seal  hene  13  j  he  do^  swa  be 
swica  25;  be  witega  cweS  117;  bet  is  a^enscla^a  103;  be  alweldenda 
dema  105;  God  br$  his  ifulsta  113;  be  witega  serS  113;  cu^  his 
noma  115;  3if  his  willa  nere  121;  ure  wv&erwinna  127;  ba  bicom 
godes  grama  219 — (nom.). 

1  Occasionally  feminines  end  in  -a  in  the  nom.  sing. ;  cp.  pa  heorta,  Peri  Didaxeon 
120  ;  hearta  Sin,  Lindisfarne  Gospels,  Matt.  vi.  21. 


Jjes  witeyxn  cwide  91 ;  J>es  witegan  mu?  91;  ]>es  dusian  bosme  105; 
to  )>an  icitegan  117;  0113611  godes  iwillan  93;  to  salm-iourhtan  97;  er 
tiinan  103  ;  on  his  welan  105;  er  meltiman  115;  to  his  ivillan  119;  to 
]>an  lichoman  119;  on  }>isse  timan  119,121;  on  gocles  loillan  123;  }>ene 
ileafan  107  ;  )>en  nam  he  andan  223;  heo  gestilcl  groman  11 1  (masc); 
on  eorSan  11,  13,  97;  on  heore  heortan  101 ;  of  eor¥>an  221;  of  his 
si  Jan  2  23 — (fern.),  mid  tirwan  225,  probably  neuter  (gen.  dat.  and  ace). 

(ii.)  Plural. — J>et  beo^  }>es  monnes  e3«?i  23;  weren  seofen  cluster- 
lokan  43;  blawende  beman  87;  heortan  95;  in  heore  heortan  101; 
}>ine  welan  forrotia^  111;  biwerian  widewan  115;  his  e3«w  bunden 
1 2 1  j  ablende  heore  heortan  121;  of  ure  heortan  127;  )>et  beoJ>  ure 
e3«w  and  ure  earan  127 — (nom.  ace.  and  dat.  case). 

gromena  103;  heoranna  103;  welena  111 — (gen.  case). 

B.     From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

(i.)  Singular. — The  nominative  in  -a  (masc.)  is  very  frequently 
employed,  so  that  a  few  examples  will  suffice  to  show  that  the  older 
form  was  preserved  along  with  the  other  varieties  : — of  J>e  forSge^  se 
heretoga  ii.  6;  all  jnn  lichoma  fare  v.  30;  se  witega  xv.  7;  gang  ]>u 
succa  onbsec  iv.  10;  )>es  hlisa  sprang  ix.  26 — (nom.  case). 

)>as  bredguman  cnihtes  ix.  15;  J>am  deman  v.  25;  on  naman  x.  42, 
xviii.  5;  )>urh  Jjanne  witegan  i.  22,  ii.  5,  iv.  14;  we  geseagen  his 
steorran  ii.  2 ;  ouer  jjanne  mu*6an  xvi.  5  (masc.) ;  eor^an  salt,  v.  1 3 ; 
heofenes  and  eor^San  xi.  25;  heortan  willan  xii.  34;  eor¥>an  heortan 
xii.  40;  on  eor^San  vi.  10,  ix.  6;  on  heortan  xi.  29;  heo  eorScm 
agunnen  v.  4 — (gen.  dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

(ii.)  Plural. — cleopede  jja  tungel-witegan  ii.  7 ;  Jja  tungel-witegan 
geseagen  ii.  10;  fram  J>am  ttuigel-tvitegan  ii.  16;  hyo  ehtan  )>a  xoitegan 
v.  12;  ealle  witegan  xi.  13;  se  J>e  earan  hsebbe  xi.  15;  to  J>am  eor^S- 
tilian  xxi.  34;  steorran  failed  xxiv.  29;  mid  beman  xxiv.  29 — (nom. 
ace.  and  dat.  cases). 

sander-halgena  iii.  7;  naiddrena  iii.  7;  sunder-halgcme  v.  20; 
witegena  x.  41;   an  jjare  witegan  xvi.  14 — (gen.  case). 

C.     From  Peri  Didaxeon. 

(i.)  Singidar. — The  nom.  in  -a  is  very  common  : — assan  tord  98; 
heofenes  3  eor¥>an  84;  on  aniolitan  84;  innan  jjare  blcedran  82;  of 
anne  cuppcm  92;  eet  Jjare  heortan  106;  of  eor¥>an  118 — (gen.  dat.  and 
ace.  cases). 


(ii.)  Plural. — cedran  120,  138;  sa  (J>a)  earan  94,  98  ,  of  }>an  ea^ean 
96  ;  on  cedran  138 — (110m.  ace.  and  dat.  cases). 
eagena  96  ;  sidane  126 — (gen.). 

D.  In  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet  the  first  form  is  the  one  most  fre- 
quently employed. 

witogan  boc  79a;  on  hal^enan  messeda3um  79b — (gen.  pi.). 

Illustrations  of  the  Second  Form. 

A.  From  the  Homilies. 

(i.)  Singidar. — to  tima  g;  a3ein  Jjine  nexta  13;  wrS  Jnne  efen 
nexta  1 7 ;  mon  seal  his  euen  nexta  beodan  1 3 ;  nane  o^re  assa  5 ; 
uppon  )>a  assa  5 ;  heo  unbunden  \>&  assa  5 ;  ]>urh  pe  witega  7 1  ',  nenne 
lichama  219;  God  sette  him  nama  221;  nam  ]>e  folc  anda  229  ;  mid 
J>an  lichama  229 — (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

]>a  assa  fole  ;  }>&  assa  fet  3 — (gen.  case). 

(ii.)  Plural. — }>a  witega  7  ;  ]>a  mor^Sscla^a  29  ;  ic  welle  3euan  zoela 
,  13  ;  heore  licoma  todelden  131 — (nom.  and  ace.  case). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

(i.)  Singular. — }>urh  Jeremie  )>anne  witega  ii.  23;  Jmrh  ysia  J>anne 
ivitega  iii.  3;  for  eenne  witega  xxi.  26;  hedde  hire  fola  xxi.  7 — (ace. 

(ii.)  Plural. — eale  3e  nceddra  xxiii.  33  (voc). 

C.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 

(i.)  Singular. — on  }>an  lichoma  82,  140  ;  under  J>ara  tunga  102  ;  on 
ana  panna  108;  hnecca  108;  on  ceddra  112;  on  heorta  120;  oppan 
jjara  eoir&a  104;  on  lichama  142 — (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

(ii.)  Plural. — Uppa  100;  tunga  100;  ceddra  120,  138,  140;  sida 
128  ;  eara  88 — (nom.  and  ace.  case). 

Illustrations  of  the  Third  Form. 

A.  From  the  Homilies. 

(i.)  Singular. — on  culfren  heowe  95;  an  edren  hiwe  225  (gen.  case); 
to  his  willen  89  ;  on  culfren  95;  bodian  J>a  so^en  ileafen  97;  ]>a  nam 
he  mulcene  gramen  223 — (ace.  case). 


(ii.)  Plural. — J>et  becyS  }>es  monnes  earen  23 ;  \>e  fifte  .  .  .  neddren  43 ; 
heore  eym  weren  43;  }>er  wunie^  inne  faje  neddren  %e\uwe  froggen 
and  crabben  51;  heo  becrS  monslayen  53;  }>os  blaca  tadden  bitacne'S 
53;  umrhten  were  93;  steorren  sculen  143 — (nom.  case). 

mid  ]>'me  e^en  33;  tune^  his  eren  49;  mid  furen  tungen  89,  93; 
to  ire/*e?i  115;  tel  J>eo  steorren  133;  ine  }>e  monnes  e3e?i  153;  Adam 
ham  alle  namen  gesceop  221 — (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

welene  33  (gen.). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

(i.)  Singular. — huse  )>as  reofelen  xxvi.  6  (gen.  case);  beo  jju  onbu- 
gende  J>ine  wv&er-ioinnen  v.  25;  sylst  pu  him  neddren  vii.  10 ;  on 
jjinen  namen  vii.  22;  on  eowren  heorten  ix.  4;  forminen  namen  x.  22; 
owre  lichamen  of  slea^  x.  28 ;  J>e  maig  sawle  and  lichamen  fordon  x.  28 ; 
on  hire  yb?e?i  xviii.  2,  xxi.  2;  Jjurh  J>one  ivitegen  xxvii.  35 — (dat.  and 
ace.  cases). 

(ii.)  Plural. — J?a  coman  )>a  tungel-witegen  ii.  1,  xii.  2;  his  mete  was 
gerstapen  iii.  4 ;  ^is  sende  so^lice  }>are  twelf  apostle  namen  x.  2  ; 
beo^  .  .  .  gleawe  swa  neddren  .  .  .  bylewhitte  swa  culfren  x.  16 — 
(nom.  case). 

fram  J»am  tungel-witegen  ii.  16;  on  eowre  eagen  xxi.  42;  on  eowren 
Jieorten  ix.  4;  setran  heore  eagen  ix.  29;  gehedde  to  demen  x.  18; 
heo  heore  eagen  npahofen  xvii.  8;  ofslagen  J>a  witegen  xxiii.  31;  on 
eowre  eagen,  xxi.  42 — (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

neddrene  cynrin  xii.  34;  witegene  byregene  xxiii.  29;  britsene  xiv. 
20— (gen.  case). 

C.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 

(i.)  Singidar. — of  }>an  earen  90  ;  on  an  crocen  92 — (dat.  and  ace). 
( ii.)  Plural. — ]>a  ea^en  98  (nom.  case). 

to  Jjan  earen  92;  to  ]>an  ea^en  96;  eay,n  94,  96,  98 — (dat.  and  ace. 

ea^ene  94  ;  ea^en  98 — (gen.). 

D.  From  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet. 

(i.)  Singular. — on  tymen  75b;  on  chyrchen  io6h;  J^ane  licamen 
114a;  on  rihtne  tymen  130b;  inne  }>cere  cyrecen ;  to  eyricen  125  b — 
(dat.  and  ace-  cases). 

(ii.)  Plural. — of  J>are  witegen  bocan  77  a  (gen.  case). 

xxvi  grammatical  introduction. 

Illustrations  of  the  Fourth  Form. 
A.  From  the  Homilies. 

(i.)  Singular. — pe  licome  luua^  19;  pe  o^er  witege  serS;  pa  bicom 
his  licome  47 ;  pet  is  heore  beire  iville  99,  219;  yd  his  wille  were  129; 
se  time  com  227 — (nom.  case). 

licome  uuhele  7;  licome  lust  11,  19,  21  (gen.  case,  masc). 

asse  fole  5;  fule  heorte  wil  9;  chirche  bisocne  45;  eorSe  )>relles  47; 
chirche  dure  73;  orthe  scrud  79;  culfre  onlicuesse  95;  ctdfre  liche 
141;  eorSe  brihtnesse  217 — (gen.  case,  fern.). 

godne  ileafe  5;  pene  wreche  licome  19,  21;  minne  licome  35;  on 
wowie  5;  mid  pe  licome  21,  29;  in  his  licome  27;  of  pon  licome 
35;  pene  wome  83;  mid  o«c/e  83;  to  ane  gode  witege  97 — (ace.  and 
dat.  cases,  masc). 

heo  nomen  pe  asse  3;  3e  finde^  ane  asse  3;  we  habbe^  nu  chirche 

9;   mid  godere  heorte  3,  11,  23,  25;   for  halie  chirche  17;   to  chirche 

23,  31;  alle  hefden  ane  heoi'te  91;   on  culfre  97;  buuen  eorSe  139; 

wip  J>e  nedclre  151;   he  halt  eorSe  219;  of  eorSe ;  to  eorSe  223;  leuS 

'us  his  eor¥>e  233 — (dat.  and  ace.  cases,  fern.). 

(ii.)  Plural. — pas  fa^e  neddre  bitacne^  53;  beo  noht  pe  foa3e  neddre 
ne  pe  blake  tadde,  ne  pe  jelewe^'o^e  353 — (nom.). 

to  brekene  pa  erming  licome  43 ;  pa  sunder-hahfi  245  ;  mid  Seme  143 
— (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

(i.)  Singular. — se  steorre  ii.  7;  se  deme  v.  25;  wv£er-winne  v.  25; 
eall  pin  lichame  syo  v.  29;  sye  pin  name  vi.  9:;  min  cwope  viii.  8; 
time  is  xiv.  15;  gewurSe  pin  ge  wn'We  vi.  10;  se  witege  xxiv.  15 — 
(nom.  case). 

pas  loitege  xvi.  16  (gen.  masc.)  ;  eorSe  sterunge  xxiv.  7  (gen.  fern.). 

panne  steorre  ii.  10 ;  nemne^  his  name  i.  23,  25;  on  pinen  name 
vii.  22;  on  his  name  xii.  2 1 ;  for  senne  witege  xiii.  6 ;  purh  panne 
witege  xxvii.  9;  nomen  his  licluime  xiv.  12;  of  pare  heorte  xv.  18 — 
(dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

(ii.)  Plural. — No  examples. 

C.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 
(i.)    Singular. — on   para   bladre   84;    ane  panne   90,   106,    116; 
under  pare  tunge  100;  on  panne  124;   in  pare  panne  126;  of  pare 
bladre  138;  his  tunge  140 — (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 


(ii.)  Plural. — on  eare  88  ;  inna  }>a  eare  94. 

D.  From  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet. 

(i.)  Singular. — on  byre  herte  74  a;  mit  ]>&m  wytage  74  a;  wrS-teo 
beora  lichame  ma;  on  name  120b;  to  cyrce  109b;  on  time  76a, 
111a,  123b;  of  ancle  132  b — (dat.  and  ace.  cases). 

(ii.)  Plural. — mine  lippe  99  b. 

In  the  Homilies  we  meet  with  such  a  form  as  e^en-e  dative  plural, 
which  is  probably  an  attempt  to  form  a  new  dative  case  front  the 
nominative  plural. 

In  Peri  Didaxeon  we  have  lungone,  lungane  118,  138,  140,  142; 
and  in  L^amon's  Brut  examples  of  this  formation  are  very  common. 

Division  II. — Class  i. 


Nom.  Hond,  Hond-en  (-e,  -an,  -a). 

Gen.  Hond-e  (-en),  Hond-e  (-ene,  -en,  -a). 

Dat.  Hond-e,  Hond-en  (-e,  -an). 

Ace.  Hond-e,  Hond-en  (-e,  -an,  -a). 

Some  nouns,  like  stefen  (stefn),  voice;  sawel  (saul,  sawl),  soul ; 
synn,  take  an  -e  in  the  nominative  singular,  as  stefne,  saule,  sunne. 

To  this  declension  belong  dun  (hill),  frofer  (comfort),  gled  (live 
coal),  helle,  mihte,  misded,  pin  (pain),  tid  (time),  swingle  (scourge), 
woruld  (world),  ytsunge  (covetousness),  and  all  nouns  in  -ing,  -ung, 
and  -ness. 


A.  From  the  Homilies. 

mild  heortnesse  ba^e  15,  19;  saule  bihofSe  19;  helle  grand  19,  21  \ 
helle  pine  49;  saule  bihoue  85;  worlde  sarinesse  103;  hehte  lure  103; 
rode  tacne  121 — (gen.  sing.). 

sunnen  35,  37,  51;  saulen  39,  41,  105,  117;  gleden  43;  pinen  43; 
wunden  79;  spechen  93;  mihten  107;  roden  147;  hondan  23,  91,  101 ; 
pinan  433  sunnan  91,  95,  103;  ehtan,  iselh^San  105;  sorinessen 
105;  misdede  19;  saide  37;  mihte  75;  sunne  11,  37,  91  ;  sarinesse 
103  ;  honde  109  ;  tide  89  ;  sunna  97 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 

sunna  37  ;  sunnen  97  ;  mihta  101 — (gen.  pi.). 

honden  41  ;  sunnen  51  ;  deden  57  ;  wunden  75  ;  spechen  89,  93  ; 
sunnen  103  ;  sunnan  99  ;  dedan  99  ;  saule  41 ;  sunne  35 — (dat.  pi.). 


In  '  beosternesse  hellen,'  p.  61,  Ave  have  an  instance  of  a  genitive 
singular  in  -en  instead  of  -e. 

B.  In  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  (Hatton  MS.)  we  have  instances 
of  nominative  and  accusative  plurals  in  -e,  -en,  -an  (as  well  as  the 
older  form  -a),  and  dative  plurals  in  -e,  -en,  -an  :l — 

cneornysse  i.  17;  mihte  vii.  22;  adle  viii.  17;  hande  xvii.  22, 
xxvii.  24  ;  handen  xv.  2;  gemyndstowe  xxiii.  29  ;  synnen  ix.  5,  ix.  6  ; 
bytten  ix.  17  ;  synnan  iii.  6,  vi.  14  ;  synna  vi.  15,  ix.  5  ;  stowa  x.  43; 
stowen  xvii.  4 ;  kaigen  xvi.  19  ;  byr&ene  xx.  12 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 

hande  iv.  6,  xv.  20;  synnen  i.  21  ;  £v/c?ew  v.  21  ;  adlen  iv.  20 — 
(dat.  pi.). 

fo'tZe  xvi.  3  (gen.  pi.). 

C.  In  Peri  Didaxeon  we  find  : — 

beane  84;  adle  94;  beanen  86;  hand  an  112,  114;  breosta  142; 
wunda  86,  134;  handa  112,  134  ;  wurtan  90,  114,  134  ;  wyrta  118  ; 
beana  108 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 

breosten  84,  116;  wyrta  134;  breostan  124,  128;  handa  112; 
handan  134  ;  handum  112 — (dat.  pi.). 

D.  In  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet  we  have  synnan  79  b  (ace.  pi.). 

Division  II. — C7ass  ii. 


Nom.  Ia3-e,  hvj-e  (-en,  -a). 

Gen.    Ia3-e,  la3-ene  (-e). 

Dat.     Ia3-e,  la3-en  (-an,  -e). 

Ace.     Ia3-e,  la3-e  (en). 

Niht  makes  the  plural  niht ;  boc  has  bee  for  its  plural  (p.  101)  as 
in  Saxon  English. 

A.  As  examples  of  the  plural  forms  belonging  to  this  declension 
we  have  the  following  in  our  Homilies: — lay,,  lay,n  15,  85;  duren 
87  (nom.  pi.)  ;  yfan  99  ;  bohen  113  (dat.  pi.). 

B.  In  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  we  find  burga,  burgan,  burgen  as 
the  plural  of  burh  x.  23,  xi.  20,  xiv.  15. 

burgan,  burgen  xi.  1,  xiv.  13  (dat.  pi.). 

C.  In  Peri  Didaxeon  we  have  syna  and  synan,  88,  no,  as  the  nom. 
plural  of  syne  (or  synu)  a  sinew. 

1  The  dative  in  -urn  also  occurs. 


Division  III. — Class  i. 


Norn,  king,  king-es  (-as). 

Gen.     king-es,  king-e  (-ene,  -a,  -an). 

Dat.     king-e,  king-en  (-e,  -an,  -um). 

A.  The  following  examples  illustrate  some  varieties  of  the  plural 
number  in  the  Homilies  : — 

elates  ii.  1349  ;  westmas  13;  weies  49  ;  wurmes  51  ;  domas1  35  ; 
eontas  93  ;  apostlas  93  ;  monslehtas  103  ;  westmas  109  ;  \>eoivas  119  ; 
fuyelaSjfiscas  129 — (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

westme  13;  hinge  33;  dayx  87;  eldra  123;  apostlan  91,  93; 
eontan  93  ;  yeran  131  ;  munechene  93  ;  clerkene  133 — (gen.  case). 

la^ea  11,  119  ;  apostlen  133  ;  apostlan  91  ;  weran  119;  aposthim 
91,  93 — (dat.  case). 

.Fa  makes  the  plural  /cm  (foes)  87,  143. 

B.  The  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  supplies  us  with  the  following- 
varieties  of  the  plural  :  — 

ealdres  ii.  4  (nom.  case). 

writere  v.  20  ;  gaste  x.  1 ;  apostle  x.  2  ;  AZ«/e  xv.  34,  xvi.  10 ;  Jlsca 
xv.  343  weran  xiv.  21 ;  ealdran  xv.  2  ;  Ida/en  xvi.  10 — (gen.  case). 

ealdran  ii.  6;  day,n  ii.  1,  iii.  1;  stanen  iii.  9;  wcestman  vii.  16, 
ix.  20  ;  wulfen  x.  16  ;  kyngen  x.  18 — (dat.  case). 

C.  In  Peri  Didaxeon  we  find  : — 

dwges  84  ;  n&glas  114 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 
dcegen  84  (dat.  pi.). 

Division  III. — Class  ii. 


Nom.  and  Ace.    sun-e,  broker,  sun-e  (sun-es),  bro^r-e  (-en,  -an). 

Gen.  sun-e,  broker,  sun-e,  bro^r-e  (-ene,  -en). 

Dat.  sun-e,  broker,  sun-en,  bnrSr-en  (-e,  -an). 

Fader  (feder)  makes  gen.  sing,  federes,  feder  ;  -pX.federes. 

A.  Examples  of  the  plural  forms  : — 

broftre  5  ;  sustre  5,  23  ;  childre  73  ;  children  7  ;  briSren  11  ;  ibro- 
%ran  125;  sustren  157  ;  feond  7  ;  deofles  87 — (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

1  mid  seems  to  govern  the  accusative  as  well  as  the  dative. 


feonda  33;  monna  91,  93;  childre1  7;   tdpen  33;   mannen  99 — 
(gen.  case). 
feonden  7  ;  deoflan  3  ;  foten,fotan  87,  91,  129 — (dat.  case). 

B.   Examples  of  the  plural  from  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  : — 

gebro&re  v.  47,  xii.  47,  48,  xxiii.  8  ;  deq/te  viii  31  ;  ix.  34  ;  swustre 
xiii.  56;  gebrcferen  iv.  18;  broferen  xx.  24;  gebrcfera  xii.  46; 
brcrSra  xiii.  55  ;  sunen  xxi.  37 — (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

manna  iv.  19;  deofla  ix.  34;  feonda  xiii.  25;  fobme  vii.  12; 
chyldren  xxi.  16  ;  e/eo/?e  xii.  24  ;  fobe  xiii.  42,  xxii.  13  ;  manne  xvii. 
22  ;  faderen  xxxiii.  30  ;  mannen  xxiii.  14 — (gen.  case). 

mannen  v.  16,  xix.  26  ;  mannan  vi.  14  ;  fotan  vii.  6  ;  /b£e?i  x.  14  ; 
brcr&ren  xxv.  40 — (dat.  case). 

sunes,  sunas,  as  the  plural  of  sune,  occurs  in  ch.  xx.  21,  xxi.  28. 

C.  Examples  of  the  plural  from  Peri  Didaxeon  : — 
cegeran  106  ;  cegru  136  ;  cegere  134 — (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

topan  102  ;  fram  ba  topa  104;  ban  manna  126;  foten  132;  fotum 
134— (dat.). 

D.  Examples  of  the  plural  from  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet : — 
swustra  88  b,  90  a ;  swustre  75  b,  90a,  91b,  92  a,  96  b,  98  a,  109  a, 

125  b,    127b;    swustren    75  b,    102a;    ^eswustren   102a;    swustran 
119  b — (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

sustrene  88  b;  ^eswustra  91a;  ^eswustre  97a,  106a,  132  a  (gen. 
case);  ^eswustren  97b,  198a;  y  swustre  88b,  100b,  nib,  133b; 
$eswustra?n  93  b — (dat.  case). 

Division  IV. — Class  i. 


Nom.  and  Ace.    word,  word,  word-es  (-as). 

Gen.  word-es,  word-e  (-ene,  -en,  -a). 

Dat.  word-e,  word-en  (-e,  -an). 

To  this  declension  belong  beam,  bern,  child ;  deor,  animal ;  hors, 
horse  ;  lonib,  lamb  ;  seep,  sheep  ;  ping  ;  wif,  wife,  woman  ;  weorc,  work. 

The  tendency  to  adopt  even  more  modern  forms  is  seen  in  such 
forms  as  huses,  wi/es  49 ;  'on  weorcas,'  107,  ' for  werkes,'  145. 

1  There  is  good  evidence  for  believing  that  in  addition  to  the  simple  forms 
child,  egg,  lomb,  there  existed  also  corresponding  sterns  in  -er,  as  childer,  egger, 


A.  In  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  we  have  : — 

sceapene  vii.  15;  \inge  vi.  32;  bearne  xx.  20 — banen  xxiii.  27  ; 
swina  viii.  31 ;  beornan  hlaf  xv.  26  ;  wifen,  xi.  11 — (gen.  pi.);  wifen 
xv.  38  ;  sceapen  xv.  24 — (dat.  pi.). 

B.  \inge,  worde  1 1 1  a  (gen.  pi.)  occur  in  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet. 

C.  \>ingas  (ace.  pi.),  Peri  Didaxeon  140. 

Division  IV. — Class  ii. 


Nom.  and  Ace.    treow  (treo),  treow-e1  (-en,  -a,  -u1,  -es2). 

Gen.  treow-es,  treow-e  (ene,  -an). 

Dat.  treow-e,  treow-en  (-e,  -an). 

A.  Examples  of  the  plural  forms  in  the  Homilies  : — 

ibede  7  ;  breode  1 1 ;  bebode,  ibode  11,  13  ;  treowe  5,  155  ;  yeade  T27 ; 

ibeden  55;    biboden  99  ;   $eten    141,   153;   limen,  leoman  103,  109; 

bibodan  119  ;  tacne,  tacna  91  ;  biboda  119  ;  twigga  5  ;  nutenu  129 — 

(nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

limen  23  ;  biboden  95  ;  iwedan  109  ;  twige  149  ;  wepne  155 — (dat. 


B.  Examples  of  the  plural  from  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  : — 
lendene  iii.  4  ;  fate  xii.  29,  xiii.  48  ;  wundre  vii.  22,  xiv.  2  ;  tacne 

xvi.  3  ;  <7«te  xvi.  18  :  chihene,  xxiii.  37  ;  ticcene  xxv.  33  ;  eorde  xxvi. 
53  >  fi\vra  xxiii.  37  ;  mere-groten  vii.  6  ;  leoht-faten  xxv.  1,  3 — (nom. 
and  ace.  cases). 

treowe  iii.  10  ;  lime  v.  29  ;  Zt?na  v.  30  ;  treowa  xxi.  8 — (gen.  case). 

gemceren  ii.  16  ;  beboden  v.  19  ;  ticchenan  xxv.  32 — (dat.  case). 

C.  In  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet  we  have  the  following  plurals  : — 
fata,  fate,  fatan,  93  b,  96  b,  97  a  (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

D.  In  Peri  Didaxeon  we  find  the  following  plural  forms  : — 

tacnu  88 ;  cymlu  134 ;  cyrnles  1 34 ;  lime  1 20 — (nom.  and  ace.  cases). 

cicene,  cicena,  118,  122,  124  (gen.  case). 

1.  The  foregoing  divisions  show  us  that  the  tendency  of  nouns 
feminine  of  Div.  I.  Classes  i.  and  ii.,  of  masculine  substantives  of 
Div.  III.  Class  ii.,  and  of  neuters  of  Div.  IV.  Class  ii.,  is  to  change  the 
older  vowel  endings  {-a,  -u,  -0)  first  into  -e  and  then  into  -en. 

1  In  Saxon  English  the  plural  endings  were  -0,  -a,  -u. 

2  Plurals  in  -es  occasionally   occur,  as    wederes,  p.  13.     (See  wederes  in  Sax. 
Chron.  ed.  Earle,  p.  229.) 


2.  The  older  forms  of  brothers,  sisters — brothres,  sustres — would  lead 
us  to  suppose  that  the  s  was  a  later  addition  to  the  plural  suffix  -e,  so 
that  brothres,  sustres  are  not  equivalent  to  brotheres,  susteres,  but  = 
brothr-e-s,  sustr-e-s. 

This  addition  of  an  s  to  a  final  e  was  very  common  in  the  Early 
English  period,  so  that  we  find,  even  in  the  same  work,  such  forms  us 
the  following,  which  have  been  rather  perplexing  to  our  English 
grammarians  : — en-e,  en-e-s  (once),  neod-e,  neod-e-s  (needs),  Jieonn-e, 
heonn-e-s  (hence),  twi-e,  twi-e-s  (twice),  thri-e,  thri-e-s  (thrice). 

3.  The  genitive  plural  -ene  and  -e  maintained  their  ground  for  some 
time  ;  the  former  however,  occasionally  contracted  to  -en,  was  the  last 
to  go  out  of  use. 

4.  We  find  no  examples  as  yet  of  genitive  plurals  in  -es. 

The    adjective,   as   in  Anglo-Saxon    and    modern    German,    has   a 
Definite   and  an  Indefinite  form,  the  former  being  used  when  it   is 
preceded  by   the   definite   article,   a   demonstrative   or   a  possessive 
pronoun1,  and  the  latter  in  all  other  cases. 

The  nominative  masculine  singular  has  two  forms  in  -a  and  -e,  of 
which  the  latter  is  the  more  commonly  used.     The  oblique  cases  of 
masculines   and    feminines   have  four  varieties,   corresponding  very 
closely  to  the  first  or  n  declension  of  nouns. 





r  I. 

Nom.    |   2> 




r  '■ 














-  4- 




r  '■ 









1 4. 







1  Adjectives  qualifying  nouns  in  the  vocative  case  usually  take  the  definite 
form,  as  in  Saxon  English. 







Masc.  Fem.  Neut. 

1.  gocl-an. 

2.  god-a. 

3.  god-en. 

4.  god-e. 

1.  god-ena. 

2.  god-ene. 

3.  god-en. 
L  4.  god-e. 

1.  god-an. 

2.  god-a. 

3.  god-en. 

4.  god-e. 

Examples  of  the  First  Form. 

A.  From  the  Homilies. 

]>e  halia  gast  89  :  )>e  helia  gast  93,  97  ;  ]>e  almihtiyt  97  ;  J>e  alweld- 
enda  dema  105  ;  )>e  zoisa  mon  107 — (nom.  sing). 

\>es  halgan  gastes  3ife  99  ;  \>es  gastes  isundinge  99  ;  )>ere 
halgan  )>remnesse  101  ;  to  ]>ere  upplican  riche  41;  on  J>am  ealdcm 
pentecoste  89  ;  of  \>&m  halym  gaste  99,  101  ;  to  Jjan  almihtiyxn  gode 
111  j  Jjene  kalian  gaste  91 — (gen.  dat.  and  ace.  sing.). 

J>a  mildheortan  109;  ]>a  modian  11 1;  )>a  droriym  95  ;  ]>as  Jewcwi 
world-Jnng  105  ;  )>a  mildem  113 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 

on  ure  god-an  weorcan  107;  bi  j>an  gastliche  wrecclian  113 — 
(dat.  pi.). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

The  nominative  singular  in  -a  occurs  frequently  along  with  the 
form  in  -e,  even  in  the  same  verse. 

)>u  god-e  ]>eow  and  getreowa  xxv.  23  ;  ]>u  efela  j?eow  and  slawe 
xxv.  6  (nom.)  ;  )>an  toweardan  eorre  iii.  7;  on  j>a  halgan  ceastre  iv.  5  ; 
jjonne  unnyttan  )>eowan  xxv.  30 — (ace.  and  dat.  sing.). 

jjas  halgan  gastes  xii.  31 — (gen.  sing.). 

]>a  mildheortan  v.  7;  ]>a  godan  v.  45  ;  J>a  wntrurnan  xiv.  14;  }>a 
fermestan  xxiii.  6  ;  eale  ge  blindan  xxiii.  17 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 



C.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 

se  ruwa  gealla ;  se  swerta  gealle  82  ;  se  yfela  wseta  130 — (nom. 

of  ban  swertan  wsetan  94 ;  of  bare  dri^an  hsetan  96  ;  on  ban 
wynstran  earme ;  to  ))an  scearpcm  bane  124 — (dat.  and  ace.  sing.). 

to  ban  menniscan  toban  102  ;  of  ban  scearpan  bannm  138 — (dat.  pi.). 

D.  In  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet  the  forms  in  -a,  -an,  &c,  are  of  more 
frequent  occurrence  than  the  other  varieties. 

Examples  of  the  Second  Form. 

A.  From  the  Homilies. 1 

be  wrecche  mon  27;  be  halie  gast  53  ;  be  ^elowe  clath  53 — (nom. 

on  Here  ilea  nihte  87;  of  bam  Italia  gast  97;  bene  halia  gast  97  ; 
imong  ]>an  muchela  wisdoma  125  ;  to  be  hahfib  gast  101 ;  on  J)a  hafya 
breomnesse  for  99  ;  ^a  re¥>a  dome  15 ;  bes  /i«^a  gastes  to  cume  10 1  ; 
of  ban  herda  flinke  129 — (gen.  dat.  and  ace.  sing.). 

J)Os  blaca  tadden  53  ;  ba  isibsumma  113 — (nom.  pi.). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

For  examples  of  the  nominative  singular,  see  quotation  above  from 
xxv.  6. 

ba  rihtwisa  xiii.  43  ;  swa  beo^  ]>a  fyrmestan  ytemeste  1  ba  ytemesta 
fyrmesta  xx.  16 — (nom.  pi.). 

mid  hera  brada  handen  xxvi.  67  (dat.  pi.). 

C.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 
ba  aiver^eda  adle  94  ;  ]>a  yfela  wseta  130 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 

D.  From  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet. 
3eond  ba  sylfa  tida  84  a  (ace.  pi.). 

Examples  of  the  Third  Form. 

A.  From  the  Homilies, 
bes  lialyan  gastes  to  cume  99  ;  to  ban  ileaufullen  hirede  89  ;  bene 
heouenlichen  ebel  113 — (gen.  dat.  and  ace.  sing.). 

1  In  the  Homilies  the  nominative  masculine  in  -e  is  by  far  the  most  common. 


pa  iudeiscen  men  89  ;  pa  untrummen  91 ;  pa  synfulhn  95  ;  pa  so^ew 
ileafen  97 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.), 
pan  sunfullen  95  (dat.  pi.). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

pani  wisen  were  vii.  24  ;  pan  desien  men  vii.  26  ;  to  pam  lamen 
ix.  2;  on  pare  towearden  xii.  32;  on  pinen  swv&ren  xx.  21  ;  emie 
lamen  ix.  2  ;  pane  strangen  xii.  29 — (dat.  and  ace.  sing.). 

pa  goden  xiii.  48;  ofer  pa  yfeleny.  45;  eale  je  desigen  xxiii.  17 
— (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 

C.  From  the  Eule  of  St.  Benet. 

psere  halgen  cyrican  89  a;  pes  arfesten  ~]  pes  mildheorten  90  b; 
paere  regollicen  styre  no  a;  pses  halgen  gastes  in  a;  paere  strSesten 
discepline  117a;  pses  awyri^eden  gastes  131a;  paes  haliyen  reo^eles 
132  a — (gen.  sing.). 

of  pare  ealden  3ecydnesse  76b  ;  of  pare  eedden  se  137  b — (dat.  sing.). 

poane  e^fullen  cwede  89  a  (ace.  sing.). 

)>a  unstrangen  sy  130b  (nom.  pi.). 

Jmrh  pa  halgen  fcederes  125  b  (ace.  pi.). 

D.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 
on  pan  manniscen  lichama  82  (dat.  sing.).  . 

Examples  op  the  Fourth  Form. 
A.   From  the  Homilies. 
pes  hedie  gast  93  ;  pes  ficd^e  gastes  99 — (gen.  sing.), 
fram  pam  halie  hesterdei  87  ;  on  pere  aide  \a^e  87  ;  on  pere  ilhe 
nihte  87 — (dat.  sing.). 

pa  rede  se  87;  pa  aide  se  87;  purh  pe  halie  fullht  87  ;  pane  un- 
rihtwise  mon  117 — (ace.  sing.). 

\>asfa$e  neddre  53  ;  pes  riche  men  53 — (nom  pi.), 
bi  pan  gastliche  wrecchan  113 — (dat.  pi.). 

B.  From  the  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew. 

panne  ytemeste  ferpyng  v.  26  ;  panne  strange  wind  xiv.  30 ;  panne 
sereste  fisc  xvii.  27  ;  on  mine  swv&re  xx.  23  ;  on  his  nywe  berienne 
xxvii.  60 — (dat.  and  ace.  sing.). 

pa  gastlice  pearfan  v.  3  ;  pa  sibsume  v.  9  ;  pa  unclcene  gastes  viii. 
16;  pa  fermeste  xxiii.  6;  pa  blinde  ix.  28;  pa  manfidle  xiii.  38  ;  pa 
blinde  ~}  pa  healte  xxi.  14 — (nom.  and  ace.  pi.). 


wa  eow  blinde  xxiii.  16,  19,  24 — (clat.  pi.). 

C.  From  the  Rule  of  St.  Benet. 
)>are  halite  J>reonmesse  75  b;  Jjere  regollice  stere  115  b — (gen.  sing.), 
to  )?an  egfulle  godes  dome  74a  ;  of  ]>are  nyioe  se  75  b  ;   of  \>&re  niwe 
se  137b;  on  liali^e  Jjeudome  ;  of  )>am  yldeste  117  b — (dat.  sing.). 
]>a  crcefti^e  menn  118  a;  \>a.yldre  swustre  127  b — (nom.  pi.). 
J>a  yngre  swusti'e  127  b — (ace.  pi.), 
mid  hyre  yfele  dedan  91a;  J>am  seoce  93  a — (dat.  pi.) 

D.  From  Peri  Didaxeon. 
on  jjan  middemyste  sedra  112;    of  J>are  mycle  hastan  128;    of  )>an 

scearpe  bane  140 — (dat.  sing.). 

}>&  yfele  wseta  130  ;  )>e  ealde  lseces  130,  138 — (nom.  pi.) 

In  Peri  Didaxeon  we  have  the  indefinite  instead  of  the  definite  form 

in  '  ]>ces  seocys  mannes  eare'  88  ;  '  J>ses  yfeles  waetan'  130. 







f  God-e, 


\  God-en, 

L  God-um. 








God-re,  God-ere, 












Masc.  Fern,  and  Neut. 

Nom.  and  Ace.  God-e. 

Gen.  God-i*e,  God-ere,  God-e,  God-ra. 

Dat.  God-e,  God-en,  God-an,  God-um. 


godes  cunnes  5;  alles  j>inges  7,  13;  names  godes  9;  mennisses 
metes  11;  \>ines  di'ihtenes  11,  37;  o*Sres  monnes  13,  29;  \ines 
eorSliches  louerdes  2 1  ;  anes  em^Sliclies  monnes  33  ;  sunfulles  monnes, 
alles  cunnes  79,  95;   liuiendes  godes  83;   elches  monnes  99;  monies 


cuiines  103;  enies  monnes  121;  alles  ileffulles  moncunnes  121;  ures 
lichomes  127  ;  liuiy,ndes  godes  131 — (gen.  sing.  masc.  and  neuter). 

of  elchan  hiwscipe  87  ;  ewilcum  93  ;  uwilchen  97  j  on  elche  huse 
87  ;  to  ane  gode  witege  97 — (dat.  sing.  masc.  and  neut.). 

godne  ileafe  5  ;  elcne  herm  1 3  ;  muchelne  teone  1 5  ;  uwilcne  nion 
17;  hine  seol/ne  17,  95;  wrS  o\erne  19;  sioilcne  lauerd  213  godne 
red  71  ;  glesne  ehburl  83;  haline  99  ;  sari?ie,  blindne,  unliable,  ill  j 
minne  gast  113;  on  erwe  ma^en  115;  snoterne  117 — (ace.  sing. 

mid  godere  heorte  3  ;  under  mire  onwalde  13  ;  mid  muchele  blisse 
13;  for  halie  cbirche  17;  mid  gode  heorte  23;  pire  sunne  25;  of 
\>ire  misdede  33;  mid  mildere  steuene  45;  mid  edmode  heorte  71  ; 
mid  muchlere  blisse  87  ;  godere  hele  57  ;  of  elchere  beode  89  ;  mid  nane 
la^nesse  95  ;  on  muclielere  sarinesse  101  ;  of  nane  lichamliche  pinunge 
97  ;  of  elchere  wohnesse  103  ;  on  sd'Sre  annesse  99  ;  to  elchere  du3e^e. 
103;  on  gastlicliere  blisse  105;  in  eche  pine  143;  mid  worldliche 
ehte  149 — (dat.  sing.  fern.). 

feole  6%re  godere  werke  9  ;  aha  kinge  king  33  ;  alra  swrSest  33  ; 
aire  welene  mest  33  ;  alra  lengest  49  ;  summe  \ine  sunna  37  ;  alia 
sunfulle1  51  ;  lefidle  monne  lauerd  77  ;  godra  gaste  97  ;  heore  beire, 
heore  beira  99  ;  aire  sunnen  97  ;  unrihlwisra  117;  \inra  welena  1 1 1  ; 
alls  sunfulle  monne  leddre  149 — (gen.  pi.2). 

mid  mislichen  spechen  89  ;  mid  furene  tungen  93  ;  to  ateliche 
deoflan  103;  bi  dftran  rihtwise  105;  mid  irenen  neilen  121  ;  oferan 
bingan  125;  us  alien  125;  of  twam  bingen  135 — (dat  pi.). 

The  indefinite  article  follows  the  indefinite  declension  : — 

Masc.  Fern. 

Nom.  an,  are. 

Gen.     anes,  are,  ane  (anre). 

Dat.     ane,  are,  ane  (anre). 
Ace.     anne,  enne,   1 

[an,  neuter).  J 

We  find  n  dropping  off  occasionally  before  neuter  nouns ;  as,  a  lutel 
ater  23  ;  a  seep  121. 

1  In  the  text  of  has  been  inserted  before  alia  by  the  scribe. 

2  In  the  older  Homilies,  pp.  216-245,  we  find  forms  in  -ra  and  -re;  cp.  alra 
217,  219,  aire  231,  beire  219. 




The  comparative  degree  of  adjectives  ends  in  -re  (of  adverbs  in  -er), 
the  superlative  in  -este  (of  adverbs  in  -est)  ;  cp.  fulre  25  ;  deoppre  49  ; 
sof teste,  wunsumeste  35. 

Irregular  Forms. 





bet,  betre, 





lute,  luttle, 










pes,  pas, 
pani,  pan, 
pon,  pa, 

-  pene,  pane, 
pone,  pen, 

L  panne,  pe,2  .. 

(i.)  Definite  Article — pe,  peo,  pat.1 


Fern.  Neut. 

pa,  po,  peo,  pe,  pat,  pet. 

pare,  pere,  per,  par,        pes,  pas. 

pere,  pei*, 

pa,  po,  peo,  pe, . 

pam,  pan,  pon,  pa. 
pet,  pat,  pe.2 


Masc.  Fern,  and  Neut. 
Nom.  and  Ace.  pa,  pe,  peo,  po. 
Gen.  pere,  pera. 

Dat.  pam,  pan,  pon. 

1  In  the  older  Homilies,  pp.  216-245,  we  have  still  kept  up  forms  in  s,  as 
se  (masc),  si,  for  seo  (fern.).  The  earliest  use  of  Se,  Sio  occurs  in  the  Northumbrian 
Gospels  (tenth  century). 

2  This  form  (be)  occurs  most  frequently  after  prepositions,  and  may  be  con- 
sidered as  an  objective  case.  The  same  usage  is  found  in  the  latter  part  of  the 
Saxon  Chronicle  (ed.  Earle)  :  cp.  mid  pe  cyng  256  ;  of  pe  temple  257  ;  on  pe  circe 
263  ;  o  pe  land  262  ;  of  pe  castles  262.  Of  an  indeclinable  \>e,  said  to  be  in  use  in 
the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries,  see  Cockayne's  remarks,  in  St.  Marherete,  p. 
85,  on  Sir  F.  Madden's  assertion. 



pes  flesces  9;  pes  deofles  17  ;  pas  fulhtes  be^e  23;  pas  kinges  hus 
51  ;  pes  .  .  .  monnes  95  ;  pes  .  .  .  godes  123 — (gen.  sing.  masc). 

pam  deofle  37  ;  et  pan  est  3ete  5  ;  to  pam  setteresdei  9  ;  to  pan 
sinagoge  9  ;  on  pam  la^e,1  on  b«ra  la3e  9  ;  to  pan  preoste  1 7  ;  to  pan 
blisse1  11  ;  of  pam  o^er  23  ;  fi*om  pan  helle  and  fram  pan  pine1  25 
et  pam  fulhtbeda  37  ;  biforen  pam  ilke  stude  43  ;  mid  pan  fedre  47  ; 
efter  ban  .  .  .  word  75  ;  of  pan  .  .  .  atter  75  ;  of  pan  gast  81  ;  of  pam 
folche  87  ;  fram  pan  estertid  87  ;  on  pam  pentecoste  89  ;  of  pen  hali 
gast  81  ;  pon  moiine,  pon  deofle  i  5  ;  of  pon  licome  35  ;  on  pon  deie 
41,  91  ;  for  pan  eie  97  ;  of  pa  fredorne  41  ;  uppon  pa  chese  53  ;  to 
pa  de$e  121  ;  for  pa  re£a  dome  152 — (dat.  sing.  masc.  and  neut.). 

in  pane  castel  3  ;  pane  weye  5  ;  03ein  pene  castel  5  ;  burh  pene 
gast  7  ;  penne  sunnedei  1 1  ;  pene  mon  31  ;  pene  gnast  81  ;  pene  nome 
83  ;  on  pene  helend  77  ;  pene  mon  113;  pene  stan  141  ;  pone  de^  109 
— (ace.  masc). 

inne  pe  weye  3,  5  ;  on  pe  godspel  5  ;  mid  pe  licome  2 1  ;  J)urh  pe 
lust  II  j  in  be  castel  23  ;  mid  pe  feder  41  ;  mid  pe  suue  41  ;  mid  pe 
halie  gast  41  ;  bi  pe  hefede  41 ;  in  pe  putte  49  ;  in  pe  uenne  49  ;  mid 
pe  wetei'e  51  ;  mid  pe  streme  51  ;  jjurh  pe  .  .  .  smel  53  ;  of  pe  chese 
53  ;  for  pe  luue  65  ;  |>urh  pe  witega  71  ;  ine  pe  .  .  .  godspel  73  ;  ine 
pe  sune  77  ;  bi  pe  weye  77  ;  i  pe  wetere  79  ;  i  pe  lufte  79  ;  of  pe  .  .  . 
fure  8 1  ;  burh  pe  glesne  eh)>url  83  ;  to  pe  .  .  .  gast  101  ;  of  pe  sede  133; 
anuppe  pe  stane  133  ;  bi  pe  weie  133  :  Jmrk  pe  treo  129  ;  to  pe  sede 
135 — (ace.  masc.  and  neut.).  This  modern  form  occasionally  occurs 
after  a  transitive  verb,  as  piuen  pe  licome  2 1  ;  habbeb  pe  nome  53. 

pe  chirche  9  ;  pe  boc  21 ;  pe  sunne  77  ;  pe  mihte  105  ;  pe  clenesse 
in  j  peo  eorSe  53  ;  peo  e  89  ;  peo  heorte  109  ;  pa  assa  9  ;  pa  saule  35  ; 
pa  boc  37  ;  pa  sunne  39  :  pa  clennesse  in  ;  pa  tunge  109 — (nom. 
sing.  fern.). 

et  J>an  est  3ete  pere  burh  5  ;  jjere  saule  19,  35  ;  per  orj>e  79;  per 
saule  bihove  85 — (gen.  sing.  fern.). 

toward  pare  burh  3  ;  to  pere  dune  3  ;  of  pere  burh  3  ;  in  pere 
strete  7  ;  mid  pere  [la3e]  9  ;  for  pere  saule  9  ;  to  per  ilke  chirche  3 1  ; 
in  pere  sunne  33  ;  bi  per  heorte  41  ;  in  pere  prvh.  51  ;  in  pare  Jjruh  51  ; 
in  pere  sea  51 ;  into  pare  eche  pine  53  ;  in  pere  eorSe  53  ;  into  per 

1  In  A.S.  la^e,  blisse,  hclle  and  pine  were  feminine. 

2  Cp.  on  \>a  heafedan  (on  the  head),  Peri  Didaxeon,  p.  100. 


strong  pine  53  ;  to  berg  saule  63  ;  of  \ere  mihte  79  ;  of  bere  wunde  83; 
on  bere  la3e  87;  on  bere  nihte  87  ;  of  bere  se  87  ;  on  J>«re  se  89  ; 
under  ]>ere  e  89  ;  on  ]>ere  boc  89  ;  wrSinne  bere  buruh  89  ;  mid  bere 
annesse  93  ;  to  pare  blisse  99  ;  on  bere  .  .  .  weorlde  135;  niid  ]>ere 
elmesse  137 — (dat.  sing.  fern.). 

be  cbircbe  9  ;  \a  blisse  7  ;  b«  wrake  9  ;  \a  sunne  2 1  ;  \a>  godnesse, 
be  elmesse,  \a  dedbote  23  ;  \eo  deopnesse  49  ;  b«  welle  41  ;  \>a  se  87  ; 
on  bo,  breoninesse  99;  bee-  elmesse  135;  be  sunne  143 — (ace.  sing, 

ouer  al  be  burh  3  ;  uppon  ba  fole  3  ;  ouer  pe  cbircbe  7  ;  on  \>a 
la3e  9  ;  into  J>e  beosteraesse  61  ;  et  be  dure  73  ;  ine  be  rode  147 — (ace. 
sing.  fern.). 

b«  apostles  3  ;  ba  men  27  ;  bi  b«  bonden  41  ;  ba  wepne  83  ;  ouer 
ba  apostles  93  ;  beo  men  31  ;  Keo  sterren  133  ;  bo  engles  63;  be 
saulen  41  ;  be  rapes  47,  51  ;  be  ureisuns  51  ;  be  apostles  89 — (nom. 
and  ace.  pi.). 

uppon  be  .  .  .  treowe  5  ;  bi  be  eyen  41;  of  be  sunnen  5 1  ;  ine  be  e^en, 
ine  be  eren  153  ;  mid  be  e^en  157 — (ace.  pi.). 

imundie  bera  appostlene  lare  89  ;  bere  apostlan  91  ;  burh  bere 
apostlene  muSe  133;  et  )>ere  apostlan  fotan  101  ;  bnrh  bere  clerkene 
muSe  133;  on  ^ere  monne  heorte  135;  ]>ere  heftene  monnan  heor- 
tan  95— (gen.  pi.). 

of  pan  floe  manna  3;  for  pan  deoflan  27  ;  et  pon  monnen  29  ; 
uppon  pan  treon  4  1  ;  of  pon  .  .  .  heSene  87  ;  to  pan  apostlan  91  ;  pain 
apostlam  91  ;  of  pon  apostlum  93  ;  bufan  pam  apostlas  95 — (dat.  pi.). 

(ii.)  pes,  beos,  bis  (this). 


Fern.  Neut. 

beos,  bos,  bas,  bis. 

bisse,  bissere,  bisser,2  pises. 

jnsse,  Jnssere,  |>isser,  pisse. 

beos,  bas,  bis. 


Masc.  Fern.  Neut. 
Nom.    bas,  beos,  bes,  bis. 
Gen.      bisse,  bissere. 
Dat.       bis-an,  bis-en,  bise,  bisse. 
Ace.      bas,  beos,  bes. 

>  For  )>ise  =  )>>is-en  =  \>is-um .  2  Sisser  occurs  in  the  N,  Gospels,  John  xx.  30. 







bisse,1  bese, 


bisne,  besne. 



\>es  put  49;  ]>es  mon  79,  81  ;  \>es  wreche  81  ;  \>es  prest  81  ;  pes 
diakne  81  ;  pes  dei  87 — (nom.  sing.  masc). 

hisses  deijes  97 — (gen.  sing.  masc). 

in  pisse  putte  51  ;  of  pisse  mon  81  ;  on  pisse  deie  89 — (dat.  sing, 
masc).  (If  'bi  'pis  mon,'  p.  83,  be  not  an  error  of  the  scribe  for  '  bi 
pisse  mon,'  we  have  an  instance  of  the  modern  form  of  '  this ' ;  cp. 
pis  putte  5 1 ). 

\>isne  lofsong  5  ;  pesne,  mon  27  ;  pesne  red  63 — (ace  sing.  masc). 

]>eos  world  is  7  ;  nis  pas  weorld  35  ;  ]>eos  elite  turned  53  ;  \>eos  tide 
is  89  ;  pos  godnesse  mihte  81  ;  pos  world  wende  81  ;  pas  wrake  is  15 
— (nom.  sing.  fern.). 

pisse  woreldes  35  ;  ]>isse  worlde  sarinesse  103  ;  ]>issere  sterke  worlde 
105 — (gen.  fem.). 

on  pissere  tid  91  ;  efter  pissere  bisnunge  93  ;  inne  pisse  \&ye  9  ; 
on  pisse  worlde  33,  89  ;  mid  pisse  fluhte  81 — (dat.  sing.  fem.). 

luue^  pas  muchele  prude  49  ;  he  erest  astalde  peos  woreld  19 — 
(ace  fem.). 

pas  da3es  be^  1 1  ;  wei'en  pas  )>reo  la3e  1  x  ;  pas  la3en  weren  1 5  ; 
hwet  bo^  pas  j>eues  79  ;  peos  weord  47  ;  peos  men  doS  49  ;  peos  wim- 
men  beo^  53  ;  pos  men  habbe^  53  ;  pos  word  65  ;  pos  blaca  tadden 
bitacne^  pes  riche  men  53 — (nom.  pi.). 

on  ]>isse  da^en  1 1  ;  of  ]>isse  limen  23  ;  of  pisse  )>inge  37,  73  ;  to 
pissan  .  .  .  3euan  99 — (dat.  pi.). 

ne  forswerie  \>re  pas  bebode  1 3  ;  pas  ruperes  and  pas  reueres  and 
pas  J>eues  \>u  a3est  luuan  15  ;  breke  pas  word  79  ;  of  pas  pinen  43  ; 
to  peos  weordes — (ace  pi.). 

pes  is  used  pronominally,  as  pes  mihte  speken  83. 


1.  The  hard  and  soft  (the  ancient  and  modern)  forms  of  the  1st 
person  are  seen  in  ic  and  ich,  of  which  another  variety  is  ih. 

Ic  occasionally  coalesces  with  mey  and  mot,  as  mahtic  31,  mostic  35. 

2.  The  1st  and  2nd  persons  have  a  dual  number,  as  wit,  we  two  ; 
•$it,  ye  two. 

3.  Some  new  forms  begin  to  make  their  appearance,  as  his,  I  (1.  223, 
p.  173) ;  ha,  she,  her,  they,  them  ;  hes,  them  ;  es,  is,  his,  her. 



4.  When  the  pronouns  are  used  reflectively  they  are  put  in  the 
dative  case. 

5.  Seolf  (self)  is  often  added  to  the  reflective  pronoun,  as  '  Ic  me 
seolf,'  =  I  myself.  The  reflective  pronoun  is  sometimes  omitted,  as 
'  Ic  seolf,'  =  I  (my)  self. 

Self  is  usually  declined  like  the  indefinite  adjective  ;  but  we  find 
seolf e  or  seolue  as  well  as  seolf ne  in  the  accusative,  while  the  dative 
singular  and  plural  -um  dwindles  down  to  -an  or  -en,  -e.  Cp.  hine 
seolfne,  hine  seolue  25  ;  hine  seolf e  29;  mide  gode  seoluan  107  ;  to 
him  seoluen,  mid  him  solue  61  ;  eow  seluen  35  ;  on  us  seluan  123. 

The  Personal  Pronouns  are  : — 

1st  Pers. 

Nom.  Ic,  ich,  ih3 

Gen.  min, 

Dat.  ine, 

Ace.  me, 


2nd  Pers. 


3rd  Pers. 



Fern.  Neut. 

heo,  hi,  ha,  hit. 

hire,  here,  his. 

hire,  him. 

heo,  hi,  ha,  \  ^ 

hine,  him,  j  ^o   In,  ha,  j 

'         '  I  es,  his,  J 

Dual.   Plural. 
Nom.  wit,    we. 
Gen.  ure. 

Dat.  us. 

Ace.     unc,    us. 





eower,  euwer. 
hine  (inc),     eow. 

Masc.  Fern,  and  Neut. 
hi,  heo,  ha. 
heore,  hore,  here. 
.  hem,  heom,  ham. 
hi,  heo,  hes,  heom,  ham,  ha2. 

The  Possessive  Pronouns  are  formed  from  the  genitive  case, 
those  of  the  1st  and  2nd  persons  being  declined  like  adjectives  of 
the  indefinite  declension,  while  those  of  the  third  are  indeclinable. 

Mi  and  ]>i  are  occasionally  found  for  min  and  pin. 

The  Relative  Pronouns  are— be=Se  (=A.S.  se£e),  be,  and  \et 
(or  pat). 

\>et  has  often  the  force  of  our  compound  relative  what : — '  he  wule 
herkien  pet  be  preost  him  lerS  on'  31. 

The  Interrogative  Pronouns  are  hwa  (who) ;  hioet  (hwat) ;  hioilc 
(which)  ;  liwi&er  (which  of  two,  whether). 

1  In  the  older  Homilies,  pp.  216-245,  we  have3te  =  ye  ;  3i«re=your  ;  3m  =  you. 

2  In  some  of  the  Midland  dialects  we  find  hise  as  the  plural  of  his. 


Masc.  and  Fern. 


Norn,     hwa, 

hwet  (hwat). 

Gen.      hwas, 


Dat.       hwem,  hwarn,  hwan, 

hwem,  hwam. 

Ace.       hwem,  hwam,  hwan, 

hwet  (hwat). 

The  Indefinite  Pronouns  are  me  (  =  A.  S.  man,  one  ;  cp.  Ger.  man, 
Fr.  on),  and  hwa,  who  (cp.  'as  ivho  says'),  as  in  the  phrase  ^if  hioa 
is,'  =  if  any  one  is,  9. 


Voice. — The  verbs  beon,  em,  and  weoiftan  are  employed  along  with 
the  perfect  (or  past)  participle  to  form  the  passive  voice. 

Mood. — There  are  four  moods  distinguished  by  inflection;  namely, 
the  Subjunctive,  Imperative,  Infinitive,  and  Indicative. 

Subjunctive  Mood. — The  present  subjunctive  has  frequently  the 
force  of  the  imperative.  Cp.  '  hwa  efre  benne  ilokie]  =  let  each  one 
then  observe,  47  ;  herien  we  =  let  us  praise ;  luuian  we  =  let  us 
love,  123. 

Imperative  Mood.  — Strong  verbs  have  no  inflexion  in  the  2nd 
person  imperative,  unless  the  root  ends  in  a  double  consonant,  which 
then  takes  a  final  -e. 

Weak  verbs  have  the  2nd  person  singular  in  -e  if  the  infinitive 
ends  in  -ien,  -ie,1  or  if  the  base  terminates  in  a  double  consonant. 

The  plural  imper.  ends  in  -e$>  (-aft,  -et),  or  in  -e  when  the  pronoun 
follows  the  verb. 

Infinitive  Mood. — The  infinitive  mood  ends  for  the  most  part  in 
-en  or  -an;  as,  milcian,  iverian,  luuan  15;  \enchen  15;  lokien  17. 
Sometimes  the  n  is  dropped,  as  fere  5,  hene  13,  wundie  15,  sawe2 

1  In  Saxon  English  the  2nd  imp.  sing,  of  verbs  in  -ian  terminated  in  -a,  of 
which  we  have  an  example  in  the  present  Homilies,  cp.  esca,  p.  35. 

2  In  the  older  Homilies  we  find  an  infinitive  in  -a,  habba,  221  :  cp.  'sile  him 
drinca,'  Peri  Didaxeon,  p.  128  ;  'seel  he  hobba?  p.  116.  In  the  Northumbrian 
Gospels  we  find  infinitives  in  -a  and  -e  :  cp.  gefraigne,  John  xvi.  19  ;  ivyrce,  John 
xv.  5. 


The  gerundial  or  dative  infinitive  usually  adds  -e  to  the  ordinary  in- 
finitive, as  hetiene  i  7  ;  but  we  have  many  instances  of  the  older  and 
fuller  form,  as  wurchenne  117. 

It  sometimes  takes  the  form  of  the  ordinary  infinitive ;  as,  he  him 
5efe:S  lutel  to  etene  and  lesse  to  drinke  147  ;  bet  is  to  under stondan 
127. ' 

We  find  it  taking  the  participial  inflexion  -hide,  as  '  to  swimminde,' 
for  'to  swimmenej1  51  ;  to  teolie7ide,=to  teoliene,  T33.2 

Participles. —  1.  The  imperfect  (or  present  participle)  ends  in  -ende 
(the  older  form),  or  in  -hide  (the  modern  form).3  The  earliest  in- 
stance of  participles  in  -hide  occurs  in  Peri  Didaxeon,  p.  84. 

2.  The  perfect  (or  past)  has  the  prefix  i-  (occasionally  y,-  or  hi-), 
except  in  verbs  commencing  with  the  following  prefixes  :  a-,  at-  (et-), 
bi-  (be-),  for-  (nor-),  of,  to-,  un-,  wi}>-. 

The  perfect  participles  of  strong  verbs  end  in  -en,  (Occasionally 
the  n  is  dropped,  as  in  La3amon's  Brut.  Cp.  inume  140  ;  ifalle  149  ; 
mr&erfonge  149;  )>urhstonge  151). 

The  perfect  participles  of  weak  verbs  terminate  in  -ed,  -d,  -t. 

Indicative  Mood. — The  present  tense  has  often  the  force  of  the 
future.  Shall  (seal)  is  not  alwajrs  a  sign  of  the  future  tense,  but  must 
often  be  rendered  must,  ought,  should. 

1.  Present  Tense. — The  1st  pers.  sing,  ends  in  -e,  the  2nd  in  -est 
(-ast),  3rd  in  -e%  (-«$,  -et).  The  plural  1st,  2nd,  3rd  ends  in  -e£  (-«$, 
-et),  or  in  -e  when  the  pronoun  follows  the  verbs. 

Verbs  ending  in  -d  or  -t  have  -t  for  -dd%  or  -teft,  as  bit,  bids,  asks ; 
fret,  eats  ;  hat,  commands  ;  halt,  holds. 

2.  Past  Tense. — A  past  emphatic  is  sometimes  formed  by  gan,  gon 
=  did. 

The  past  tense  1st  and  3rd  sing,  of  weak  verbs  tenninate  in  -ede 
(-ode,  -ode),  -de,  -te.  Strong  verbs  form  the  past  tense  by  change  of 
the  root  vowel. 

The  2nd  pers,  sing,  of  weak  verbs  ends  in  -est.  In  strong  verbs  the 
inflexion  is  -e. 

1  In  the  Lindisfarne  Gospels  we  find  losige  =  losanne,  Mark  i.  24. 

2  This  corruption  is  very  common  in  the  Northumbrian  Gospels. 

3  In  the  fourteenth  century  participles  in  -inde  are  a  very  good  mark  of  a 
Southern  dialect. 



The  plural  ends  in  -en  (-uri).     Some  strong  verbs  have  a  change  of 
vowel  in  the  preterite  plural,  as — 

Past  sing,  band,  past  pi.  bunden. 
„  „  sang,  „  „  sungen. 
„       „      swam,    „     „    swummen. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  the  strong  forms  in  the  present  Homilies, 
pp.  1-183,  216-245:— 

Present  Tense. 

Past  Tense 

Past  Plural. 

Perfect  Participle. 


ber  39,  131, 

i-boren  7,  33. 


abelh  1 1 1 . 


i-boi'3en  171,  169. 


beot  121. 


i-bide,    "1 

i-bad  35. 


bed  85, 

i-beden  45. 

fi-bunden  7. 
1  3e-bunden  3. 


bond  79, 

bunden  121, 

Li-bunde  69. 


fblou  75. 
•i  a-bleow  99. 


a-brea^  219, 

235,     .     .     .     . 

a-broden  239. 


brec  19,  79, 

i-broken  83. 


bu3en  91,  2: 


a-bii3e,   f 

fa-beh  45. 
1  a-beah  227. 

•     •     •     • 


ceose,     ""i 

fiches  97. 
[jecas  235, 

i-coren  45,  55. 

a-ceose,  J 

a-ceas  229, 

i-core  7 1 . 


to-chan  141. 

.     .     .     . 


i-cnawen  137,  169 


com  5, 

•     •     • 

i-cumen  1 19. 
fi-que^en  161, 


cweS  3, 


<,  i-cwede  269. 
Licwe^en  103. 



i-dolven  49. 




idre3en  51. 


Present  Tense. 










under- fo,  j 

















Past  Tense. 

fet  231.  ~] 
)  seat  233.  >■ 
laet.  J 

ffeol  61,  79. " 

feoll  93. 

fol  223. 

uol  61. 

Past  Plural. 

Perfect  Participle. 

fond  139,  141, 

fflehSi,  1 
juleh  79,  J 

underfeng  73  91, 

flu3en  129. 

gef  i7,  75,] 

3iaf2  23,     j 

bi-gon  43, 
glad  91. 

heold  9, 

bet  5,  97,  hebt  11, 
abef  1 1 3. 

help  79, 
lei  33,81. 

bi-falle  149. 
for-faren  141. 

f  i-funden  35. 
^i-funde  69. 

bi-fongen  1 5  f . 
underfonge  149. 
unfoi'-3olden  41. 
bi-3eten  29,  35. 
a-3even  31. 
i-3even  83. 
i-3efen  79. 
for^euen  37. 
on-gunnen  89,     bi-gunne  77. 

i-halden  87. 
3e-balden  229. 
a-bonge  41. 

i-baten,  i-hate   3, 
49>  97- 

for-bolen  165. 
i-bolpen  81. 

i-lo3en  9 1 . 

Present  Tense, 







a- rise, 



gescape,  j 












stinge,  i 


Jjurh-stinge,    I 

Past  Tense.  Past  Plural. 

.     .     .     .       for-lureno3, 129, 
for- let  15,  .... 

be-leac  225,  .... 

be-lamp  219. 

nom  31, 

3e-nam  223, 
rad  3. 

aras  123, 
[sow  161, 
\seow  133, 

scop  165, 

i-scope  77,  129, 

3escop  2 1 9, 


scean  .43. 

scriven  2 

sell  123, 

seh  121. 

set  5. 

SI03  39. 

slep  223. 

smat  141. 
fspec  73, 

a -sprang  227, 

sungen  7 


sprangen  141, 

stnrfe  233. 


Perfect  Participle, 
for-lore  71. 
for-loren  21. 
for-leten  151. 
i-loken  14  r. 
be-locen  231. 
i-lnmpen  93. 

i-numen  29,  33. 
i-nnme  149. 

a-risen  141. 
3e-sawen  24 r. 

1-sceapen  219. 
3e-sceapen  219. 

i-scrifen  27. 
i-scouen  129. 
i-se3en  87,  93. 

i-speken  5  1 . 

i-sprunge  171. 
i-stolen  31. 

i-stungen  121. 
f})urb-stongen  121, 
<  J)urb-stunge  149. 
L)>urh-stungen  147. 



Present  Tense.                Past  Tense. 

Past  Plural. 

Perfect  Participle. 

Sti3e,      "~l 

sti3en  5,115. 

a-sti3e.    j 

f  asteh  17. 
1  astah  91,  229. 


stod  47, 

i-stonde  47. 


swealt  225. 

for  swe^e, 

for-swealh  123. 

swice,      "1 

be-swice,  i 

be-swicen  229. 


ge-sweac  223, 

i-swicon  227. 


swam  51, 

swummen  129. 


a-swond  133. 

teo,         ") 

teh  129, 

i-to3en  31. 

bi-teo,     J 

bi-to3en  31,  107 
fi-]>ungen  107. 


[i-J)03en  107. 


.     .     .     . 

.     .     .     . 

i-jjorschen  85. 


f  wesch  7  9, 
pvosch  157,  J 

3e-wasse  239. 



f~a-wesscen  37. 
1  un-iwasse  237. 


wex  241, 

3e-  waxen  13. 


fweop  43- 
|wop  157. 



Twerp  129. 
1  warp  4 1 , 

i-warpen  143. 


bi-wunden  51. 


bi-won  41. 

.     .     .     . 

.     .     .     . 


i-wat  93. 

write,     "1 

wrat  13,  75, 

writen  75, 

3e-writen  1 1 . 

a -write,  J 

a-wrat  87, 

i-writen  1 1 . 


i-wra^  123. 


yrne,     1 
eorne,     f 

urnen  3. 


Negative  Forms  : — nam,  am  not ;  wis,  is  not ;  nes,  was  not ;  nefde, 
had  not ;  nulle,  will  not ;  nalde,  would  not ;  nuten,  know  not ;  nast, 
knowest  not ;  nusten,  knew  not. 



Indie,  pres.  sing,  ah,  ay,  ought ;  2nd,  a$e,  a^est ;  3rd,  ah  ;  pi.  a%en. 
Past  ahte. 

Inf.  beon,  be. — Indie,  pres.  sing.  1st,  beo  ;  3rd,  bv6 ;  pi.  1st,  2nd, 
3rd,  becfe.     p.  p.  ibeon,  ibon. 

Inf.  cunnen,  be  able. — Indie,  pres.  sing.  3rd,  con  ;  pi.  cunnen.  Past 
sing,  cw^e  ;  pi.  ci&en.     p.  p.  ictfe. 

Indie,  pres.  sing.  1  st,  der,  dare  ;  2nd,  derst ;  3rd,  </er.  Past  sing. 
durste,  pi.  dursten. 

Inf.  cftm,  do;  ger.  donne.  —  Indie,  pres.  sing.  1st,  e?o;  2nd,  dest ; 
3rd,  c/e$  ;  pi.  dd&.     Past  sing.  t/ec/e,  dide,  dude  ;  pi.  duden.    p.  p.  tcfow. 

Indie,  pres.  sing.  1st,  em;  2nd,  ei't,  eart ;  3rd, is.  Past  sing,  wes, 
pi.  weren. 

Inf.  grem,  </om. — Indie,  pres.  sing,  ist,  go  ;  2nd,  gest,  gast ;  3rd.  (/as, 
geS  ;  pi.  <7c#>.     Past.  sing,  eode,  pi.  eoden.     Imp.  (/crS.    p.  p.  rgw*. 

Indie,  pres.  sing.  1st,  mei,  may;  2nd,  miht,  maht,  meht ;  3rd,  mei ; 
pi.  ma$en,  mu$en.  Past  sing,  ist  and  3rd,  mahte,  mehte,  mihte ;  2nd, 
mihtest,  mahtest. 

Indie,  pres.  sing,  ist,  ??io£,  must,  may ;  2nd,  most;  3rd,  too<;  pi. 
moten.     Past  sing,  moste,  muste. 

Indie,  pres.  sing,  ist,  seal,  sceal ;  2nd,  scalt,  scealt ;  pi.  ist,  sctden, 
sceolen,  scule.  Past  sing,  ist  and  3rd,  sculde,  sceolde,  scolde ;  2nd, 
scoldest ;  pi.  scolden,  sadden,  scolde. 

Indie,  pres.  sing.  3rd,  \erf,  need  ;  pret.  \>er/te. 

Indie,  pres.  sing,  ist,  wat ;  2nd,  toast;  3rd,  wat ;  pi.  witen.  Past, 

Indie.  pi*es.  sing,  ist,  wille, watte;  2nd,  undt,  wilt;  3rd,  wile, wide ; 
pi.  vjulleS.     Past  sing,  walde. 


1 .  Adverbs  are  formed  from  adjectives  by  the  suffix  -e,  as  so%,  true  ; 
sofee,  truly. 

Adverbs  in  -fo'ce  or  -liche  are  formed  from  adjectives  in  -lie  or  -fo'c/u. 
Occasionally  -luker  is  found  in  the  comparative  and  -lukest  in  the 
superlative  degree. 

2.  The  suffix  -tim  is  for  the  most  part  attenuated  to  -e,  as  selde  = 
seldom,  and  hwile  =  formerly,  whilom  ;  one,  alone  ;  foi^Se,  even. 

3.  In  Lajamon's  Brut  a    final  n  is  often  added  to  adverbs  in  e, 



as  ino^en  =  ino^e,  enough.     We  have  examples  of  this  in  heren,  here, 
29  ;  and  twi^en,  twice,  37. 

4.  To  adverbs  in  -en  (-on)  an  e  is  sometimes  added,  as  heonen-e, 

5.  Of  adverbs  in  -es  (genitival)  we  find  alles,  altogether,  103  ;  deies 
and  nihtes,  by  day  and  by  night,  7  >  cuces,  lives,  alive,  225;  ponkes, 
freely,  willingly,  2 1  ;  un]>onkes,  unwillingly,  1 7  ;  tmwaldes,  accident- 
ally, 23. 

The  following,  although  in  -es,  are  from  older  forms  in  -e,  as 
alrihtes,  133;  perihtes,  immediately,  forthwith,  33  ;  alunges,  altogether, 
31  ;  enes,  once  ;  anundes,  anent,  55  ;  togederes,  together,  81  ;  upwardes 
59  ;  twies  227. 

6.  Compound  adverbs  are  formed  by  the  prefix  on-,  an-,  or  a-,  as 
on-imis,  amiss ;  on-ende,  lastly ;  abac,  adun,  ariht,  anon ;  mid,  as 
mid  iwisse,  with  certainty,  certainly. 

7.  A  pet,for-to,  until,  23,  119,  are  used  instead  of  the  older  d'S-pozt. 

8.  Wet  or  ivat  1 1  is  used  for  '  while,' '  as  long  as  :'  cp.  huet,  until,  in 
Ayenbite  of  Inwyt,  p.  52,  1.  13. 

9.  Swa  and  alswa  become  se,  alse  (whence  by  dropping  of  I  our  as, 
O.  E.  ase). 

10.  pes  is  used  before  comparatives,  as  pes  pe  mare  5. 


1.  In  the  present  Homilies  prepositions  have  the  same  government 
as  in  the  earliest  stage  of  the  language  :  cp.  in  pane  castel  3  ;  o^ein 
jjene  castel  7  ;  ]>urh  jjene  halie  gast  7  ;  wv&  o^erne  1 9  ;  uppon  pa 
assa  5  ;  ^eond  pa  eorSe  9 1 ;  of  J?ere  burh  5  ;  toward  )>are  burh  3  ;  Jor 
jjere  saule  9  ;  et  pan  $ete  5  ;  mid  \>ere  e  9. 

2.  Prepositions  that  formerly  ended  in  -an,  now  terminate  in  -an, 
-a,  -en  or  -e ;  as,  biforan  15,  89,  in;  bufan  95;  innan  27,  43; 
bitwihan  37  ;  wi¥>inna  43  ;  wiftinnan  95;  butan  95,  ioij  anuppon 
42;  abuten  n,  43;  biuoren  5;  ivvSinnen  25,  413  bi-eften  39; 
bitwenen  41;  etforen  41;  bihinden  53;  6w£ew  89;  buuen,  binopen, 
165  ;  a&Mfe  23  ;  mwe  27  ;  fotte  43  ;  anuppe  133  ;  bitwene  65,  141 ; 
wi^ffe  83  j  wifiinne  89. 

3.  Betweox  becomes  bitivuxe  105,  bitwixen  115,  bitwixan  25, 
bitwuxan  91. 


4.  0\e,  i\e,  occurs  for  on  \e,  in  \>e,  79,  85. 

5.  \urh  and  \uruh,  through  and  thorough,  99. 


We  have  many  of  the  older  forms  still  in  use ;  as,  ev&er  30  .  .  .  $e 
=  both  .  .  .  and,  23  ;  ncnvSer  .  .  .  ne  =  neither  .  .  .  nor,  9  ;  swa  .  . 
swa  =  so  .  .  .as,  31.  (Cp.  alse  .  .  .  alse;  alse  .  .  .  se;  swa  .  .  .  alse ; 
alswa  .  .  .  se;  swa  .  .  .  se,  15,  49,  51,  153,  159). 

hwat  .  .  .  hioat  =  both.  .  .  .  and,  145;  v&er  .  .  .  a&er  =  or  ...  or ; 
ne  .  .  .  ne  =  nor  .  .  .  nor  ;  \>a  hwelper,  nevertheless,  37  ;  no^eles,  nathe- 
less,  23;  \>e,  oi-,  149;  \e,  than,  133;  to-hwon,  for-hwon,  forhwet, 
wherefore,  81,  85,  165;  for-^Si,  because;  for-hwi,  wherefore  ;  swilce, 
as  if,  41  ;  uri)>-\>et,  provided,  3. 

Ac  often  becomes  ah  ;  while  \ah,  peh,  though,  becomes  ]>ach,  \>ech. 


As  I  have  already  stated,  there  are  some  grammatical  peculiarities 
in  the  Wohung  and  the  other  treatises  contained  in  the  Cotton  MS. 
Titus  D  18,  which  we  do  not  find  in  the  oldest  MSS.  of  the  Ancren 
Riwle  ;  or,  in  other  words,  there  is  an  intrusive  element  that  has  been 
introduced  by  the  transcriber  of  the  Cotton  MS.,  and  which  furnishes, 
as  one  might  expect,  some  clue  to  the  dialect  in  which  the  treatise  is 

In  the  Ancren  Riwle  the  plurals  of  the  present  indicative  end  in  -eth  ; 
but  in  the  Wohung  we  have,  in  addition,  plurals  in  -en,  pointing  to 
a  Midland  dialect;  as  winnen  273,  singen,  Jlhten,  275,  reden  277, 
hauen  281,  driuen,  habben,  eken,  leden,  283. 

In  the  Ancren  Riwle  the  inflexions  of  the  present  singular  are 
2nd  -est,  3rd  -eth ;  but  in  the  Wohung  we  have  frequently  2nd  -es, 
3rd  -es  : — ne  wrehes  tu  ]>e  nawt  .  .  .  bote  longe  abides,  &c,  275; 
Jji  derue  dea^  o  rode  telles  riht  in  al  mi  luue,  calenges  al  mi  heorte,  275. 

1  pp.  268-287. 


These  forms,  taken  with  the  plurals  in  -en,  indicate  a  West  Midland 

In  the  Preface  to  Alliterative  Poems  I  have  shown  that  the  West 
Midland  dialect  terminated  the  2nd  pers.  sing,  past  indie,  of  weak 
verbs  in  -es  instead  of  -est  (the  Northumbrian  dialect  drops  the  in- 
flexion), and  of  this  we  have  numerous  examples  : — '  pu  modes  al  J>is 
werld  and  dides  hit  under  mine  fet  and  mahedes  me  lauedi,'  &c.  271. 

Like  the  fourteenth-century  compositions  in  this  dialect  the  Wohung 
has  numerous  Northern  forms  : — 

1 .  Strong  verbs  drop  all  inflexion  in  the  2nd  pers.  past  indie. : 
]m  com  me  to  h.elpe,feng  to  fihte,  p.  277.  (See  Preface  to  Genesis  and 

2.  Imperfect  (or  present)  participles  end  in  -ande  ;  see  p.  277. 

3.  The  prefix  i-  is  dropped  in  the  perfect  (or  past)  participle ;  see 
p.  285. 

4.  I  occurs  frequently  for  ich,  p.  269  ;  ]>ai,  tai  for  heo  (they) ;  see 
p.  283. 

5.  Adjectives  and  adverbs  end  in  -li  and  like,  see  pp.  269,  273,  279, 
283.  (See  Preface  to  Genesis  and  Exodus.) 

6.  In  the  Wohung  we  find_/ra,  from,  p.  271  ;  and  in  other  parts  of 
the  Titus  MS.  D  18  we  find  hethen,  thethen  =  hence,  thence,  &c. 





I.  The  Simple  or  n  Declension,  (p.  xxi.) 

i.  In  our  Homilies  we  find  oblique  cases  in  -a  and  -e  caused  by 
the  falling  away  of  n  from  older  forms,  in  -an,  -en. 

This  change  commenced  before  1 150,  and  we  find  traces  of  it  in 
the  Lindisfarne  and  Rushworth  Gospels,  as  well  as  in  the 
latter  part  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle. 

2.  Instead  of  -a,  -e  the  Northumbrian  Gospels  substitute  -0  -u.1 

3.  In  the  present  Homilies  we  have  only  one  example  of  the  sub- 

stitution of  the  genitival  -es  for  -a,  -e  (  =  -an,  -en),  in  lichomes, 
a  noun  of  the  masculine  gender ;  but  in  the  Northumbrian 
Gospels  -es  frequently  replaces  the  genitive  suffixes  -a,  -e  in 
nouns  of  all  genders. 

4.  No  examples  of  plurals  in  -es  for  -a,  -e  {-an,  -en)  occur  in  our 

Homilies,  but  here  again  the  Northumbrian  Gospels  and  the 
latter  part  of  the  Saxon  Chronicle  exhibit  a  tendency  to  adopt 
the  inflexion  of  masculine  nouns  of  the  complex  order  in  pre- 
ference to  the  ordinaiy  form  of  the  n  declension. 

5.  The  following  table  may  be  compared  with  that  on  p.  xxii.  of  the 

present  work  : — 


Masc.  Fern,  and  Neut. 

Nom.  -a,  -0,  -u,  -e,  -e. 

Gen.  -a,  -0,  -u,  -e,  -es  (-as). 

Dat.  -a,  -0,  -u,  -e,  -e. 

Ace.  -a,  -0,  -u,  -e,  -e. 

1  This  substitution  is  found  in  adjectives,  verbs,  and  adverbs. 





and  Neut. 




-a,  -o,  -u,  -e, 

-es  (-as). 


-ana,  -a. 


-a,  -o,  -u,  -e, 



-a,  -o,  -u,  -e, 

-es  (as). 

Examples  of  the  First  Form. 
(i.)  SINGULAR. 

N"om. — sterra  Matt.  ii.  9  ;  lichoma  Matt.  v.  29  ;  willo  Matt.  vi.  10 ; 

geleafo  Matt.  ix.  22;  ego  Matt,  xviii.  9 ;  eorSo  Matt.  v.  1 8  ; 

eor^Su  Matt.  ii.  6  ;  witge  Matt.  xiii.  57. 
Gen. — licJioma  Matt.  vi.  25;   geleafa  (L.  and  R.)  Matt.  viii.  26; 

hearta  Matt.  xii.  34  ;  w%o  Matt.  xii.  39,  Luke  xvi.  16,  xi. 

29;  eorHo  Matt.  xii.  42,  xvii.   25;  witgu  (R.)  Matt.  v.   13, 

x.  41  ;  eorftu  Pref.  to  Matt.  (eel.  Kemble)  p.  14,  Matt.  v.  13  ; 

eorSe  (R.)  Matt.  xii.  40,  42. 
Dat. — hearta  Matt.  v.  28,  xii.  40;  noma  Matt.  vii.  22  ;  eor6a  (R.) 

John  vi.  21  ;  ego  Matt.  vii.  5  ;  witgo  Matt.  xxiv.  15  ;  eorSw 

John  xxi.  8,  Matt.  (R.)  ii.  20;  eor&e  John  vi.   21,  Matt.  xii. 

1 5  ;  /o/e  John  xii.  1 5  ;  ege  (R.)  Matt.  vii.  5  ;  cirice  Matt.  xiii. 

17  ;  heorte  (R.)  Matt.  xii.  30,  33. 
Ace. — noma  Matt.  i.  25  ;   steorra  Matt.  ii.  2  ;   neddra  (R.)  Matt. 

vii.  10  ;  lichoma  Matt.  x.  28  ;  cirica  Matt,  xviii.  17,  Luke  vii. 

5  ;  fola  (R.)  Mark  xi.  4,  5,  7  ;  w?%o  Matt.  ii.  5,  iii.  3  ;  eorSo 

Matt.  v.  4,  x.  29;  oxo  Luke  xv.  23;  witgu  (R.)  Matt.  ii.  5, 

iii.  2,  viii.  17,  x.   41  ;  eorSw.  (R.)  Matt.  v.  4;  culfre,  culfrai 

Matt.  iii.    16;  t«%e  Matt.  ii.   17,  x.  41,  xiv.  5;  eorSe  Matt. 

ii.  20  ;  neddre  Matt.  vii.  10. 

(ii.)  PLURAL. 

Nom.  and  Ace. — mtga  Matt.  ii.  23,  xxi.  26  ;  noma  Matt.  x.  2, 
xxiii.  23;  wedra  (R.)  x.  16;  cw£/m  (R.)  x.  16,  xxi.  12; 
heorta  (R.)  Mark  vi.  52  ;  w%o  Matt.  v.  12,  xiii.  7  ;  ego  Matt. 
ix.  29,  30;  nedro  Matt.  x.  16,  Mark  xvi.  18;  sido  Mark  i.  6, 


Matt,  iii.  4  ;  wikju  (R.)  Matt.  ii.  23,  xiii.  17  ;  culfre  Matt.  x. 

16,  John  (R.)  ii.  13  ;  witge  Luke  xiii.  34. 
Bat. — heorta  (heorto)  Mark  ii.  8,  iv.  15;   uritgo  Luke  xxiv.  44; 

eare  Luke  xii.  2. 
67ett. — nedrana  Matt.  xii.  34  ;  witgana  Luke  xi.  50  ;  weala  (and 

wealana)  Mark  iv.  9  ;  a'rica  Pref.  to  Matt.  (ed.  Kemble)  p.  9. 

Examples  of  the  Second  Form. 

(i.)  SINGULAR. 

Gen. — sterres  Matt.  xii.  7  ;  eor^es  Matt.  v.  1 3,  xii.  40  ;  brydgumes 
Matt.  ix.  15  ;  witges  Matt.  x.  41,  Luke  iv.  17  ;  heartes  Matt, 
xix.  8,  Luke  xvi.  14  ;  tunges  Mark  vii.  35  ;  lichomes,  lichomces 
John  i.  13,  ii.  21  ;  lichomas  Matt.  xiii.  2,  Pref.  to  Matt.  p.  15  ; 
gelea/as  Luke  xii.  29. 

(ii.)  PLURAL. 

Nom.  and  Ace. — stearras  Matt.  xxiv.   29,  Mark  xiii.  25  ;   culfras 

Mark  xi.  15,  Luke  ii.  24  ;  witgas  Matt.  vii.  12. 
In  the  Saxon  Chronicle  (ed.  Earle)  we  find  nadres,  p.  262  ;  sterres 
260 ;  swikes  261. 

II,  Feminine  Nouns  (Complex  Order). 

Division  II. — Classes  i.  and  ii.  (xxvii.) 

The  genitive  singular  of  feminine  nouns  of  the  complex  order  in 
our  Homilies  terminates  in  -e,  but  in  the  Lindisfarne  Gospels  we  often 
find  -es,  as  cehtnisses  Pref.  to  Matt.  p.  14;  witigunges  ibid.  p.  183 
hreonisses  Mark  i.  4  ;  nedles  Mark  x.  25  ;  saules  Matt.  vi.  25,  Mark 
viii.  36;  costunges  Mark  xiii.  19;  helles  Matt.  xvi.  18.1 

The  plural  (nom.  and  ace.)  of  these  nouns  in  our  Homilies  ends  in 
-e  (-a),  but  in  the  Lindisfarne  Gospels  -as  (-es)  occurs  frequently 
instead  of  the  older  forms ;  cp.  burgas  Matt.  ix.  34,  Mark  v.  13  (R.) ; 
ebolusungas  Mark  iii.  28;  lustgiamisses  Mark  iv.  19;  smeaungas 
Luke  xi.  17. 

1  The  Rushworth  text  has  the  ordinary  suffix  -e  in  all  these  examples. 


In  the  Saxon  Chronicle  (eel.  Earle)  we  find  pines  p.  262  ;  shines 
p.  263. 

III.  Neuter  Nouns  (Complex  Order). 

Division  I. — Class  i.  (p.  xxx.) 

In  our  Homilies  this  class  of  nouns  has  either  no  inflexion  in  the 
plural,  as  in  Saxon  English  (singular  hus,  plural  hus),  or  forms  the 
plural  in  -es,  as  singular  wif,  plural  wifes. 

In  Gothic  we  find  plural  forms  in  -a,  as  worda,  &c,  which  are 
certainly  older  than  the  0.  E.  forms  word,  &c. 

In  the  Lindisfarne  Gospels  we  find  traces  of  the  older  form  in 
the  following  examples  : — worda,  wordo  Mark  xiii.  31,  Luke  i.  65, 
xxi.  3;  husa,  huso  Mark  x.  30,  Luke  xvi.  19;  >6ingo  Mark  v.  26, 
x.  32  ;  londo  Mark  x.  29  ;  hnetta,  netto  Mark  i.  16,  19  ;  wifo  Mark 
xv.  40  ;  cildo  Luke  xviii.  15  ;  suino  Luke  xv.  15  ;  scipo  Markxiv.  27. 

A  few  nouns  of  this  class  form  the  plural  in  -es  (-as),  as  cildes, 
cildas,  Pref.  to  Matt.  p.  14.1 

Neuters  belonging  to  Class  ii.  (p.  xxxi.)  in  our  Homilies  form  the 
plural  in  (1)  -e,  -a,  -en,  (2)  -es ;  in  the  Northumbrian  Gospels  we  find 
plurals  in  (1)  -a,  -0,  (2)  -es  (-as): — fato  Mark  iii.  27;  tacnas  Pref. 
to  Matt.  p.  ii. ;  seatlas  Mark  xi.  1 5,  Luke  xx.  46  ;  nestas  and  nesto 
Matt.  viii.  20. 

IV.  Masculine  Nouns  (Complex  Order). 

Division  III. — Class  ii.  (p.  xxix.) 

In  the  Northumbrian  Gospels  we  find  an  occasional  plural  in  -es 
(-as)  instead  of  a  vowel-ending,  as  diobles  Matt.  iv.  24 ;  diablas  Mark  i. 
34,  39  ;  freondas  Luke  vii.  6  ;  fiondas  Matt.  v.  44. 

Stems  in  r  frequently  remain  uninflected  in  the  plural,  as  broker 
Matt.  iv.  21,  xii.  45,  46  ;  braSor  Luke  xiv.  12,  26,  xvi.  28  ;  swoester, 
swester  (L.  and  R.)  Matt.  xiii.  56;  Luke  xiv.  26  (R.) ;  lombor  (R.) 
Luke  x.  3  (L.  has  lombro). 

In  the  genitive  singular  the  r  stems  for  the  most  part,  in  the  oldest 
period  of  the  language,  remained  uninflected,  but  in  the  Northumbrian 

1  husas,  hnses  occurs  in  Saxon  Chronicle  (ed.  Earle),  p.  246. 


Gospels  we  find  the  genitive  in  -es,  as  brc&res  Matt.  xiv.  3  ;  /adores 
Matt.  xxvi.  29  ;  modres  Matt.  xix.  12. 

In  the  Northumbrian  Psalms  we  have  calfur  as  a  genitive  singular — 
'in  gelicnisse  calfur' =  in  similitudinem  vituli  (Ps.  cv.  20):  this 
form  demands  a  nominative  singular  in  -er,  and  I  have  no  doubt  that 
in  the  Northumbrian  dialect  lomber1  (lombor),  cilder,  cegger,  ccdfer 
were  treated  as  stems  in  -er,  the  r  being  no  part  of  the  plural 

The  chief  points  to  be  noticed  in  the  declension  of  nouns  in  the 
Northumbrian  Gospels  are  (1)  a  tendency  (earlier  than  is  generally 
supposed)  to  adopt  a  uniform  inflexion  for  the  genitive  case  singular 
and  for  the  plural  of  nouns  (nom.  and  ace.  cases)  in  conformity  with 
modern  usage;  (2)  the  loss  of  plurals  in  -n  ;  (3)  a  tendency  to 
adopt  the  suffix  -ana  as  the  genitive  plural  for  all  nouns.  Cp. 
treuana  Matt.  iii.  9;  %eqfana  Mark  xi.  17;  fscana  Luke  v.  9; 
tofcana  Luke  xiii.  28. 


1.  The  definite  form  of  the  Adjective  conforms  very  closely  to  the 
n  declension  of  nouns:  cp.  se  blinde  Matt.  x.  51,  Mark  x.  50;  Sa3s 
heista  Mark  v.  7,  Luke  viii.  28 ;  ^aes  blinda  (Pi.)  Mark  viii.  23  ;  ^jes 
heiste  Luke  vi.  35;  Sone  blinde  Mark  x.  49;  Sone  stronga  Matt. 
xii.  29  ;  ^one  blindu  (R.)  Mark  x.  49 ;  Sone  blinda  Luke  vi.  39  ; 
$one  neesta  Mark  xii.  31,  ^one  nestu  (R.) ;  Ssem  niua  Luke  v.  36  • 
'Ssem  unclaine  Luke  viii.  29  ;  ^ara  neoive  gewitnisse  Matt.  xxvi.  28  ■ 
in  ¥a  Tiesto  lond  Mark  i.  38;  Sa  celdesto  Mark  xi.  27;  ¥>&  forma 
Matt,  xxiii.  6  ;  la  blindo  Matt,  xxiii.  19  ;  Sa  cerestu  Matt.  xx.  10  (R.)  • 
in  ¥>a  eco  huso  Luke  xvi.  9. 

We  have  instances  of  the  indefinite  instead  of  the  definite  in  Matt, 
viii.  23,  %ces  blindes  ;  >6cem  Icetmestum  wrS  Kami  forKmcestum  Matt.  xx. 
8,  Mark  viii.  23. 

2.  In  the  indefinite  declension  the  dative  singular  masculine  -um 
frequently  becomes  -e,  as  'in  gast  unclcene'  =  in  gaste  unclcenum  (R.) 
Mark  v.  2;  and  *6isse,  -a  is  often  put  for  ^isum.  (See  Lindisfarne 
Gospels,  ed  Waring,  p.  exxiii.) 

1  lomber,  a  lamb,  occurs  in  the  Exeter  Book. 


In  the  dative  feminine,  as  in  our  Homilies,  the  -r  often  falls  away, 
as  stefne  micla  Luke  viii.  28,  Luke  xix.  37  ;  stefne  miclo  Mark  iv.  7  ; 
mid  micelo  fyrhto  Mark  iv.  41. 

3.  In  the  nominative  and  accusative  plural  we  find  -0,  -e,  as  dumbo, 
blindo,  healto,  unhale,  Matt.  xv.  30. 

4.  Occasionally  we  get  a  plural  in  -s,  as  tuoege  blindas  for  twcegen 
blinde,  Pref.  to  Matt.  p.  18,  Matt.  xx.  29. 

I  take  the  present  opportunity  of  calling  the  attention  of  Members 
of  the  Early  English  Text  Society  to  a  convenient  little  treatise  on 
Early  English  Dialects,  entitled  'Some  Notes  on  the  leading  Gram- 
matical Characteristics  of  the  principal  Early  English  Dialects,'  by 
Wm,  T.  P.  Sturzen-Becker,  Ph.D.  The  author  has  done  me  the 
honour  to  adopt  my  classification  and  to  accept  my  statements  on  all 
points  of  dialectical  differences,  but  has  added  nothing  to  our  previous 
knowledge  of  the  subject.  The  little  work,  however,  will  be  found 
useful  on  account  of  its  arrangement  and  numerous  illustrations. 








I.    IN   DOMINICA   PALMARUM       .... 



VI.    PATER    NOSTER     ...... 

VII.    CREDO  ....... 


IX.    IN    DIE    PENTECOSTEN  ..... 


XIII.  SERMO    IN   EPIST.    2    AD   CORINTH.    IX.    6 


XV.    SERMO    IN   MARCUM   VIII.    34 

XVI.    ESTOTE    FORTES    IN    BELLO     .... 

XVII.    SERMO    IN    PS.    CXXVI.    6 
XVIII.    POEMA   MORALE  ...... 
















XXIV.    DE    INITIO    CREATURE  .  .     -        . 

XXV.   AN   BISPEL  ........ 

XXVI.    INDUITE   UOS   ARMATURA   DEI         ..... 

XXVII.    DOMINICA    IIII.    POST    PENTECOSTEN         .... 

XXVIII.    HER   BIGINE^  :     SAWLES   WARDE   ..... 



III.    ROYAL    MS.    17    A    27,    FOL.    70       . 


P.    21.  1.    6.     For  swiclne  read  swilcne. 
P.    85.  1.  29.     For  ut  read  us. 
P.  129.  1.    3.     For  at  reads}. 
P.  247.  side-note  3.     For  murS  read  nurS. 
side-note  13.     Dele  horn. 


P.      8.  1.  22.     For  may  read  need. 

P.     16.  1.     1.     For  might  read  canst. 

Pp.  16,  22,  28,  34.  56.  11.  33,  36,  3,  17,  55.   For  mightest  read  mayest. 

P.    26.  1.  26.     For  perishes  read  draw. 

For  if  were  it  mine  read  though  it  should  be  mine. 

Read  ever  before  with. 

For  feather -footed  read  four-footed. 

Cry  aloud.     See  Notes  and  Emendations. 

For  embers  read  live  coals. 

Dele  more. 

For  love  read  thus  love. 

Christ.     See  Notes  and  Emendations. 
Read  sins  and  misdoings  against  us. 




































P.    84.  1.    7  from  bottom.     For  man  read  men. 

P.    86.  1.  13.     Dele  again. 

P.     88.  1.  15.     For  apostle's  read  apostles'. 

P.    94.  1.    9  from  bottom.     For  shall  remove  read  must  restrain. 

P.  128.  1.    2.     For  draweth  read  drew. 

„       1.  25.     For  forsook  read  disregarded. 

„       1.  34.     For  three  read  four. 
P.  134.  1.    6.     For  seed  read  words. 
P.  142.  1.  10.     For  e  read  a. 
P.  152.  1.     3.     For  wonders  read  advent. 
P.  172.  1.  208.     For  hell-fire  read  hell-pain. 

„       1.  228.     For  therefrom  read  from  harm. 
P.  178.  1.  319.     See  Notes  and  Emendations. 

„       1.  340.  '  For  little  read  few. 
P.  182.  1.  2  from  bottom,     teach.     See  Notes  and  Emendations. 
P.  183  head-line.     For  oure  read  ure. 

„       1.  384.     Hali  boc.     The  line  seems  corrupt.    Does  it  mean 
'wholly,  as  in  a  book,  they  shall  see'  ]  etc. 
P.  184.  1.  15  from  bottom.     Dele  my. 
P.  186.  1.  34.     For  makest  read  mad  est. 
P.  190.  1.    8.     For  the  read  thee  the. 
P.  208.  1.     3.     For  sinful  men  read  sinners. 
P.  224.  1.  12.     For  in  safety  read  alone. 

„       1.  29.     For  men  read  mankind. 
P.  232.  1.  13.     For  prophets  read  prophet. 

„       1.  19.     For  created  read  ordereth  (or  directeth). 

„       1.  21.     For  as  read  as  his. 

„       1.  28.     For  showeth  and  blesseth  read  cheers  and  gladdens. 
P.  238.  1.  14.     For  together  read  for  ever. 
P.  240.  11.  14,  15.     For  speaks  to  us  read  signifies  house. 

„       1.  1 6.     For  and  the  read  Judas  and  the. 

„       1.  5  from  bottom.     For  the  read  our. 
P.  242.  1.     5.     After  knightship  add  or  warfare. 
P.  250.  1.  32.     For  even  read  ever. 
P.  252.  1.  14.     For  woe  read  weeping  (or  whining). 
P.  262.  1.  11.     For  form  read  glory. 


P.  264.  1.  19.  Dele  the  before  God. 

P.  266.  1.     4.  Deh  the  and  of. 

„       1.  30.  Read  here  after  may. 

P.  270.  1.  32.  For  clivideth  read  distributed . 

P.  272.  1.  30.  For  lord  read  love. 

P.  284.  1.  14.  For  love  read  blood. 

1.  17.  For  hadst  read  hast. 





f\uu7n  appropinquasset  Jesus  Ilierosolymis,  &c.  Good  men,  it  is  a, 
^^  holy  day  to-day  which  is  observed  every  twelve  months.  The 
gospel  tells  how  the  Saviour  came  nigh  towards  the  city  of  Jerusalem 
to-day,  with  his  apostles,  and  also  with  other  companies  of  men.  When 
he  came  to  the  hill  called  Olivet,  then  sent  he  his  two  disciples,  saying 
to  them,  Go  unto  the  city  that  is  (over)  against  you,  and  ye  shall  straight- 
way find  there  an  ass  bound  with  her  colt,  unbind  them  and  lead 
them  to  me.  If  any  man  saith  ought  to  you,  say  that  the  Lord  hath 
need  thereof,  and  immediately  they  shall  let  you  depart  therewith. 

Euntes  autem  discipuli  fecerunt  sicut  precepit  Mis  Jesus,  &c.  The 
Apostles  went  and  did  as  the  Saviour  commanded  them.  They  took 
the  ass  and  her  colt  and  led  them  to  him  and  put  their  clothes  upon 
the  foal  of  the  ass,  and  our  Lord,  afterwards,  rode  thereon  up  towards 
Jerusalem.  When  it  was  known  over  all  the  city  that  the  Saviour  was 
(coming)  thitherward  then  ran  towards  him  all  the  Hebrew  men,  some 
with  good  hearts  and  others  with  evil  intentions.  Many  of  the  multitude 
that  had  previously  followed  our  Lord,  and  also  (the  faithful  of  the 
city)  those  who  believed  upon  him,  took  their  clothes,  and  the  best 
they  had,  and  stoewed  them  under  the  ass's  feet,  in  the  way  wherein 




xxum  appropinquasset  ihesus  ierosolimam  <k  cetera.    Gode     [Foi.  la.] 
men  hit  is  an  heste  dei  to  dei  be  is  on  .xii.  monbe.  bis   The  Gospel 

—        '  '      '         for  the  day. 

godspel  sed  hu  be  helend  nehlechede  to-ward   ierusalem  bare 

burn  to  dei  mid  his  apostles  and  ec  mid  o^ere  floe  manna, 

ba  he  com  to  bere  dune  oliueti  his  ihaten.  ba  sende  he  is  .ii.   Our  Lord 

'  >  I  '  sends  two  of 

leornicnihtes  and  obed1  to  heorn  cod  in  bane  castel  bet  is  on-   bis  disciples 

i  >  »  for  an  ass 

sein  eou  and  \e  finded  redliche  bar  ane  asse   se-bunden  mid   andlt8foa>- 

5  r  >  So  in  MS., 

hire  colt,unbinded  heo  and  leaded  heo  to  me.      3if  eniman  seid   ?  cwed. 

eawiht  to  eou^  segged  bet  be  lauerd  haued  bar-of   neode  and 

redliche  heo  eou  leted  fere  ber-mid.  "*  Euntes  autem  discipuli 

fecerunt  sicut  precepit  Mis  ihesus  &  cetera,     pa  apostles  eoden 

and  dedeun2  alswa  be  helende  heom  het.heo  nomen  be  asse  and     2sic. 

here  colt  and  ledden  to  him  and  heo  duden  heore  clabes  huppon 

be  asse  fole  and  ure  drihten  seodban  i-ad  ber-on  uppen  toward   Our  Lord 

rides  upon  wes  hit  cud  ouer  al   be  burh  bet  be  helind  wes  thefoai. 

biderward.    heo  urnen  on-3ein  him  al   ba  hebreisce  men  mid 

godere  heorte  and  summe    mid   ufele  beonke.      Moni   of  ban 

floe  manna  be  earbow  fulieden  ure  drihten  and  ec  ba  3e-leafulle 

of   bere  burh  heo   nomen  heore  clabes  and  be  beste   bet   heo   their  clothes 

.  7i.  f  i   "i  l-  under  the 

hetde  and  strehiten  under  ba  assa  let  bcr  drihten  rad  mne  be   ass's  feet. 

4)  FOR   PALM    SUNDAY. 

the  Lord  rode,  for  love  and  honour  of  him.  The  other  men  who  had 
no  garments  climbed  upon  goodly  trees  and  took  the  twigs  and  blossoms 
thereof,  and  put  them  under  the  ass's  feet  and  bestrewed  all  the  path 
in  his  honour. 

And  all  the  Hebrew  folk  that  went  behind  and  before  him  sang  this 
song  of  praise  specially  for  his  honour,  thus  saying,  Hosanna  filio  David, 
benedictus  qui  venit  in  nomine  Domini;  that  is,  He  is  blessed,  he 
that  cometh  here  in  the  name  of  the  Lord.  Thus  they  praised  him 
until  he  rode  in  at  the  east  gate  of  the  city  that  is  still  called  Speciosa 
porta,  that  is  the  fair  (beautiful)  gate,  as  it  is  still  called  ;  and  since 
Christendom  was  never  over  (abe^e-enee-m)  twelve  months  is  it  opened,  VfCs^c 
-But  to-day  all  the  people  went  forth  in  procession  to  mount  Olivet,  and 
(entered)  also  in  (to  the  temple).  Now,  dear  brethren,  I  have  in  the 
first  place  repeated  to  you  the  gospel,  now  ye  shall  understand  secondly 
what  it  betokens.  Ye  heard  erewhile  in  the  gospel,  how  our  Lord 
sent  two  apostles,  Peter  and  John,  towards  the  city  that  they  should 
unbind  the  ass,  and  her  foal  with  her  ;  and  how  our  Lord  sat  upon 
the  foal  of  the  ass.  Dear  brethren  and  sisters,  ye  have  heard  how 
much  humility  our  Lord  exhibited .  for  us.  He  might  ride,  if  he 
desired,  on  rich  steeds,  and  palfreys,  mules,  and  Arabs,  but  he  would 
not,  nor  even  upon  the  big  ass,  but  upon  the  little  foal  that  was  still 
suckling — nor  had  ever  borne  any  burden,  nor  had  ever  been  defiled 
by  any  other  ass.  In  so  great  humility  did  God  Almighty  place 
himself  for  us,  and  moreover  set  us  example,  that  when  we  have 
wealth  in  abundance  in  this  life  be  ye  not  therefore  proud,  nor  wild 
(elated),  nor  stark  (haughty),  nor  wayward,  nor  highminded ;  but  the 
greater  the  prosperity  we  might  have  in  this  life  the  meeker  ought  we 
to  be,  and  the  more  temperate,  as  if  it  were  not  our  weal,  and  thank  our 
Lord  for  it  who  hath  given  it  us,  and  give  thereof  to  those  men  who 
have  it  not.  Good  men,  when  the  believing  Hebrews  went  and  strewed 
with  twigs  the  Lord's  path  wherein  he  rode,  then  was  fulfilled  what 
Isaiah  the  prophet  foretold  many  hundred  winters  ere  this  should  be, 
thus  saying,  Parate  viam  Domini  rectas  facite  semitas  ejus.  Raise  up 
the  Lord's  way  and  make  his  paths  straight.  That  betokeneth,  that 
we  shall  incline  our  hearts  and   have   good    belief  towards   our  Lord. 


weye.  him  to  luue  and  herhinge.  ba  otSre   men   be  reil  nefden    others  be- 

J  J     °      '  f  strewed  the 

heo  sti3eii  uppeon  be  godes  cunnes  treowe  and  nomen  ba  twigga  path  with 

and  )>a  blostme  and  duden  under  pe  assa  fet  and  bistreweden  blossoms. 

al  bane  weye  him  to  wurpscipe*  and  al  be  *  hebreisce  folc  be  '  MS.  wm-b- 

eode  efter  him  and  biuoren  him  suwgun  bisne  lofsong  hehliche  *  [Foi.  16] 

to    heri/ige    and    CAveben.    Osanna  filio   dauid   benedictus   qui  ^l,Tsang     . 

°  >  J  •*  ■ '  Hosanna  to 

uenit  in  nomine  domini.  bet  is  he  is  iblesced  ]?e2  be  her  cumet  ftfjjlpj0* 
on  drihtenes  nome.     pus  ha  hine  hei'eden  a  be  be3  rad  in  et    2?he. 

3  ?he# 

ban  est  3ete  Jjere  burh  bet  3et  me  hat.  Speciosa  porta,  pet  his  andaecom- 

bet  faire  3et  me  hat  hit  and  seodban  pe  cristindom  wes '.  nefre  ^the  east"3 

ouer  .xii.   monbe  nis   hit  undon  bute  to  dei   al  )>at  folc  eode  city. 

bar  ford  to  processiun  to  munte  oliueti '.   and  in  al  swa.     Nu 

leoue  bro^re  nu  ic  eou  habbe  bet  godspel  iseid  an.£aldeliche,nu  ^^c 

scule    3e    understonden   twafaldeliche    bet    hit    bi-tacnet.       3e   The  interpre- 
tation of  the 
iherden  er  on  j>e  godspel  hu  ure  drihten  sende  his  .ii.  apostles  gospel. 

petrum   and   iohannem.  on-3ein  bene  castel    \et  heo   unbunden 

)>at  assa  and  hire  fole  mid  hire,  and  hu  hure  drihten  set  uppen 

^a  assa  fole.     Leoue  bnrSre  nm4  snstrc.  30  hi  hered  hu  muchel 

edmodnesce   ure   drihten  dude  for  us.    he  mihte  ridan  sif  he   Christ's  great 

humility  in 

walde  on  riche  stede  and  palefrai  and  mule  and  araJLusz^  nalde   the'mtie  foal 
he  no.  na  forbon  uppon  ba  muchele  assa.a^c  uppon  pa  lutthle 
fole  bat  3et  hit  wes  sukinde  ne  ber  hit  nes  nefre  nane  burSene 
ne  hit  nes  nefere  ifuled  of  nane  o'Sre  assa.     In  swa  muchele 
edmodnesse  godalmihti  hine  dude  for  us  and  ec  sette  us  bisne   We  ought  to 

1  imitate  his 

ba34  habbe  wele  to  ouer  stohwennesse  on  bisse  Hue,  ne  beo  bu   example. 

bereuore  prud  ne  wilde  ne  sterc  ne  wemod  ne  ouer  modi- an 

pes  pe  we  heoueden  mare  wele  on  pisse  Hue.    pes  we  ahte  to 

beon  pe  edmoddre.    and   pa  mare   imete  al  swa  hit  ure  wele 

nere  and  ponkien   hit  ure   drihten    pe  hit  us  lende  and  don 

pan    numna    perof    \at    hit   nabbet.       Godemen    pa   3e-leafule 

ebreisce  folc   eoden   and  streweden    mid   twigan    in   drihtenes 

weye   per  he    rad.     pa   hit  wes  ifullet   \et   ysaias  }>e  prophete   ™,es£™fhecy 

iwitegede  ueale  hund  wintra  er  pis  were  and  cwed.  fulfilled. 

Parate  uiam  domini  rectas  facite  semitas  eius.  RereJ^lip 
drihtenes  wei  and  makiet  his  weo3es  rihte.  pet  tacnet  \et  we 
sulen  habben  ure  heortc  and  habben  godne  ileafe  to  ure  drihten. 


The  prophet  commanded  that  we  should  make  his  paths  (straight) ;  we 
make  them  straight  then  if  we  keep  his  commands,  and  if  we  are  under 
true  confession  (shrift),  and  are  God-fearing  wholly  in  all  things  ;  and 
if  we  each  of  us  have  love  among  us  one  toward  another,  as  if  we 
were  brothers  and  sisters  ;  and  if  we  thank  our  Lord  for  all  things  that 
he  sends  us,  the  good  and  the  evil  ;  if  we  do  this,  then  do  we  make 
right  and  clean  God's  ways  and  his  paths  that  God  Almighty  may  ride 
therein.  If  we  do  this  then  will  God  Almighty  dwell  in  us.  Also  I 
erewhile  said  how,  when  our  Lord  rode  to  Jerusalem,  the  Hebrew  folk 
sang  their  song  of  praise  in  honour  of  our  Lord.  Some  sang  it 
through  the  Holy  Ghost,  whether  they  would  or  no ;  and  the  children 
played  in  the  street  praising  our  Lord  and  said,  Hosanna  filio  David. 
David,  the  psalmist,  foretold  this  in  the  psalter  long  before,  the 
while  he  lived ;  and  said,  Ex  ore  infantium  et  lactantium.  He  pro- 
phesied this  of  our  Lord  through  the  Holy  Ghost.  "  Lord,  out  of  milk- 
drinking  children's  mouths  thou  bringest  forth  praise ;  thou  castest 
down  the  old  enemy  because  of  thy  foes,  and  thy  foes  thou  avengest." 
Now  we  will  say  more  as  to  what  this  gospel  betokens  :  The  city  which 
was  over  against  the  Saviour's  two  disciples  betokens  this  world,  which 
is  transitory  and  evil,  and  very  treacherous  and  irksome.  Toil  thou 
ever  so  much,  always  shall  it  be  undone ;  and  sometimes  divers  storms 
come,  and  war,  and  famine,  and  disease  of  body,  all  for  our  guilt ;  and 
when  thou  weenest  that  thou  shalt  live  best  of  all,  then  goest  thou 
forth  (diest)  and  another  cometh ;  wherefore  let  no  man  trust  too  much 
to  this  life.  She  deceiveth  us  where  we  least  expect.  We  are  not  born  to 
have  pride,  nor  even  any  other  vanities  ;  but  we  are  in  this  life  that  we 
may  earn  the  eternal  bliss  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  Ye  have  heard 
how  God  Almighty  sent  his  apostles  towards  the  city  after  the  ass's 
foal  which  was  bound,  and  afterwards  unbound.  The  Apostles  denote 
the  teachers,  that  is,  the  wise  teachers  who  are  now  over  holy  Church 
and  lead  a  spiritual  life  ;  they  shall  ever  unbind  God's  people  from  the 
devil,  and  tell  them  God's  lore ;  how  they  shall  lead  their  lives  and 
earn  the  everlasting  bliss  through  prayer  and  through  shrift,  repenting 
with  fasts  and  with  alms  ;  and  pray  for  them  day  and  night  that  Christ 


be  wite^a  het  bet  we  scukle  makien  his  sti3es  benne  make  we  now  to  make 

God's  ways 

ham  rihte  3ef  we  haldet  his  beode  and  3ef  we  beod  under  sod  straight. 

scrifte  and  god  fructe  burh-ut  of  alle  binge,  and  we  luuien  ure 

efree  o^r  us  bi-twenen  swa  we  weren  Jbro^re  and  sustre  and 

3if  we   bowkiet   ure  drihten  alles  binges    be   he   us    sent,    bet 

gode  mid  bet  ufele.  ^if  we  bis  do^  f  benne  make  Ave  rihte  and 

clene  godes  weies  and  his  sties  bet  god  almihti  mei  riden  on. 

3if  we  bis  do^  benne  wunet  god  almihti  in  us.     Al  swa  ic  er 

cwet  hu  hure  drihten  rad  to  ierusalem  bat  ebreisce  folc  sungen 

heore   leof  song  ure  helende  to  wurSinge,  sumine  hit  suwgen 

burh  bene  halie  gast  walden  heo  naldden  heo 'and  ba  children 

plo3eden  in  bere  strete  heriende  ure  drihten  and  cweben.  Osanna.   The  prophecy 

of  David 

jilio  dauid.   bis  wite3ede  dauid  be  be  salm  scop  in  be  saltere  fulfilled. 
muchel  erdbon  ba  wile  he  liuede  and  cwet.    Ex  ore  infancium 
&  lactancium.  bis  he  wite3ede  bi  drihtene  burh  bene  halie  gast, 
Drihten  bu   dest   be  lof  of  mile  drinkende  childre   mub'ewu1     '  ?J>U- 
warpest  bene  aide  feont  for  bine  feonden  and  bine  feond  bu  bi- 
scildest.  '  Nu  we  wulle^  seggen  mare  wet  bis  godspel  itacnet; 
be  castel  be  wes  a3eines  drihrtlnes  twa  leornikenehtesf  he  bi-tacnet  Tiie  city 

L  J  _  m  denotes  the 

beos  world  is  whilende  and  ontful  and  swiSe  lewe.  and  swmc-  deceitful 


ful .  Ne  swmcke  bu  nefre  swa  muchel  f  a  hit  brS  undon  and 
misliche  wederes  comet  o^er  while,  and  unfrit.  and  huwger. 
and  licome  un-hele  al  for  ure  gulte  ■  and  benne  bu  wenest  bet  Let  no  man 

'         trust  therein. 

bu  scalt  libben  aire  best,  benne  gest  bu  foi^S  and  oSer  cumed*for- 
bi  ne  litmie  namon  to  swrSe  to  bisse  Hue.  al  "heo  us  truket 
ber  we  lest  wenet.  Ne  we  ne  beo5  iboren  for  to  habbene  nane 
prudu  ne  forSe  nane  o^re  rencasah  we  beo'5  on  bisse  Hue  for 
to  ernien  ba  eche  blisse  in  houeneriche.  3e  habbet  iherd  hu 
god  almihti  sende  his  apostles  03ein  bene  castel  efter  be  assa 
fole  be  wes  ibunden  and  seo^an  un-bunden.  ba  apostles  itacned   The  Apostles 

'  *  x  denote  the 

ba  leorneres  bet  beoS  ba  wise  witega  be  beoS  nu  ouer  be  halie   fe:\oll^sinn 

chirche  and  libbed  gastliche  heore  lif'heo  sullen  eure  un-binden 

godes  folc  from  bam  deofle  *and  heom  seggen  godes  lore;  hu     *[Foi.  2a.] 

heo  sculen  leden  heore  lif  and  ernien  ba  eche  blisse  mid  ibede 

and  mid  scrifte^  to  betende  mid  festene  and  mid  ehnesse;  and 

bidden  for  heom  deies  and  nihtes  bet  erist  heom  milcie  of  heore 

8  FOR    PALM    SUNDAY. 

may  have  mercy  on  their  misdeeds.  The  ass  denotes  the  Church,  or 
the  synagogue ;  she  was  bound  under  the  old  law,  and  now  is  she 
unbound,  under  this  new  law.  Good  men,  learn  what  this  synagogue 
was  in  the  old  law  ere  Christ  was  born.  Just  as  the  Jews  had  their 
synagogue  after  Moses'  laws,  so  have  we  now  a  church  after  the  Lord's 
law  ;  and  ever  on  the  Saturday  Jewish  folk  came  at  set  time  to  the 
synagogue  and  praised  their  Lord,  according  to  their  law.  That 
was  their  Sunday,  and  they  kept  their  day  of  worship  better  than  we  do  ; 
and  they  still  observe  it  wherever  they  are.  Beloved,  all  the  believing 
Jews  who  observed  faithfully  their  laws  and  obeyed  their  Lord  ere  he 
came  to  this  world,  were  called  synagogue,  just  as  all  Christian  folk, 
who  keep  Christ's  behests,  are  now  called  [Church].  The  ass  that  was 
bound  and  afterwards  unbound  betokeneth  the  synagogue  that  was 
bound  under  the  old  law,  that  was  all  the  believing  folk  of  the  Jews 
who  were  strongly  bound  ere  our  Lord  came  to  this  life.  They  had 
different  laws  to  what  we  have.  That  was  the  law  (then) — the  same 
injury  that  I  did  thee  thou  shouldest  do  to  me  ;  and  if  thou  sinnedst 
towards  thy  Lord,  and  it  became  known,  neither  gold  nor  silver  might 
avail  thee,  but  they  should  take  thee  and  draw  thee  asunder  with  horses 
or  dash  thee  to  pieces  with  stones.  Wherefore,  dear  brethren,  there  is 
much  need  that  we  thank  our  Lord  who  hath  helped  (us  to  fulfil)  the 
severe  old  law  with  the  new.  Now  no  man  may  atone  for  his  sin  with 
a  penalty,  but  towards  Christ  alone  with  shrift,  as  his  priest  teacheth 
him  ;  also  with  his  fasts  which  quickly  overcome  the  waywardness  of  the 
flesh  ;  and  church-going,  and  to  do  good  (for  the  Church),  'and  many 
other  kinds  of  good  works  which  would  take  too  long  to  enumerate  to 
you  at  present.  But  how  then  if  a  man  is  so  sinful  and  possessed 
of  the  devil  that  he  will  not  either  for  his  highmindedness,  or  for  his 
pride,  or  for  the  wilfulness  of  his  foul  heart,  observe  his  shrift  1  Then 
verily  I  say  unto  you  that  there  is  no  need  that  any  one  here  in  this  life 
should  pray  pater  noster  for  his  soul,  nor  sing  mass,  nor  do  any  other  good 
thing.  Ah  !  how  should  another  man's  good  deeds  profit  him  who  never 
in  this  life  took  thought  of  any  good  thing  1  Ah  !  who  is  he  that  may 
water  the  horse  that  will  not  drink  himself?     No  more  may  any  one  do 


misdede.    pat1  assa  itacned  be  chirche  o^er  be  sinagogaheo  wes    '?!>*■ 
iburalen  on  ba  ealde  lase  ara<2  nu?a  heo  is  unbimden  in  bisse  denotes  the 

.  Clmrch. 

newe  la3e.  Godemen.  wite  $e  hwet  bes  sinagoge  on  bam  aide 
\&$e  ere  crist  were  iboren.alswa  hefden  be  giwis  beore  sinagoge 
efter  moises  k^e,  alswa  we  babbet  nu  chirche  efter  dribtenes 
laae  and  efere  to  bam  setteres  dei  heo  comen  ba  iudeisce  folc  The  Jewish 

>  -— '  Sabbath  was 

to  settes  tima  to  ban  sinagoge  and  hereden  heore  drihten  swa  strictly  kept. 
heore  la3e  wes.  pat  wes  heore  sunedei  and  bet  heo  heolden 
heore  wurSmg  dei  bene  we  dtrS'  and  yet  doS  ber  be  heo  beoS. 
leofemen,  alle  ba  ileafulle  iudeisce  men  be  heolden  wel  heore 
la3e  and  hersumeden  heore  drihten  her  he  come  on  bisse 
middelerd  heo  weren  iclipet  synagoge  al  swa  is  nu  iclepet  al 
cristen  folc.  ba  ilke  ba  haldet  cristes  heste.  pa  assa  be  wes 
ibunden  and  seod^an  unbunden  \et  itacned  be  sinagoge  be  wes 
ibunden  on  ban  aide  la:e.  bet  wes  al  bet  ileafule  folc  of  iudeus  Tiie  essence 

'  .  of  the  old 

heo  weren  strowgliche   ibunden  er  ure  drihten  come   to   bisse  1;'w- 

liue.  heo  heofden  od^re  la3e  benne  we  habbet.     pet  wes  *  ba    *  [F<fl.  26.] 

Ia3e;ba  ilke  wrake  be  ic  dude  bef   bu  scoldest  don  me  and  3ef 

bu   sungedest  to-ward  bine   drihtene  and  me  hit  mihte  witen 

nouber  gold  ne  seoluer  ne  moste  gan  for  be.  ac  me  be  sculde 

nimen  and  al   to-teon    mid   horse  o^er  be   al  to-toruion   mid 

stane.     For-bi  leofe  bre^re  hit  is  muchel  neot  bet  we  bonkien 

ure  drihten  ba2  haued  ba  stronge  ealde  la3e  auulsed  mid  bere     2?j>at- 

newe.      Nu    ne    berf3   na   mon   bis   sunne    mid   wite   abuggen     3  ms.  j*if. 

bute  towarfd]  crist  ane  mid  scrifte  .swa  him  his  preost  leredj  i,e  atoned  for 

al   swa  his  festen,    be  swi^e  ouerkimet   bes  flesces  wlongnesse.  new  law. 

and  chuc4  3ong  and  god  to  donne  beruore  monie  and  feole     *  ?chirc. 

oSre  godere  werke  be  nu  were  long  eou  to  telle.     A.  hu  benne 

3if  hwa  is  swa  sunful  and  mid  deofle  biuon  bet  nulle  for  his 

ouer-moS.  o^er  for  his  prude,  o^er  for  his  fule  heorte  wil  his 

scrift  ihalderi.  benne  segge  ic  eou  to  so^e  bet  nis  hit  nan  berf  No  use  to 

.  .  .  .  pray  for  the 

bet  me  her  on  bisse  liue  for  his   saule  bidde  water  noster.   ne   souis  of  those 

who  die 

messe  singe  ne  nan  o^er  god  don.     A.  hu  scolde  ofterrnonnes   impenitent. 
goddede  ccmen  him  to  gode  be  nefre  on  bisse  liue  nanes  godes 
ne  rohte .'  A.   hwa  is  bet  mei  ]>et  hors  wectrien  be  him  self  nulc 
drinken  '.    Na   ma   ne  mei   me   her  god  don  for  bere  saule   be 


good  for  their  souls  who  in  this  life  would  not  begin  to  do  good.  Great 
need  have  we  then,  dear  brethren,  as  long  as  we  live  in  this  life,  of  true 
shrift,  and  greatly  to  dread  our  manifold  sins,  and  earnestly  to  beseech 
our  merciful  Lord  that  he  may  grant  us  so  to  live  in  this  brief  life 
that  we  may  depart  hence  to  the  eternal  bliss  wherein  dwell  the 
Father  and  the  Son  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  ever  without  end,  per 
omnia  secula  seculorum.     Amen. 



ffcce  nunc  tempus  acceptabile  ecce  nunc  dies  sahdis,  &c.  Good  men, 
now  are  the  acceptable  and  holy  days  come  upon  us,  if  we  ourselves 
desire  it,  that  is,  that  we  may  in  these  spiritual  days  repent  of  our 
sins  that  we  have  previously  done  through  the  lust  of  the  body.  These 
days  are  appointed  us  and  all  mankind  for  great  help  and  comfort. 
Moses  also,  who  instituted  them,  fasted  these  days  upon  the  Mount 
of  Sinai,  and  never  ate  human  food,  for  the  love  he  bore  to  God  ; 
and  Christ  also  would  have  done  it.  After  that  the  Lord  gave  him 
two  tables  of  stone  on  which  God  Almighty  had  written  the  ten  laws 
which  the  Israelitish  folk  should  observe,  when  he  led  them  from  the 
land  of  Egypt.  There  were  in  one  of  the  tables  separately  three 
commands,  which  were — Audi  Israel,  Dominus  Deus  tuus  unus  est. 
Secundum.  Non  habebis  nometi  Dei  tui  in  vanum.  Tertium.  Observa 
diem  sabbati.  That  is,  in  English,  Hear,  ye  children  of  Israel,  that 
there  is  but  one  God  in  heaven  and  in  earth ;  and  above  all  things 
ye  shall  honour,  obey,  and  love  him  with  all  your  heart.  The 
second  behest  was,  Take  not  thy  Lord's  name  in  any  oaths,  nor  in  any 
idle  speech,  (nor)  in  any  idle  boasting.  And  the  third  behest  of  God 
was  written  on  the  table,  Take  heed  that  ye  keep  holy  the  Sunday,  and 
that  ye  honour  it  and  abstain  from  every  kind  of  toil.  Now,  good 
men,  these  three  laws  were  severally  written  on  the  one  table,  as  Christ 
himself  had  directed  it.     And  the  other  seven  laws  were  also  severalty 


on  bisse  liue  god  bi-5mnen  nalde.     Muchel  is  us   benne  neod   Great  need 

r  °  J  '  have  all  of     | 

leoue  bre^ren  wet  we  on  bisse  middelerd  liuien  sod  scrift  and  *rue  con. 

*  fession. 

swi^e   adreden   ure   monifolde    suwne.   and  3erne   bidden   ure 
milciende  drihten  bet  he  us  leue  swa  libben  on  *  bisse  scorte     *  tFoL  3a-l 
liue   bet  we   moten   heonene   feren   to    ban    echeblisse   be   hon 
wunet.  be  feder.  and  be  sune.  and  be  halie  gast  a  buten  ende. 
per  onmia  seewla  secuXoxum  amew. 



cce    nunc    tempus    acceptabile    ecce    nunc    dies    salutis   et  The  Gospel 

for  the  day. 


cetera.     Gode  men  nu  beo$  icumen  ba  bicumeliche  da3es 

and  ba  halie  da3es  uppen  us  3if  we  wullet  us  seolue  bet  is  bet 

we  majen  on  bisse  gastliche  da3en  ibeten  ure  sunne  bet  we  abbet 

idon   erbisse  burh   be  licome    lust    bas    da3es   beoo"    iset  us    to   The  accept- 
able days. 
muchele  helpe,  and  to  frefre  al  moncun,  al  swa  moyses  be  hehte 

heoni  feste  bes  da3es  uppon  be  numte  of  synai  bet  he  nefre  ne 

ete  mennisses  metes  for  drihtenes  luue  and  ec  crist  hit  walde 

habben  idon.     Efter  ban  drihten  him  bi-tahte  twa  stanene  tables   The  ten 


breode  on  hwulche  godalmihti  heofde  iwriten  ba  ten  la3e  be  ba   ments. 

isroelisce  folc  sceolde  halden  ba  he  heom  ledde  of  egipte  londe 

ber  weren  in  ber  o^res  tables  sunderliche  .iii.  ibode  ba  weren.   Three  behests 

on  the  first 

Audi  Israel.  Dommus  deus  tuus  unns  est.      /Secundum.  Non  table. 

habebis  nomen  dei  tui  in  uanum.     Tercium.  Obserua  diem  sab- 

bati.  bet  is  on  englis  Ihere^  3e  israelisce  bem1  bet  nis  buten  an     >  ?bem. 

god  on  heofene  and  on  eorSan  and  over  alle  bing  hine  3e  scule 

wurbian  and  hersumen  and  luuian  mid  al  euwer  heorte.     pe 

oSer  heste  wes.     Ne  haue  bu  bines  drihtenes  nome  in  nane  aoa 

ne  in  *nane  idel  speche.  in  nane  idel  3elwunge2.     And  be  bridde     *[Foi.3&.] 

2  ?3Glpunffe. 

godes  heste  wes  iwriten  inne  ba  table.  "VVite  3e  bet  3e  3emen 
benne  halie  sunnedei.  and  \>et  ye  hine  wurSien  and  halden  from 
uwilche  swinke.  Nu  godemen  nu  weren  bas  breo  la3e  3e-writen 
inne  ba  o^re3  table  breode  sunderlipes  alswa  crist  hit  hefde  idon      are!* 


written  upon  the  second  stone  table,  teaching  us  how  each  man  should 
act  towards  his  neighbour  as  he  would  that  men  should  act  towards 
him.  Honora  ])atre?n  tuum  et  matrem  tuam,  that  was  the  fourth 
behest  that  God  Almighty  commanded — to  honour  first  of  all  thy 
father  and  thy  mother  above  all  earthly  things,  then  shall  thy  days 
be  prolonged  in  great  bliss  upon  earth.  Be  thou  not  a  manslayer, 
nor  defile  thou  thyself  with  drunkenness.  Be  not  an  adulterer.  Commit 
no  theft.  Speak  not  false  witness  against  thy  neighbour.  Be  not 
a  liar,  neither  for  fear  nor  for  love.  Desire  not  any  other  man's  wife, 
nor  anything  that  other  men  possess  more  than  thou.  Forswear 
not  these  behests  which  God  Almighty  himself  ordained  and  wrote 
with  his  own  fingers  and  gave  to  Moses.  The  Lord  again  spoke, 
and  strictly  commanded  that  each  man  shall  do  to  others  as  he  would 
that  one  should  do  to  him.  Our  Lord  spake  to  Moses  that  he  should 
teach  his  folk,  and  particularly  warned  him,  and  thus  spake  to  him : 
If  ye  observe  my  behests  then  send  I  you  propitious  seasons,  and 
I  will  give  you  riches  and  fruits  abundantly,  and  mirth  shall  dwell 
in  (your)  land,  which  shall  be  in  peace  and  in  freedom  under  my  govern- 
ment, and  I  will  protect  you  from  every  harm,  so  that  neither  invasion 
nor  famine  shall  hurt  you.  Your  enemies  shall  not  harm  nor  harass 
you,  but  I  will  give  you  victory  and  strength  that  ye  may  overcome 
your  enemies.  Moreover,  our  Lord  spake  to  Moses  and  said,  If  ye 
turn  your  hearts  from  me  and  break  my  lore  and  my  laws,  and  dis- 
regard or  despise  my  behests,  then  shall  there  soon  come  upon  you  great 
vengeance,  discord,  invasion,  and  famine,  so  that  your  hearts  shall 
be  sore  afraid,  and  your  enemies  shall  wax  strong ;  and  ever  and 
anon  destructive  tempests  shall  destroy  the  produce  of  your  land ; 
rapine  and  pestilence  shall  quickly  consume  you,  and  ye  shall  be  given 
as  captives  into  the  hands  of  your  enemies,  so  that  they  shall  cause 
you  to  undergo  torment  and  toil  ;  your  land  they  shall  lay  waste  and 
your  cities  shall  they  burn  and  your  goods  they  shall  destroy,  and 
they  shall  mar  your  land.  Then  shall  your  sins  destroy  and  utterly 
ruin  you.  Then  will  ye  be  sorry  for  it,  and  bewail  your  sins  and 
repent  you.  And  then  shall  my  anger  cease  and  the  scourge  also, 
when  ye  call  upon  me  and  entreat  for  help,  and  when  ye  put  away 
that    unrighteousness   and    turn    to    righteousness,   and   I   will    succour 


to  him  seoluen.  on  ba  o^re  souen  laje  weren  iwriten  alswa  sund-    On  the  second 

table  were 

erliche  inna  o^re  stauene  table  brede  hu  uwil  [cl   mon  seal  his   seven  cora- 

L   J  mandments. 

euenexta  beodan  alswa  he  walde  bet  me  him  bude.  Jwnora  patrem 

tuum  et  matrem  tuam.  bet  wes  be  beofe^e1  heste  bet  godalmihti     'So  in  MS.; 

?  feowerfte. 

het  wurSian  aire  erest  bin  feder  and  bin  moder  ouer  alle  eorS- 

liche  bing.     penne  beoS  bine  da3es  ilenged  mid  muchele  blisse 

in    eorSan.       Ne   be    bu   monsh^e.      Ne  bi  sunt2    bu  be  mid     2?smit. 

drunkenesse.     Ne  beo  bu  eubruche.     Ne  do  bu  beofSe.     Ne  spec 

bu  a3ein  bine  nexta  nane  false  witnesse.    N[e]  beo  bu  Ulcere,  ne 

for  eye  ne  for  luue.     Ne  wilne  bu  o^res  monnes  wif3  ne  nanes     3ms.  yif. 

bulges  be  o^re  mon  a3c  uhtre  benne  bu.     Ne  for-swerie  bu  be 

bas  .x.   bebode   be  godalmihti    seolf  idihte  and   a\vrat  mid  is 

a3ene   fringres4  and  moyses   bitahte.      Drihten  cwe^  eft  and    4sic- 

•i  lii  iiM  Each  man 

3erne  lerde  bet  uwilc  mow  seal  beoden  o^re  alswa  he  wde  bet   was  com- 
manded to 
me  him  beode.    Vre  drihten  cweS  to  moyses  bet  he  scolde  wissien    i°ve  his 

'  neighbour. 

his  folc  and  wernede  him  3eorne  and  him  to  *  bus  cwe^.     Gif  3e     *  [Foi.  4a.] 
mine  bibode  healded.  benne  sende  ic  eou  rihte  widerunge  and  ic   misesSand 
eou  wille  3euan   wela  and  westme   ino3e    and   murfihe   sculen   to  the 
wuniare   on  londe   bet  brS   on   grrSc  and  on  frrSe  under  mire 
onwalde.  and  ic  eou  wulle  werien  wrS  elene5  herm.     Ne  bet  eou     5  ?eicne. 
ne  seal  derien  nou^er  here  ne  hunger.     Euwer  feond  eou  ne  seal 
derian  ne  swenchen.     Ah  ic  eou  3ife  si3e  and  streinbe  bet  3e 
ma3en  ower  feond  ouer  cumen.     3et  cwe^  ure  lauerd  to  moyses. 
Gif  3e  cherrat  from  me  ower  heortam6  and  to-breca^  mine  lare     6  sic- 

The  evils  that 

and  mine  la3e  and  mine  heste  fo^emeS  o%er  for-ho3iet  benne   would  follow 
seal    eou    sone   3e  waxen  muchele  wrake   and  sake   here  and 
hunger  and  bet  eower  heorte  e^ian   swrSe  and  eower   feond 
stro^ian  and  westmes  borS  uuele  wederas  oft  and  ilome  seal 
for-wurSan.   stala  and  steorfa.  swrSe  eow7  seal  bene  and  3e  beoS     7  ms.  cow. 
iseald8  eower  feonde  to  pWsune.      Swa   bet  heo  eow  tint^ed     " MS-  iscaid. 
and  heow  iswenchet.  lond  heo  eou  aweste^  and  eower  burh  heo 
for-berna^  and  ehee9  heo  aspilla^  and  eard  heo  amerrad  and    9?ehte. 
benne  eower  sunne  forwor^on  and  eou  seolfan  al  fordon.  benne 
wille  3e  hit  bireusian  and  sunne  bimenen  and  to  boto10  gan.  and     10?uote. 

These  evils 

iswica  benne  be  org  ba  lswingla  se  me  benne  denial  and  helpes   woaid  be 

.  '  .  removed  by 

me  biddafc  and  bet  unriht  for-leta¥  and  to  rihte  ib^a^  and  ic   penitence. 


you  and  have  mercy  upon  you  ;  and  your  land  will  I  deliver,  and 
yourselves  I  will  strengthen  and  protect ;  and  joy  and  freedom  I  will 
send  upon  men  who  love  and  honour  me  aright.  These  are  God's 
words  which  God  himself  wrote  and  gave  unto  Moses.  All  this  may 
be  profitable  and  instructive  to  us  if  we  desire  it.  Assuredly  it  appears 
to  me,  good  men,  that  all  this  vengeance  is  come  over  all  nations.  Ye 
may  know  for  cei'tain  that  it  is  wholly  on  account  of  our  sins.  What 
man  is  there  that  hath  not  each  clay  broken  these  laws  of  God  which 
I  have  just  now  declared  unto  you  t  These  laws  lasted  from  Moses' 
time  until  the  Lord  came  upon  this  earth  for  to  deliver  us  from  the 
devil's  power  ;  and  after  he  came  upon  this  middle  earth  he  set  the 
law  of  his  mildheartedness  (mercy)  over  us  and  over  all  mankind,  so 
that  notwithstanding  we  sin  now  in  this  life,  no  one  shall  punish  us  for  it 
(if  we  repent).  If  we  will  not  repent  and  cease,  it  is  right  that  they 
trouble  and  put  us  to  shame ;  not  the  man,  but  the  devil  that  reigneth 
in  him.  Ye  have  heard  what  laws  were  ere  Christ  was  born.  Many  men 
say  that  those  were  severe  laws,  and  if  those  were  now  (in  force)  no  man 
would  trespass  against  another — neither  man,  nor  woman,  nor  maiden. 
Truly  they  say,  many  abstained  for  fear  of  the  Lord  and  many  for 
the  fierce  doom  (judgment)  that  then  was.  Dear  men,  we  should  now 
think  this  if  we  were  prudent — so  high  a  Lord  and  mighty  over 
heaven  and  earth  would  see  us.  Wherefore  it  was  the  law  (then) 
that  the  same  evil  that  I  did  thee,  thou  shouldst  do  to  me,  that 
was,  if  thou  woundedst  me  I  ought  to  wound  thee  in  return.  If  thou 
thrustest  me  in  the  eye,  I  in  thine  also.  Blow  for  blow  also,  of  ne- 
cessity, except  thou  were  manslayer  or  thou  broke  compact  or  committed 
adultery,  they  were  punished  (with  death).  But  God  hath  set  the 
law  of  his  mercy  for  (our)  good.  Thou  shalt  not  return  evil  for  evil 
now,  but  God  Almighty  biddeth  thee  do  thy  good  for  his  evil ;  let 
him  do  thee  ever  so  much  annoyance  or  harm  in  this  life,  be  not 
thou  once  wrath  therefore,  but  forbear  for  the  Lord's  love.  If  thou 
returnest  evil  for  evil  so  much  the  greater  shall  be  the  wrath  between 
you  ;  and  each  of  you  sinneth  before  the  Lord,  and  moreover  ye  are  the 
later  reconciled.  These  housebreakers  (marauders),  robbers,  and  thieves, 
that  will  never  cease  from  their  evil  ways,  thou  oughtest  love  their 
souls  for  Christ's  love,  and  the  evil  that  they  do  thou  oughtest  to  hate 


wulle  eow  ireden  and  milcian  and  eower  lo/td  ic  wulle  fribian 

and  eow  selfe  mejhan  and  bi-*  werian.  and  blisse  and  lisse  ic     *  £Fo1-  4b-l 

sende  uppon  niownen  be  me  luuieS  and  irihte  iheraft  bis  beo^ 

godes  word  be  god  seolf  idihte.  and  ruoises  bi-tahte.     Al  hit  mei 

us  rede  and  to  lare  aif  Ave  wulleS.     SoSHche  me  bunched  gode   ah  nations 

-*  are  now 

men  bet  al  bas  wrake  is  icumen  ouer  alle  beode.     se  hit  ma3en   suffering 

>>  '  *  similar  ven- 

witen  iwis  bet  hit  is  al  for  ure  sunne.  hwulc  mon  is  bet  nauet  fj;a"rc°m°r 
to  broken  elche  dei  bas  godes  lase  be  ic  eou  nu  cwe^.     pas  la3en   The  duration 

'        &  -"     r  t  of  the  old 

weren  from  Moyses.  a  bet  drihten  com  on  bis  middilert  for  us  to  tow. 
alesnesse  of  deofles  onwalde  and  seod^an  he  com  on  bisse  mid- 
delert  f  he  sette  his  mildheortnesse  la3e  ouer  us.  and  ouer  al 
moncun.  bet  wes  ba3h  we  suneghie  nu  on  bisse  Hue  ne  seal  us  na 
mon  uuelien  ber  uore.  Gif  we  nulled  gan  to  bote  and  iswican 
hit  is  riht  bet  me  us  nede  and  isegge  bet  sceamie.  Nawiht  bon 
monne  ah  bon  deofle  be  rixlaS  in  him.     Ge  herde  wilche  la3e   Tl>e  laws 

1  '  J       before  the 

weren  er  crist  wes  iboren.    Monimon  seiS  bet  ba  weren  strotige1   time  of  Christ 

>         >  a         were  very 

lase  and  jif  ba  lase  weren  nu  nalde  na  mon  mis-don  wrS  trSre   severe- 

5  °       '  ■>  '  ?  stronge. 

ne  wepmon  ne  wifmon  ne  meiden.  fulsofc  hit  serS  moni  hit  for-let 

for  drihtenes  eye.  and  moni  hit  forlet  for  ba  reSa  dome  be  ba 

wes.     Leofe  men  bet  we  sculden  benchen  nu  3ef  we  weren  iseli. 

Swa  heh  lauerd  and  mihti  ouer  heuene.  and  eorSe  bet  he  walde 

us  iseon  forSan  hit  wes  ba  la3e  bet  ilke  uuel  be  ic  dude  be.  bu 

scoldest  don  me  bet  wes  3if  bu  me  wundedest  ic  sculde  wundie 

be  ber  *  on-3ein.  3if  bu  me   puttest  in  bet  e3e  '.  ic  bin  alswa.  dunt     *  [Foi.  5aj 

a-3ein  dunt.     Alswa  of  neate  bute  bu  were  Monsla3e  o^er  bu 

to-breke  wed  durge2.    o^er   for-le3en   heo  weren    3e   tintra3ed     2?burge. 

•  -vt  God  Iiatn 

ah  god  haue^  iset  his  mildhert-nesse  lase  on  gode.      Ne  scalt   given  us 

b  .      .  the  law  of 

bu  3elden  vuel  on3ein  uuel  nuSa.  ah  god  almihtin  be  hat  don   His  mercy. 

.  i  •     i  •  i       -vt     i     i  i_  i       We  are  to 

bm  god  on-2ein  his  uuel.      JNe  do  lie  be  neure  swa  niucnelne  return  good 

...  »  for  evil. 

teone  ne  wite  on  bisse  Hue  ne  beo  bu  nefre  ene  wratS  ber  fore,  ah 
forber  for  drihtenes  luue.  Gif  bu  dest  bin  uuel  on^ein  his  uuel. 
Swa  muchel  ba  wred^a  bid  be  mare  bi-twenen  eow  and  eour 
eyber  sunega^  bi-foran  drihten  and  ec  leter  3e  beo^  sahte.  bas 
ruperes  and  bas  reueres  and  bas  beues  bet  nulleS  nu  nefre  swike 
heore  uueles   bu  asest  luuan  heore  saule  for  cristes  luue  and  ho\e  t'}® 

>  J  souls  of  the 

heore  uuel  be  heo  doS  bu  a3est  to  hetiene  and  wrS-stewen  3if  bu  wicked  doers- 


and  put  a  stop  to  if  thou  might,  according  to  the  law  of  the  land. 
If  they  will  never  abstain  nor  repent,  it  is  right  that  they  should  be 
punished  ;  for  it  is  better  that  they  be  punished  in  their  bodies  than 
withal  perish  in  the  devil's  hand.  If  thy  nearest  friend  (neighbour)  tres- 
pass against  thee,  be  it  of  one  thing,  be  it  of  another,  as  many  do, 
entreat  him  lovingly  that  he  act  right  towards  thee.  If  he  will  not,  take 
two  of  thy  friends  and  go  yet  and  beseech  him,  and  if  he  will  not 
then,  complain  thee  to  holy  Church,  that  is  to  the  priest  and  to 
the  congregation.  If  he  will  not  act  rightly  for  the  priest  nor 
for  holy  Church,  hold  him  then  such  a  one  as  is  without  law  and 
like  a  heathen  man.  Thy  friend  thou  lovest  for  the  good  deeds  he 
doth  thee,  and  he  thee  also.  That  is  nothing.  But  thou  wouldest 
indeed  be  his  friend  before  Christ  if,  when  thou  sawest  him  about 
to  fall  foolishly  into  the  devil's  hand,  thou  checked  and  restrained 
him  as  far  as  thou  wert  able ;  and  Christ  hath  commanded  that  thou 
shalt  love  thy  enemy  for  love  of  him,  and  restrain  his  sins  if  thou 
wert  able,  and  pray  for  him  daily  that  Christ  may  cause  him  to  turn 
from  his  wickedness  before  the  day  of  his  death.  What  availeth  wrath 
since  God  Almighty,  having  come  upon  this  earth,  hath  commanded 
each  Christian  man  thus  (to  love  his  enemies).  And,  moreover,  if  thou 
offendest  or  sinnest  against  the  Lord,  thou  shall  repent  and  receive 
shrift  thereof,  as  the  priest  teacheth  thee.  Do  not  return  evil  for 
evil,  as  was  formerly  done.  As  I  previously  stated,  if  any  man  sinned 
against  Christ  under  the  law  of  Moses,  he  was  grievously  tormented  to 
death,  and  moreover  his  sin  was  (not  expiated)  nevertheless  before  God. 
But  Christ,  through  his  great  mercy  having  descended  from  heaven, 
humbled  himself  so  that  he  was  born  of  our  Lady  Saint  Mary ;  and  he 
afterwards  lived  two  and  thirty  winters  in  this  world,  and  then  suffered 
death  for  all  mankind,  entirely  for  our  sins  and  not  for  his  own.  And  he 
gave  us  moreover  afterwards  a  great  gift,  through  his  great  humility, 
and  ordained  this  law  :  If  thou  sinnest  against  thy  neighbour  unwillingly, 
make  amends  for  it  willingly  whatsoever  way  thou  canst,  for  I  know 
full  well  that  thou  mightest  offend  against  thy  neighbour  (unwillingly). 
Then  will  Christ  forgive  thee  who  hath  commanded  thee  to  act  to- 
wards each  man  as  thou  wouldest  that  each  should  act  towards  thee 
in  accordance   with  thy  will.     And  moreover  he  gave  us  a  high   gift, 


miht  al  swa  hit  is  nu  La^e  a  londe.  5if  heo  nullum  nefre  iswiken 

ne  ffan  to  bote  '.    hit  is  riht  bet  me  hem  spille.  forban   betere   better  de- 

°  s  •■  '  stroy  the  body 

hit  is  bet  heo  beon  ispilled  of  heore  licome  benne  mid  alle  fordou   than  the  soul- 

to  bes  deofles  hond.     Gif  bin  nexta  freond  agult  wrS  be  beo  hit   How  to  deal 

'  >  .  .         with  th-v 

of  ane  binge  beo  hit  of  o^re  alsvva  mom  de^  '.  bide  hine  luueliche  suilt>'  neish- 

>       °  hour. 

bet  he  be  do  riht.     Gif  he  nulle  f  nim  tweien  of  bine  freond  and 

ga  3et  bi-sec  hine.    and  gif  he  nule  be  3et '   men  be  to  halie 

chirche.  bet  is  to  ban  preoste  and  to  ban  folke.     *  Gif  lie  him     *  [Fol.  5b.] 

nule  rihtlechen  for  preoste  na  for  halie  chirche  .'  hald  hine  benne 

swilche  mon  be  beo  bute  la3e  and  he^enne  monne  %e  ilic.  bine 

frond  bu  luuest  for  J>am  goddede  be  he  be  de^  and  he  be  alswa. 

bet  nis  noht.     Ah  benne  were  bu  wel  his  freond  toward  criste  f    Keep  thy 

*  '  '  friend  out  of 

Gif  bu  hine  ise3e  bet  he  wulle  asottie  to  bes  deofles  hond  and  to  *e  ''aIul  of 

his  wei'kes.  bet  bu  hine  lettest.  emcZ  wr5-stewest  ^if  bu  mihtest 

anc£  crist  hafe^  ihaten  bet  bu  scalt  luuan  bine  feond  for  his  luue 

and  wrS-stewen   his   uueles  ^if  bu   mul^e.    and  bide  for   him 

deihwamliche   }>et  crist  hine  bringe   bet  he  icherre   from    ban 

uuelnesse  ear  his  ende  dei.     Hwet  halt  be  wredSe  seod^an  bus 

god  alniihtin  hauet  ihaten  uwil[c]ne  cristene  mon  seodftan  he 

com    on   bis  middelerd  and  ec   3if  bu   agultest.  o^er  sunegest 

toward  drihten  bet  bu  scalt  gan  to  bote  and  niman  scrift  ber 

of  al  swa  be  proest  be  techet.     Ne  do  bu  bin  uuel  on-gein  uuel   Return  not 
'     1  '  .  evil  for  evil- 

swa  me  dude  hwile.     Al  swa  ic  er  seide.     31'f  eni  mon  touward 

criste   isunegede   on    Moyses  la3e.   he  wes   ipinet  ermiliche   to 

de^e  and  ec  nes  his  sunne  nobelesse  to  drihten.     Ah  crist  burh   riirist  instl- 

'  r  tuted  tlie  law 

his  muchele  mildheortnesse  seodftan  he  a-steh  of  heuene  riche.   of  mercy. 

and  eadmode  hine  seolfne  bet  he  wes  iboren  of  ure  lefdi  Zeinte 

Marie,  and  he  wes  seod^an  twa  and  britti  wintra  on  bisse  Hue. 

and  seod^an   brouwede  de£  for  al   moncun   al  for  ure  neode 

nawiht  *for  his.  and  ec  3ef  us  seod^an  ane  muchele  3ef  for  his    *  LFo1- 6u  ] 

muchele  eadmodnesse  and  sette  bas  lase.     Gif  bu  agultest  wiS   The  golden 

'  J  jo  rule  of  action. 

}mie  efen-nexta  un^onkes  f  bet  hit  bin  bonkes  hu  se  bu  miht 
wft>  him  for-bon  ic  wat  fulwel  \et  bu  miht  agultan  wrS  bine  euen 
nexta.  pa  wile  crist  be  haue^  ihate  bet  bu  beode  eilcmon  al 
swa  bu  waldest  bet  me  dude  be  bines  bonkes.  and  ba  3et  he  3ef 
us  ane  he3e  3efe.     Gif  we  sunegie^  towaarS  him.  Ave  sculen  gan 



If  we  sin  against  him  Ave  must  repent  and  leave  off  our  misdeeds  ere 
our  lives  end,  and  then  we  shall  not  be  punished  for  them,  as  was 
formerly  the  case.  But  thou  shalt  repent  as  thy  shriver  teacheth  thee. 
Now,  good  men,  Christ  gave  us  many  free  gifts  when  he  came  upon 
this  earth,  not  on  account  of  our  merits,  but  for  his  great  mercy. 
Previously  we  were  all  doomed  to  hell  through  Adam  our  old  father, 
because  he  broke  God's  behests ;  and  wholly  for  the  necessities  of  us, 
sinful  wretches,  Christ  descended  to  this  life  and  suffered  death 
for  us,  and  delivered  us  out  of  the  abyss  of  hell,  through  his  precious 
flesh  and  blood  ;  and  moreover  he  hath  prepared  for  us  the  eternal 
bliss,  if  we  strive  to  merit  it,  in  the  kingdom  of  heaven.  Take  heed 
now,  dear  men,  what  great  gifts  he  giveth  us,  he  that  aforetime  dearly 
ransomed  us  ;  and  moreover  he  established  the  law  of  his  mercy  for 
us,  when  he  came  among  us — that  if  we  sinned  we  should  repent,  and 
mortify  the  wretched  body  meetly  in  return,  because  the  body  loveth 
much  sloth,  and  much  eating  and  drinking,  and  lust  and  pride,  and 
highmindedness,  and  unlawful  possession  of  other  men's  goods,  because 
it  pleases  him  not  to  labour  honestly  (for  his  living)  in  this  life. 
All  that  the  body  loves,  that  the  soul  hates,  and  woe  is  her  therefore  ! 
Now  shall  we  therefore  abstain  from  the  lust  of  the  body,  and  labour 
for  the  soul's  behoof  while  we  may — while  Christ  may  give  us  respite 
in  this  life.  Because  Christ  has  given  us  much  greater  bliss  and  liberty 
in  this  life  to  obtain  the  kingdom  of  heaven  than  he  did  the  men  of 
whom  I  previously  spake,  (who  lived)  before  he  was  born,  for  then  many 
a  man  abstained  from  sinning  against  others,  on  account  of  the  awful 
doom  and  for  fear  of  the  Lord  ;  and  they  knew  not  so  much  of  him  as 
we  know,  except  they  knew,  through  the  holy  prophets,  that  he  was 
holy  and  mighty,  and  exalted  above  heaven  and  earth  and  above  all 
things,  and  that  he  should  come  upon  this  earth  for  our  necessities ;  and 
though  they  then  observed  his  laws  and  behests  faithfully  and  believed 
in  him  truly,  we  sinful  wretches  do  not  so,  but  daily  add  sin  to  sin. 
We  should  love  and  obey  him  and  observe  his  behests  wholly  on  account 
of  our  own  necessities,  for  we  have  heard  through  wise  teachers  how 
he  first  created  this  world  wholly  for  our  need,  and  suffered  death 
for  us  ;  and  each  day  we  hear  it  related,   and  we  know  it  for  truth, 


to  bote  and  forleten  ure  misdede  er  ure  Hues  ende  ne  seal  us   We  shall  not 

be  punished 

nan  mon  pinian  ber  for  al  swa  me  dude  hwile.     Ah  bu  scalt  nit   for  our  sins, 

if  we  repent 

ibetere  al  swa  bin  scrifte  be  techet.     Nu  godemon  crist  us  %ef  of  them. 

moni  freo  3euex  seodSan  he  com  on  bisse  midelerd  nawiht  for  ure     '  MS-  3ene. 

ernunge  bute  for  his  muchele  mildheortnesse.  er  we  weren  al  for- 

gult  in  to  belle  burh  adam  ure  aide  feder  for-bon  be  he  to-brec 

godes  bebode  and  al  for  ure  neode  wrecche  sunfule  he  asteh  to   Christ  died 

°  for  sinners. 

bisse  Hue.  and  brouwede  de^  for  us  and  alesde  us  of  belle  grunde 
mid  bis  derewurSe  flesse  and  mid  his  blode  and  ba  3et  be  haueo" 
us  i3arket  ba  ecche  blisse  3if  we  wulleS  hit  iernien  in  heuene 
riche.  NimaS  3eme  nu  leofemon  hwilche  3ife  he  us  3efe:$  bet 
bet  ear  us  bohte  deore.  and  ba  3et  he  us  astalde  his  mildheort- 
nesse la3e  seodSan  he  com  a-mong  us  bet  is  xif  we  suneged  we  The  body  is  to 

be  punished. 

hit  sculen  beote  and  pinian  bene  wrecbe  licome  *imececheliche2  *  [Foi.  66.] 
ber  a-3ein.  for-bon  be  licome  luua^  muchele  slauSe3  and  muchele  3M™eslailc$e'. 
etinge4  and  drunkunge.  and  glanesse.5  and  prude,  and  ouer-     "Ms.ecinge. 

'■>  ?  galuesse. 

modinesse  and  o^ermonnes  istreon  mid  woh^e  for-bon  be  him 

ne  lust  swinken  mid  rihte  on  bisse  Hue.     Al  bet  be  licome  luue^   The  body 

loves  what  the 

bet  ba  saule  hete<5  and  wa  is  hire  ber  fore.     Nu  sculle  we  for-lete  soul  hates. 

•i"  -i      e*s  i       m       ForsaUe  the 

bes  licome  lust  for-bon.  and  tihan  to  bere  saule  binof¥e  ba  hwile  body's  lusts. 
we  ma3en  ba  hwile  crist  us  wule  3efen  furst  on  bisse  Hue.  for- 
bon  crist  us  haue^  i3efen  muchele  mare  blisse  and  forla3e  on 
bisse  Hue  to  bi3eten  heouene  riche.  benne  he  dude  ban  monne  be 
ic  er  cwe^  er  he  were  iboren.  for-bon  monimon  hit  forlet  bet  he   Those  under 

'  _  '  the  old  law 

ne  misdude  wiS  o^erne  for  bon  eisliche  dome,  and  for  drihtenes  observed 

>  God's  laws. 

eie  and  bat  nusten  heo  nawiht  swa  muchel  of  him  swa  we  witen. 

bute  bet  heo  wisten  ^urh  be  halie  witege  bet  he  wes  hali  and 

mihti  and  heh  ouer  heouene  and  ouer  eorSa  and  ouer  alle  bing 

and  bet  he  sculde  cumen  to  bisse  middeleard  for  ure  neode  and 

bah  heo  heolden  wel  his  la3e  ba  and  is  heste.  and  bi-lefden  wel 

on  him.  we  wrecche  sunfulle  ne  do  we  noht  swa.     Ah  sette^   we  do  not, 

deihwamliche  sunne  uppon   sunne  we  hine  sculde  luuian  and  but  daily  add 

sin  to  sin. 

hersumian  and  balden  bis  heste  al  for  ure  a3ene  neode.  forSon 
we  habbe^  ihereden  burh  wise  witega  hu  he  erest  astalde  beos 
woreld.  Al  for  ure  neode.  and  he  breowede  de^  for  us.  and 
uwlche  dei  we  ihere^  siggen.  *  and  we  hit  witen  to  so^e.  and     *[Foi.7a.] 


and  we  see  what  marvels  and  joy  he  did  and   doth  daily.     Wherefore 
we  should  observe  his  behests  among  us.     Great  is  thy  earthly  lord's 
awe,   and  a  hundredfold  more   is    Christ's  awe  ;    for   the    earthly   lord 
may  do  no  more  than  put  the  wretched  body  to  death,  but  God  Almighty 
may  destroy  both  thy  wretched  body  and  thy  soul.     Such  a  lord  we 
ought  to  dread,  that  is  God  Almighty.     Now,  good  men,  some  of  us 
through    this  world's    treachery  and   also   through   the   body's   lust,   as 
I  have  before  said,  are  unable  in  any  wise  to  observe  Christ's  behests  ; 
that  is  the  greater  harm  to  us,  for  this  world  ever  striveth  against  us 
and  we  against  her  with  great    difficulty,  so  that  we   sin  against   the 
Lord's  will  more  often  than  we  should,  but  I  say  unto  you  for  truth 
the  more  tribulation  thou    hast  in   this    life    of   thy  body,   the  better 
thou  shouldest  obey  thy  dear  Lord  and  keep  his  behests.     If  it  befalleth 
that    thou    breakest    God's   behests  unwillingly,  repent    of   it    willingly 
— that  is,  thou  shalt  go  to  shrift  and   punish  thy  body  that  causeth 
thee  to  do  so,  and  destroy  the  devil.     For  first  of  all  thou  thinkest  the 
sin  with  thy  thought.     The  devil  may  not  be  aware  of  the  sin  never- 
theless until  thou  hast  committed  it  with  the  body — then  cometh   the 
devil    therein    and   perceiveth    it,    and   moreover   he   writes    it   in    his 
tablets,   and  ever  he  (Satan)  dwelleth  in  the  foul  sin  until  the  man's 
day    of   death,    unless    he   drive   him   away    with   true   repentance,   by 
sorrow  for  his  sins.     The  wretched  sinner  should   not  delay  to  repent 
the   while   he    may — to-day   he    may,    to-morrow    it   fails    him.     Dear 
brethren,  distrust   not   Christ's  mercy  nor  his  compassion  as  do  many 
a  man  that   saith  and   thinketh,   "  How  may  I    ever   repent ;    I    have 
done  such  great  and  so  manifold  sins,  I   can  never  repent  of  them  in 
my  lifetime."     The  Book  saith  thus  :  "  O  alas  !  that  he  ever  will  so  think 
in  his  mind."     Be  it  (the  sin)  ever  so  mean  or  ever  so  high,  ever  so 
great  or  ever  so   small,  though  one   of   us  had    done  the  sins  of  you 
all,  if  he  would  go  to  shrift  and  be  sorry  for  them  and  renounce  them 
evermore,  Christ  is   willing  to   shew  mercy  for  his  great  mildhearted- 
ness  (compassion),  except  to  the  man  that  so  thinketh,  as  I  previously 
said,   and    distrusts   God's    mercy.      If   he  remaineth    in   that   sin  and 
thought  he  is  utterly  lost  in  hell  pit,  and  the  men  also  who  will  not 


we  hit  iseoS  hwilche  wunder  and  murine  he  dude,  and  deS 
deihwamliche.  for-bi  we  scolden  halden  his  heste  us  bitwenam 
Muchel  is  bines  eorSliches  louerdes  eie.  and  hunfold  mare  is  a  hundred- 

'  fold  more  is 

cWstes  eie.  forSon  be  eorSliche  lauerd  ne  mei  don  na  mare  bote  Christ's  awe 

'  than  any 

pinen  be  wrecche  licome  to  dea^e.     Ah  godalmihtin  be  mei  for-  earthly  lord's. 

don  erSer  $e  bine  wrecche  licome  and  bine  saule.    Swiclne  lauerd 

we  asen  to  dreden.  bet  is  godalmihtin.     Nu  godemen  sunmie  of  The  world  and 

'  °  the  flesh  cause 

us  for  bisse  weorlde  lewnesse  and  ec  for  ba  licome  lustfulnesse.   us  to  sin. 

al  swa  ic  ear  cweS  we  ne  ma3en  aire  coste  halden  crist  bibode  bet 

us  is  be  mare  herrn.  forSon  a  bis  worPS  whrS  on3ein  us.  and  we  The  world 

,  ever  fights 

on-sein  heo  mid  muchele  earueSnesse1  for-bi  we  sunegiet  on^ein  against  us. 

D  -v  'MS.earne'S- 

drihtenes  welle  ofter  bene  we  scolde.  ah  ic  eow  segge  to  so^e  bes  nesse. 
bu  hefdest  mare  deruenesse  on  bisse  liue  of  bine  licome  f  bes  bu 
scoldest  hersumian  be  bet  bine  leofe  drihten   and  balden  his 
bibode.     Gif  hit  itit  bet  bu  brekest  godes  heste  unbonkes  be2  hit    2?  bet. 
bin  bonkes.  bet  is  bet  bu  scalt  gan  to  scrifte  and  pinian  bine   Punish  the 
licome  be  hit  be  make^  don.  and  scenden  bene  deofel  forSon  aire  caraeth  thee 

>  >  '  to  sin. 

erest  bu  benchest  ba  sunne  mid  bine  bonke.     Ne  mei  be  deofle  The  devil 

.  .  ....  knows  not  of 

ba  sunne  iwitew  ba  ;et  er  bu  habbe  heo  idon  mid  be  licome  benne  the  sin  hefore 

r      '  r  r  f  it  is  done  in 

kime^  be  deofel  ber  on  and  wit  heo.  and  ec  he  writ  heo  in  his  the  body, 
tables,  and  a  he  wune^  mne  fule  sunne  to  bes  morales  ende  dei. 
bute  he  hine  driue  a-wei.     *Mid  sod^e  dedbote  his  sunne  bi     *  [Pol.  76.] 
reowsumnesse.  be  wrecche  sunfulle  ne  elde  nawiht  bet  he  ne  ga  Let  not  the 

'  *  sinner  delay 

to  bote   be  wile  he  mei   to  dei   he  mei.  toma^an  hit   him  is  to  repent. 

awane  :     Leofe  bro^re  ne  ouertrowi3e  cWstes  milce  ne  his  mild- 

heortnesse  al  swa  monimon  serS  and  wene^.     Hu  mei  ic  efre 

ibete  ic  habbe  idon  swa  muchele  and  swa  monifalde  ne  bete  ic 

hit  nefre  on  mine  liue.     O.  serS  bus  be  boc.  wei  bet  he  eure  hit 

wule  ibenche  m  his  bonke.     Ne  beo  heo  nefre  swa  frekel.  ne  swa  Christ  is  able 

to  forgive  all 

heh.  ne  swa  muchel.  ne  swa  e^elic.  bah  ure  an  heofde  idon  eower  sins,  great  and 


aire  sunne  and  he  walde  gan  to  scrifte  and  bi-reusien  ha.  and 

forleten  ha  a  mare,  bet  crist  almihti  nule3  milcie  for  his  muchele    3?wuie. 

mildheortnesse  bute  ban  ilke  monne  be  swa  benched,  swa  ic  er 

cwe^.  and  ouer-treowe^  godes  milce.      Gif  he  bid^ed4  mna  ba    4  ?  biddeft. 

sunne.  and  in  bon  bonke.  he  is  al  for-loren  into  helle  gru?ide. 

and  ba  monne  ec  ba  nulled  ileuen.  bet  he  waPS5  beon  iboren  of    » ?  waide. 


believe  that  Christ  should  be  born  of  our  Lady  Saint  Mary  and  suffer 
death  for  us — and  also  the  sinful  man  who  continues  ever  in  evil  deeds 
and  thinketh,  "  Herein  I  will  ever  lie  (stay)  until  I  be  older  or  I  be  sick, 
then  will  I  be  sorry  and  repent,  for  the  Lord  is  exceedingly  merciful, 
he  will  forgive  me."  Thus  the  devil  will  destroy  the  wretch,  and  that,  we 
believe  assuredly,  as  quickly  as  Adam  our  forefather  first  doomed  us 
by  his  trespass  to  hell.  So  no  man  may  say  how  much  more  God 
Almighty's  mercy  and  compassion  is  towards  the  sinful  man  if  he  will 
beseech  him  with  good  heart  and  with  true  penitence,  and  if  he  will 
throughly  forsake  his  sins  and  make  confession  thereof  and  repent  ever- 
more. Dear  brethren  aud  sisters,  if  we  make  confession  of  one  or  of  two 
sins  and  yet  follow  one,  God  Almighty  will  not  be  well  pleased.  The 
priest  may  not  shrive  thee,  unless  thou  wilt  entirely  forsake  thy 
sins.  How  may  the  physician  heal  thee  whilst  the  iron  sticketh  in 
thy  wound  1  Never.  Neither  canst  thou  be  shriven  sufficiently  well 
to  please  God  Almighty,  unless  thou  forsake  all  thy  sins,  both  the 
one  and  the  other.  Know  well  that  one  sin  will  mar  all  the  goodness 
and  the  alms,  and  the  amends  that  thou  dost  for  the  other.  A  little 
poison  envenometh  much  sweetness ;  and  though  a  castle  be  well  gar- 
risoned with  men  and  with  weapons,  yet  if  there  be  a  single  hole 
whereby  a  man  may  creep  in,  is  it  not  all  in  vain  1  What  betokeneth 
the  castle  but  man  himself?  What  are  the  men  who  are  in  the  castle 
and  defend  it  but  man's  eyes,  feet,  hands,  mouth,  nose,  and  ears  1 
These  are  the  limbs  that  a  man  sometimes  sinneth  with.  Thou  shouldst 
keep  them  as  purely  as  Christ  gave  them  unto  thee  in  the  bath  of 
baptism.  Natheless  sometimes  thou  sinnest  with  these  limbs  more 
often  than  thou  shouldest.  It  is  no  wonder  if  a  man  sin  occasionally 
through  weakness,  but  it  is  much  more  wonder  if  he  will  never  cease. 
As  I  have  before  stated,  What  mean  the  weapons  *? — thy  alms  that  thou 
dost,  that  is,  that  thou  goest  gladly  to  church,  and  feedest,  and  lodgest, 
and  clothest  poor  men,  and  every  other  good  that  it  ma}r  be  in  thy 
power  to  do.  And  moreover  when  thou  art  obedient  to  sin,  that 
betokens  the  hole  (breach)  that  I  previously  spoke  of.  Who  creepeth 
therein  ?  The  accursed  devil.  Because  when  sin  is  committed  he  comes 
thereafter  and  dwells  ever  therein,  except  thou  repent  of  it.  How 
mightest  thou  perform   thy  alms  and   please   the  Lord  while   thou  art 


ure  lefdi  sancte  marie  ne  bolien  de?  for  us.  and  ec  ba  sunfulle 

monne  be  dre3e?  a  heore  uuele  werkes.  and  benched  her  on  ic    Some  delay 


wille  lig<?en  a  bet  ic  beo  ealdre  o?er  bet  ic  beo  sec.  benne  wulle  ic    tui  they  are 

00  r  ...  old  and  sick. 

birewsien.  and  beten.  forSon  drihten  is  niildheorte?  inob  lie  wule 

hit  me  fo^euen.  bus  be  deofel  wule  bilesnien  be  wreche.  and  ec 

we  ileue?  to  sobe  alswa  redliche  swa  adam  ure  eldre  feeler  us 

forgulte  erest  in  to  belle.     *  Swa  ne  mei  nan  mon  seggen  hu     *  [Fo1-  8a.] 

muchele  mare  godalmihtines  milce  and  bis  mildbeortnesse  is  ber   say  how  great 

a3ein.  bon  sunfulle  monne  be  bine  wile  biseche  mid  gode  beorte   mercy. 

and  mid  so|>e  dedbote  bis  sunne  3if  be  wile  heo  burhut  forleten 

and  nimin  scrift  ber-of.  and  beten  a  mare.     Leofe  breo?re  and 

sustre  bab  we  numen  scrift  of  ane  sunne  o?re  of  twa.  and  be1     '?we. 

fulie  ane  nis  bet  icweme  godalmibti.     Ne  be  preost  be  ne  mei   thy  sins. 

scrife  bute  bu  wulle  heo  alforleten.     Hu  mei  be  lecbe  be  lechnien2     2  MS,  lechi- 


ba  hwile  bet  iren  sticat  in  bine  wunde.  Nefre.  Ne  bu  ne  mi3t 
beon  wel  iscrifen  god  almibti  to  cweme.  bute  bu  heo  alle  for-lete 
ei?er  ye  ba  ane  ye  ba  o?er.  wite  be  wel  bet  be  an  sunne  wule  one  sin  mars 

all  the  atone- 

amerran  al  ba  eodnesse.  and  be  almesse.  and  ba  dedbote  be  bu   mentmade 

r      °  r  r  r      r       for  the  others. 

dest  of  f>am  o?er.  A  lutel  ater  bitteret  muchel  swete.  And  bah 
an  castel  beo  wel  bewoned  mid  niowne  and  mid  wepne.  and  ber 
beo  analpi  holh  bat  an  mon  mei  crepan  in.  Nis  hit  al  unnet. 
hwet  itacnet  be  castel  be  mon  seolf.  hwet  ba  men  be  beo?  in  be   Man  sins  with 

eyes,  hands, 

castel  and  bin  3enie?.   bet  beo?  bes  monnes  e3an.  and  his  fet.   feet,  &c. 

and  his  hondan.  and  bis  mu?.  and  his  nesa.  and  his  earen.  her 

beo?  ba  limen  bet  suneGet  uwilene  mow.  bu  scodeldest3  heo  bi-     3  ?  scoidest. 

witen  al  swa  clenlicbe  swa  crist  ha  be  bitahte  on  bas  fulhtes  be?e. 

Nobeles  o?erhwile  bu  sunegest  mid  sumrne  of  bisse  *  limen  ofter     *  [Foi.  86.] 

benne  bu  scoidest.  hit  nis  nan  wunder  bah  mon  sunegie  o?er 

hwile  unwaldes.  ah  hit  is  muchele  muchele4  mare  wunder  ^if  he     4sic 

nule  nefre  swiken.     Al  swa  ic  er  ewe?  hwet  tacne?  ba  wepne   Aims,  &c— 

1  •  1  •  1-111T1  tDe   WeaP°nS 

bine  elmisse  be  bu  dest.  bet  is  bu  gast  to  chirche  blubebche  and  to  be  used 

against  sin. 

fedest  wreche  men  and  herebure3est  and  scrudest  elles  al  bet  bu 
mabt  don  to  gode.  and  ba  3et  bu  hersumest  bere  sunne  )?et  is  bet 
holh  }>et  ic  er  ewe?  hwa  creope?  ber-in  f  be  awariede  deofel. 
forSon  j^enne  be  sunne  bi?  idon.  Seod?an  bicumet  he.  and 
wunet  )>er-on  abute  j?u  bit  bete,  bu  mibt  bu  don  bine  elmesse  and 

24  FIRST    SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

a  slave  to  thy  sin  1  And  after  thou  wilt  promise  God  Almighty  and  thy 
confessor  that  thou  wilt  forsake  thy  misdeeds,  and  takest  shrift  thereof 
and  departest  afterward  and  dost  the  same  sins,  then  followest  thou 
the  habits  of  the  hound  that  now  spews  and  afterwards  eateth  its 
vomit,  and  becometh  much  fouler  than  it  erewhile  was.  Such  becomes 
the  man  ;  he  at  first  had  one  sin  and  afterwards  hath  two,  if  he 
knowingly  does  this ;  he  who  will  frequently  repent  and  frequently 
sin  he  displeaseth  our  Lord.  And  again,  many  a  man  continues  in 
his  foul  sin,  and  ever  it  appears  to  him  that  he  is  guilty  of  very 
little  wrong  when  he  has  unlawful  possession  of  another  man's  pro- 
perty ;  and  even  though  he  impute  to  himself  any  deadly  sin,  he  will 
not  nevertheless  repent  of  it,  but  thus  thinketh,  "  I  am  whole  and 
sound  and  strong  and  stalworth,  I  may  yet  live  long  and  repent  in 
good  time  of  all  my  sins."  Then  cometh  hereunder  the  devil  treacher- 
ously withal  and  cutteth  short  his  days  and  casteth  him  into  hell 
pain,  where  he  shall  dwell  ever  endlessly  ;  and  from  that  hell  and 
that  pine  (torment)  preserve  us  God  the  Father,  Son,  and  Holy 
Ghost,  dwelling  and  ruling  in  the  world  ever  without  end.     Amen. 



Tn  Lenten  time  each  man  goes  to  confession ;  there  are  some  to  whom 
there  is  greater  harm  in  going  (than  in  abstaining),  as  I  will  now 
tell  you.  He  saith  with  the  mouth  what  is  not  in  his  heart.  "  I  will  go 
to  shrift  for  shame,  as  other  men  do ;  if  I  neglect  the  priest  will  ask 
me  on  Easter  Day  who  shrove  me,  before  he  administer  to  me  the 
sacrament,  and  also  for  the  sake  of  man's  esteem."  He  does  not  go 
to  shrift  as  other  [good]  men  do,  but  acts  like  the  cheat  who  at  last  de- 
ceiveth  himself,  and  is  as  a  rosy  apple — fair  without  and  rotten  within. 
Alas  that  he  will  ever  dare  or  think  with  his  foul  heart  to  receive 
so  high  and  so  holy  a  thing  as  is  Christ's  flesh  into  his  sinful  body, 
and  thinketh  that  it  will   help  him.      Nay  truly  not !    but  when   the 


icwemen  drihten.  ba  hwile  bu  beowest  bire  sunne  and  eft  bu  wult  Thou  canst 

'  '       '  '  '  not  please  God 

bi-hateu  god  almihtin  and  bine  scrifte  \et  bu  wult  forleten  bine  and  serve  sin. 

misdede.  and  nimest  scrift  ber-of.  and  ferest  be  eft  and  dest  ba 

ilke  sunne  benne  hafest  bu  bes  hundes  lase  be  nu  speowe^  and  ef 1     ' ?  eft- 

T       r  3     '  m        The  sinner  is 

lilt  fret,  and  brS  muchele.  fulre  bene  he  wes  earSon.     Swa  brS  like  the  hound 

'  that  eateth  his 

be  mon  erSon  he  hefde  anfalde  sunne  and  seod^an  he  hauef2   vomit 

2  ?  nauet- 
twafald  gif  he  hit  de^  in  his  witscipe.  be  be  wule  ilome  ibeten. 

and  ilome  breken.  he  greme^  ure  drihten  and  eft  moni  mon 

dre3et  his  fule  sunne  and  efre  him  bui^e^3  al  to  lutel  bat  he  de^    3  ?  J'inge'S. 

to  unrihte  \et  he  habbe  o^er  monnes  [istreon]  mid  wohe.  and  bah 

he  wite  mid  him  seolf  eni  heafsunne  he  ha  *nule  beten  ba  3et  ah     *  [Foi.  9a.] 

The  sinner  de- 

benchet  ic  em  hal.  and  fere,  and  strong,  and  stelewurSe  3et  ic  mei   lays  repent. 

ance  until  he 

longe  libben  and  alle  mine  sunne  timliche  ibeten.  ben-ne  cume^  her  shall  hecome 

°  '  old,  but  the 

under  be  deofel  swican¥liche  mid  alle  and  him  scorteft  his  dases  denieute 

'  J         short  his  days. 

and  awerpe^  bine  in  to  belle  pine  ber  he  seal  vvnian4  abuten  ende     4  ?  wunian. 
from  ban  belle  and  from  ban  pine  us  bure^e  be  lauerd  be  is  feder 
and  sune  and  hali  gast  wuniende  and  on  worlde  a  buten 
ende.     Amen. 




n  leinten  time  uwile  mon  fjao"  to  scrifte  ;  ber  beo¥  summe   Lent,  the 

°  '    '  time  for  con- 

be  mare  herm  is  be  ga^  al  swa  ic  nube  eow  tellen  wulle.    fession- 

He  serS  mi%5  ba  mu^e  bet  nis  naut  in  his  heorte.  ic  wulle  gan     5  ?  mid. 

.  Some  men  go 

to   scrifte   for  scome   alswa   doti   ofter  men.      311   ic  forlete   be   to  confession 

merely  to  be 

preost  me  walde  eskien  on  ester  dei  hwa  me  scriue  er  he  me   iii<e  other 


3efe  husul  and  ec  for  monne  weordes  ¥.inge.  he  ne  gad  naut  to 

scrifte  al  swa  do^  o¥er  men.     Ah  al  swa  he  doft6  swa  be  swica     *<gxymaiiy 

be  bi-swike^   hine  seolfe  on-ende   and  bi¥  al  swa  is  an  eppel    He  is  like  an 

,  .  #  apple,  fair 

iheowe^.  he  bi^  wrS-uten   feire  and  frakel  wrS-innen.     Awah   without  and 

corrupt  with- 

\>et   he   efre  wulle   bristelechen   o^er  bi-benchen    mid    his    fule   in- 
heorte  be  heo  wulle  underfon  swa  he3  bing  and  swa  hali  swa   Christ's  flesh 
is  cWstes  licome  in  his  sunfulle  buke.   and  wene^  \>et  hit  wulle   hj'm."01  avai1 

26  FIRST   SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

priest  putteth  it  in  his  mouth,  then  cometh  the  Lord's  angel  and  taketh 
the  holiness  with  him  toward  heaven-kingdom.  As  for  what  remaineth 
there  in  his  mouth,  if  any  man  were  able  to  perceive  it,  he  might 
see  a  burning  gleed  that  consumes  him  all  to  coals.  Dear  men,  if  thou 
hast  been  very  guilty  towards  thy  earthly  lord,  he  will  forbid  thee 
his  presence,  and  moreover  thou  durst  not  come  before  him  on  account 
of  thy  guilt.  How  dare  the  wretched  man  receive  God's  flesh  and 
blood  in  his  body  1  How  durst  thou,  man,  there  again  receive  God's 
flesh  and  blood  in  thy  body  along  with  vile  sin  and  also  with  the 
devil  that  dwelleth  in  him  1  It  does  him  more  harm  than  good,  for 
it  draweth  him  to  the  bitter  death  of  hell  more  than  to  everlasting  life. 
The  devil  dwelleth  in  the  sinful  man  until  he  hath  brought  him 
wholly  to  his  will  in  all  things,  and  the  devil  indeed  so  reigneth  in 
him  that  he  will  never  forsake  his  sin.  The  devil  thus  thinks,  "  This 
man  I  have  taken  to  my  own  behoof — more  men  should  I  so  obtain 
[through  him]."  By  (of)  such  men  saith  the  Lord  in  his  Gospel  thus 
speaking,  Cum  inmundus  spiritus  exierit  ab  homine,  ambulat  per  vias 
inaquosas,  querens  requiem  et  non  invenit.  The  unclean  spirit  goeth 
out  from  the  sinful  man  and  goeth  from  place  to  place  and  seeketh 
rest  where  he  may  dwell,  but  he  may  not  dwell  in  any  good  man ; 
for  if  he  be  well  shriven  and  God-fearing,  the  devil  may  never  come  into 
him  because  of  his  good  works.  Then  saith  he  after — Revertar  in  domum 
meam  unde  exivi — now  I  must  [dwell]  in  the  same  house  in  which  I 
erewhile  was ;  and  then  goeth  he  and  taketh  him  seven  devils  which  are 
much  worse  than  he.  They  go  as  I  ere  said,  and  dwell  in  him 
ever  more,  and  so  perishes  his  wretched  soul  in  everlasting  torment 
in  the  pit  of  hell.  Ere  that  he  had  but  one  devil,  now  he  hath  seven. 
Now  though  he  were  willing  to  forsake  his  evil  sins,  he  is  not  able,  on 
account  of  the  devils  [within  him].  But  to  what  men  does  this  that 
I  have  mentioned  happen  1  By  Christ !  it  befalls  those  men  that  go 
to  shrift  more  for  the  world's  shame  than  for  to  repent  of  and  be 
sorry  for  their  sins.  Wherefore  will  a  man  go  to  confession  unless  he  is 
willing  to  forsake  and  repent  of  his  sins  1     Of  a  truth  if  thou  accusest 


him  helpe/i  i  NeisoSliche  nawiht  ah  benne  be  preost  hit  deS  in  The  housei 

1  .   .  .  sha11  lie  taken 

his  mube.  benne  cumeS  drihtenes  engel  and  binimeS  ba  halinesse   out  of  ins 

>        >  °  '  mouth  by 

mid  him  toward  heouene  *  riche.  bet  per  bilef^  in  his  mnSe.    God's  ansel- 

ah  3if  eni  nio»  hit  muste  isean.  he  mahte  iseon  ane  bermnde 

glede  \et  hine  al  for-berna^  burnt  to  cole.      Leofemen  ^\i  bu 

ert  swrSe  for-gult  wK  bine  eorSliche  lauerd  he  be  wule  for- 

beode  of  his  esane  on  siht.1  and  ec  bu  ne  derst  cumen  bi-foren     '  ?a3eneon- 

.  sint- 

him  fore  bine  gulte.    Hu  der  be  wrecche  mon  underfon  drihtenes 

fleis  and  his  blod  in  his  licome.  hu  derst  bu  mon  ber  on^ein 

underfon   drihtenes  [fleis]  and  his  blod  in  bine  licome  imong 

ban  unwreste  sunne  and  ec  imong  ban  deofle  be  wune^  in  him. 

Mare  hit   him  deS   to  herme  benne  to   erode   for  hit  hine  trS   it  shall  do  him 

>  °  more  harm 

to  ban  bittre  de^e  to  helle  mare  benne  to  ban  eche  Hue.     Swa   than  good. 
lonere  be  deofle  wuna$  swa  inne  be  sunfulle  men  a  bet  he  hine   The  devil 

&      r  r  '  dwells  in  the 

haue^  al  ifonded  to  his  wille  burhut.  and  be  deofel  bet  to  sobe   sinner, 
be  rixat  m-nan  him  bet  he  nulle  nefre  forleten  his  sunne.     He 
ben-che^  be  deofel.   besne  mon  ic  habbe  itaken  to  mine  a3ene 
bihofbe.2      Ma   monna  ic  scolde  bi3eten  swa  bi  hulche  monna     2  ms.  bi. 


ser5  drihten  in  his  spelle.  ba  he  bus  ewef  Cum  inmundus  spiritus 
exierit  ab  homine  ambulat  per  uia[s]  inaquosa[s]  querens  requiem 
&  non  inuenit  be  unclene  gast  be  geo'  him  of  ban  sunfulle  mon 
and  geS  him  of  ban  stude  to  stude.  and  seche^  reste  hwer  he 
mei  wunian.  *  ah  he  ne  mei  in  nane  gode  men.  forSon  3if  he     *  [Pol.  10a.] 

1  •*-  i     •         T  7  lrij.  i-iri  c  but  not  in  him 

bro  wel  iscraen  and  godiurht  ne  be  aeoiel  mey  neire  cumen   who  is  weU 

m-ne  him  for  his   gode  werkes.  benne  cweS  he  eft.  Eeuevtar  Godfearing. 

in  domum  meam  unde  exiui.     Nu  ic  mot  in  bet  ilke  hus  bet  ic 

er  wes.  and  benne  fera^  he  and  nime^  him  .vii.  deofle  be  beoS 

muchele  wurse  benne  he.  heo  fereS  swa  ic  er  cwe^.  and  wunia^S 

in  him  a  mare  and   swa  dreieS  his   erme  saule  in  eche  pine 

to  helle  grunde.     ErSon  he  nefde  bute  enne  deofel.  nu  he  haue^ 

sefene.     Nu  bah  he  walde  ba  ufele  sunne  for-leten  f  Ne  mei  he   The  devil  win 

not  let  the  im- 

for    ban    deoflan.     Ah   wulche   men   ilimpe^   swa  ic   habbe  er   penitent  for- 
sake his  sins. 

icwe^en '.  witicWst  bet  beo^  ba  men  be  ga<5  to  scHfte  mare 
for  worl[d]es  scome  benne  for  heore  sunne  to  beten '.  and  to 
reusi[e]n.  for  hwet  wule  mon  et  scWfte  bute  he  wulle  for  leten 
his  misdede.  and  beten.     So^liche  3if  bu  wreiest  be  seolfen  to 

28  FIRST   SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

thyself  to  thy  confessor,  the  devil  may  not  accuse  thee  in  the  other 
life ;  for  the  man  who  conceals  his  sins  in  this  life  shall  never  behold 
the  Almighty  Lord,  nor  aught  of  his  bliss.  How  mightest  thou  see 
thy  shadow  in  muddy  water  ]  What  is  shrift  but  to  renounce  the 
devil,  and  be  sorry  for,  repent,  and  bewail  one's  sins,  and  have  in 
his  mind  (determine)  never  more  again  to  commit  those  sins  that  he 
goeth  to  shrift  for ;  to  come  to  the  priest  and  accuse  himself  and 
say  there  what  is  in  his  mind, — "Alas,  that  I  ever  did  with  my 
wretched  body  these  sins ! "  For  God's  love  repent  of  your  sins 
while  ye  are  here  in  this  short  life,  and  think  how  little  time  ye 
shall  remain  here.  With  truth  thus  saith  the  book,  "  Robbers, 
spoilers,  thieves,  murderers,  covetous,  adulterers,  liars,  unjust  judges, 
jugglers,  and  other  sots  shall  have  a  reward  full  quickly."  What  say 
they  1  We  may  follow  our  will  while  we  are  young,  and  when  we 
become  older  we  will  repent.  Alas  wretch  !  thus  saith  the  book, 
"  Forsooth  as  easily  thou  mightest  take  thine  own  weapon  and  smite  off 
thine  own  head  and  return  again  to  thine  own  likeness."  How  mightest 
thou  return  to  thine  own  likeness  if  thy  head  were  off?  Never !  Also, 
thou  mayest  never  have  mercy  from  the  heavenly  God  if  thou  art 
taken  (or  diest)  in  this  same  thought.  In  a  single  instant  a  man 
may  receive  a  wound  in  his  body  that  will  be  a  long  time  in  healing; 
and  sometimes  it  fails  to  be  healed.  The  little  time  thou  dost  it  (sin) 
it  appears  to  thee  very  good  and  sweet,  and  afterwards,  by  Christ  !  it 
is  very  bitter  to  repent  of,  and  sometimes  it  happens  thou  never 
repentest  of  them  in  this  life.  What !  ween  these  spoilers  and 
robbers,  that  take  another  man's  goods  wrongfully,  that  Christ  will 
have  mercy  upon  them,  though  they  have  [not]  taken  and  obtained 
the  friendship  of  the  men  they  have  wronged  1  Nay !  Lo !  they 
think  thus  :  "  I  will  obtain  goods  wrongfully  while  I  am  able,  and 
afterwaixls  I  will  go  to  shrift,  and  renounce  and  fast  for  it."  He  that 
ever  fasteddi  and  ever  doth  evil  hath  the  practices  of  the  devil.  Thus  they 
think  that  they  will  take  and  nought  restore,  but  assuredly  he  must 
restore  if  he  hath  it ;  and  if  he  hath  it  not  let  him  restore  as  much  as 
he  is  able  and  quickly  seek  forgiveness  for  the  remainder.     He  will  think 


bine  scrifte  f  ne  mei  be  deofel  be  wreienson1  ban  crSre  Hue.  for    '  ?  wreien  on. 
be  mon  be  hele?  his  sunne  aiSisse  Hue  ne  siht  he  nefre  almihtin 
drihten.    ne    nawiht   of   his  blisse.      Hu    maht    bu    iseon    bine 
sceadewe  m  worie  watere  f       Hwet  is  scrift  bute  forlete  bene   Shrift  is  to 

forsake  the 

deofel.  and  bine  sunne.   and  bi-rewsien  and  beten  and  wepen.   devil  and  to 

'  repent  of  sin. 

and  habben  in  his  bonke  be  he  nule  nefre  mare  eft  %e  dou  beo 

suraien  f   be  he  ge?  to  scrifte  *  fore  and  cumen  to  ban  preoste     *  [Foi.  io&.] 

and  werian2  hine  seolfe.  and  cwe^en  in  his  bonke  bar  hi3  brS.     " ?  wreian. 

3  ?  he. 

Awah  '  bet  ic  hit  efre  dude  mid  mine  wrechede  licome  bas  suraien. 
for  godes  luue  bete1??  ower  sunnen  ba  wile  ^e  beo?  heren  on  bisse 
scorte  Hue.  and  ibenche?  hu  lutte  hw[i]le  ye  beo?  here.  Mid 
softe  bus  serS  be  boc.     Rubberes.4  and  ba  reueres.  and  ba  beoues.     4  ?  rupperes. 

7      •  T  ii  i  Robbers, 

and  ba  morSsla3a.   and  3itteres.   and  ba   eawbrekeres.    and   ba  thieves,  mur. 

deters,  and 

liseres  and  ba  wohdemeres  and  b&  iuguleres.  and  ba  o?er  sottes   other  sots 

•>  r  r  &  r  shall  have 

alle  heo  habbe?  an  bone  fulneh.  hwet  segge?  heo.  we  inoten  their  reward. 

idre3an  ure  wil  be  hwile  be  we  beo?  3unge.   and  eft  benne  we 

beo?  eldre  bete  we  hit   benne  weilawei  wrecche.  bus  ewe?  be 

boc.  So^liche  al  swa  e?a  bu  mihtest  neoman  bine  asen  wepne  To  dcIay re_ 

>  i  j  x  pentance  is 

and  smiten  of  bin  a3en  heaue?.  and  gan  eft  to  bin  a3ene  liche.  o»eo n "" 'n^ad 

hu  mahtest  bu  gan  to  bine  a3ene  liche  3if  bin  hefet  were  offe  f  to  retSnto18 

Nefre.  Alswa  nauest  bu  nefre  milce  of  heofenlic  drihten  i  3if  bu  f0rm.own 
eart  inumen  in  bon  ilke  bonke.  on  enelpi  luttele  hwile  mon  mei 
underfon   ane  wunde  on    his  licome  f    bet  ne  mei  beon  longe 
hwile  hal.     And  o^er  hwile  hit  is  on  wane  of  his  hele.   ba  lutle 
hw[i]le  bu  ha  dest  ha  be  bunched  fulgod.  and  ful  swete.  and  eft 

wite  cWst  heo  is  ful  biter5  to  betene,  and  oSer  hwile  hit  itit  bet  i  MS-  bicer- 

bu  heo  nefre  ne  ibettest  on  bisse  Hue.  hwet  *wene:S  bas  ruperes  *  [Foi.iia.] 

and  bas  reueres  bet  neme?  o?res  morales  eahte  mid  wohe.  bet  Robbers  and 

'  '  '         thieves  delay 

crist  heom  wulle  milcien  bah  heo  habbe?  inumen  and  heom  restitution. 
bi^eten  freondscipe  et  bon  monnen  '.  bet  heo  a-gult  habbe?  f 
nei.  hwet  benched  heo  bus  ic  wulle  bi^eten  mid  wohe.  ba 
hwile  ic  mei.  and  seo^an  ic  wulle  gan  to  scWfte.  and  forleten 
and  festen  ber  fore,  he  hauc?  bes  deofles  costes.  bet  a  feste?  and 
a  deft  uuel.  bus  ha  benched  bet  heo  wulle?  bi3eten '.  and  nawiht 
a3efen  ah  so^liche  al  he  hit  mot  a3efen  3if  he  hit  haue?.  and 
3if  he  hit  naue?  a3efe  swa  muchel  swa  he  mei  and  foi^euenesse 


it  very  hard  and  very  shameful  that  he  must  repay  all,  and  afterwards 
seek  forgiveness  of  the  man  of  whom  he  previously  stole  or  otherwise 
wrongfully  treated.  Joyfully  will  the  man  go  to  shrift  and  tell  the 
priest  that  he  hath  bereaved  and  stolen,  and  joyfully  he  will  hear 
(the  penance)  the  priest  layeth  upon  him.  But  when  the  priest  bids 
him  give  back  the  goods  to  the  man  that  formerly  owned  it,  no 
longer  will  he  hear  it  willingly  but  he  will  say  with  crafty  and  smooth 
words,  "  I  have  naught  thereof ;  I  have  spent  it  all."  Thus  then  saith 
the  priest  in  reply,  "  Good  man,  take  thou  now  of  thine  own  goods 
and  give  instead."  It  may  happen  that  he  will  reply,  "  Though  I  had 
all  that  I  ever  obtained  I  could  not  make  compensation  for  the  harm 
I  have  done."  By  Christ !  he  must  restore  as  much  as  he  is  able,  for 
many  a  man  would  be  willing  to  forgive  him  half  or  a  third  part, 
when  he  sees  that  he  is  able  to  produce  no  more.  It  may  happen  that 
he  will  say  to  the  priest,  "  Sir,  I  know  not  where  are  the  men  whom 
I  have  wronged.  Some  are  dead,  and  others  have  removed  ;  so  that  I 
cannot  come  across  them."  Truly  thus  saith  the  book,  he  must  seek 
them,  if  he  knows  for  truth  that  they  be  alive ;  and  he  must  seek 
the  priest  that  accursed  him,  so  that  he  may  bless  whereas  aforetime  he 
cursed  him.  And  if  he  knows  not  for  certain  that  they  are  alive,  neither 
the  men  nor  the  priest,  let  him  come  to  the  church  (of  the  district) 
where  he  took  the  goods  and  follow  the  advice  of  the  priest  whom  he 
findeth  there.  The  priest  will  bid  him  that  he  take  that  property  or 
its  value  and  distribute  it  among  poor  men,  or  (expend)  it  on  bridges 
or  on  church-work,  or  in  some  place  where  it  shall  be  well  employed 
for  Christ's  love,  and  for  the  man  that  formerly  owned  it.  And  more- 
over let  him  repent  before  Christ.  He  that  is  wise  will  do  this,  and 
he  is  unwise  if  he  is  loath  to  do  it,  because  he  must  again  restore 
aught.  Thus  the  foolish  man  thinketh,  "  This  priest  will  have  my 
property  wrongfully  and  will  do  me  no  other  good,  but  that  I  must  ever 
fast ;  and  yet  it  were  well  enough  might  I  always  fast,  provided  I 
parted  not  with  all  my  other  goods."  Of  the  man  that  thus  thinketh 
thus  saith  the  book — "  He  will  fast  and  eat,  if  he  is  able,  as  much 
at  one  meal  as  he  should  at  two."     Truly  Christ  owes  him  no  thanks. 



weorne1  bidcle  et  ban  ouereake   J>is   him  wule  ]>unche   swrSe     '?3eome. 

strong  and  swrSe  scondful  pet  he  seal  al  a^euen  and  seodSan 

bisechen  milce  et  ban  ilke  monne  pe  he  haue^  er  istolen  o^er 

o^er-weis  wa  idon.     BluSeliche  be  mou  wile  gan  to  sc?*ifte  and  They  are  will- 
ing to  go  to 
segge  be  preoste  bet  he  haueS  ireaueS  and  istolen.  and  blutSeliche  confession 

86      r      !  >  and  listen  to 

he  wule  herkien.   pet  pe  preost  him  lei5  on  i  ah  benne  be  preost  the  Priest> 
hine  hat  a3efen  ba  ehte  bon  monne  \>et  hit  er  ahte.  pet  he  nulle 
iheren  his  bonkes.  ah  he  wile  seggen.  and  foxliche  sniejnen  mid 
worde.     Nabbe  ic  nawiht  ber-of  ic  hit  habbe  al  ispened  bus  serS  but  are  un- 

willing  to  re- 

benne  be  preost  J>er  o^ein.     God  mon  nim  bu  nuSe  of  bin  a3en  store  what 

ehte  and  do  ]>er  on3ein.  hit  mei  ili»ipen  pet  he  wile  seggen  bah  stolen. 

ic  hefde  al  bet*ic  efre  bi3et  ne  mahtic  3elden  swa  muchel  swa     *  [Foi.  n&.] 

ic  habbe  idon  to  herme.  witecWst  he  mot  a3euen  al  swa  muchel 

swa  he  mei.  forSon  moni  mon  hit  walde  him  foi^euen  half  o^er 

bridde  lot  benne  he  ise3e  pet  he  ne  mahte  na  mare  3e-forSian. 

Hit  mei  ilimpen  pet  he  wile  seggen  bam  preoste.  LauerS  nat  ic  They  make  ail 

sorts  of  ex- 

hwer  heo  beorS  j?eo  men  pe  ic  ]>ene  herm  to  dude.     Summe  beo<5  cuses. 
deade  and  summe  on  o^re  stude.  ne  ic  cume  to  heom  nawiht. 

So^liche  bus  cwej^e^  be  hoc  he  mot  ham  isecham.2  3if  he  wat  2  ?  isechan. 

to  so%e  pet  heo  beo^  Hues,  and  )>ene  preost  he  mot  isechen  be  They  must 

.  .  .  make  restitu- 

hine  acursede.  pet  he  hme  lbleeie  on3ein  bet  he  hine  acursede.   tion  to  tho-e 

to  whom  it  is 

and  3if  he  nat  to  so£e  pet  heo  beo^  Hues  ba  men  ne  be  preost  i    d"e- 

cume  |>enne  to   ber  ilke  chirche  J>er  er  nom  pa,  ehte.   and  do 

efter  bes  preostes  rede  pe  he  )?er  uinde^.  pe  preost  him  wile 

haten  pet  he  nime   ]?a  ilke  ehte  o^er  his  wur£.  and  dele  hit 

wrecche  monne   o^er  to  brugge  o^er  to  chirche  weorke  oSer 

on  sume  stude  ber  hit  beoS  wel  bito3en  for  cWstes  luue.  and 

for  pene  mon  pet  hit  er  ahte.  and  }>a3et  nime  bote  to  criste.  be 

ilke  pet  is  iselif  J>is   he  wule  don.  and  he  his  uniseli  3b0  him 

is  la£  to  donne  bis  forSon  be  he  seal  asein  2euen  awiht.  bus  be   The  thoughts 

1  '  >  °  >  '        of  the  foolish 

uniselie  benched  bes  *  preost  wile  habben  min  ehte  mid  wohe.   thief- 

*  [Fol.  12a.] 

and  ne  don  me  nan  o^er  bote  buten  a  ic  seal  festen.  and  ba 

3et  hit  were  wel  god  moste  ic  alunges  festen  swa  bet  ic  mine 

o^re  go^3  al  ne  fors-spende.     Bi  Jjam  men  pe  }>us  benched.  }>us     3  ?  god. 

serS  pe  boc.  he  wule  festen.  and  eaten.  3if  he  mei  et  ane  mele   book  says  of 

11  ~       ..  such  men. 

swa  muchel  swa  et  twain.     bo^Hche  ne  con   c/v'st  him  nenne 

32  FIRST   SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

Think  ye  not  hereto,  If  thou  dost  me  wrong  and  we  two  he  servants 
of  one  master,  and  I  complain  of  it  to  my  master,  first  of  all  thou  shalt 
act  rightly  towards  me,  and  afterwards  towards  the  master  ]  By  Christ ! 
much  stronger  is  the  doom  of  God  Almighty.  If  thou  wilt  have  for- 
giveness of  thy  misdeeds  from  the  Lord,  first  of  all  thou  must  have  my 
friendship,  if  thou  trespassest  against  me,  and  afterwards  thou  must 
ohtain  mercy  from  thy  lord.  If  thou  hreakest  the  behests  of  an  earthly 
man,  he  will  be  wroth  with  thee  :  a  hundredfold  more  then  shouldst 
thou  observe  Christ's  behests,  for  he  is  king  of  all  kings.  The  man 
who  lay  twelve  months  in  a  prison,  would  he  not  give  all  that  he  ever 
might  acquire  provided  he  might  be  quit  of  these  twelve  1  and  though 
thou  mayest  have  lain  sometime  in  a  prison,  yet  thou  hadst  clothing 
to  wear,  and  something  to  eat  and  to  drink.  But,  in  truth,  in  Christ's 
prison — that  is,  hell — there  is  none  of  these  various  things ;  but  ever 
there  is  whining,  grief,  and  gnashing  of  teeth,  hunger,  and  thirst, 
and  cold,  and  biting  of  fiends  (devils)  and  tearing  of  adders.  Woe 
is  him  who  shall  dwell  there  that  ever  he  was  born  into  this  life. 
For  God's  love  go  and  get  shrift  of  all  your  sins,  for  although  ye 
may  repent  of  some  sins,  but  will  not  forsake  whoredoms,  and  gluttony, 
and  drunkenness,  your  shrift  availeth  nought ;  and  these  are  the  two 
sins  that  men  most  commonly  follow,  and  ween  that  it  is  no  sin. 
Except  he  have  shrift  he  is  lost  in  hell,  if  he  be  taken  in  that  sin. 
Truly  thus  saith  the  book,  "  What  saith  the  foolish,  To  misfortune  was  I 
born 'if  I  may  not  have  indulgence  in  this  world."  But,  so  help  me  God, 
that  man  who  will  follow  all  his  sinful  lusts,  Non  intrabit  in  regnum 
celorum— that  is,  he  shall  never  come  into  heaven-kingdom.  And  again, 
another  teacher  saith,  Nemo  potest  gaudere  cum  seculo  &  in  eternum 
regnare  cum  Christo — that  is  to  understand,  No  man  may  have  all  his  will 
and  rejoice  himself  with  this  world,  and  also  dwell  for  ever  with  Christ  in 
heaven.  Though  thou  hadst  lived  from  Adam's  time  until  this  day,  and 
thou  possessedst  all  worldly  power,  and  hadst  the  greatest  of  all  riches, 
when  thou  shalt  depart  this  life  it  would  appear  to  thee  no  more  than  as 
if  thou  hadst  but  once  uncovered  (it)  with  thine  eyes.     Wherefore  this 

behests  than 
man '8. 


bone.  Ne  benche  ^e  herto.  Gif  bu  me  clest  woh  and  wit  beon 
anes  lauerdes  men  f  ic  hit  mene  to  mine  lauerde  aire  erest  bu 
me  scalt  don  riht.  and  seod^an  be  lauerde.  witicn'st  muchele   God's  justice 

'  greater  than 

strewgere  dom  is  of  godalmihtine.      Gif  bu  wilt  liabben  for-   man's- 

3efenesse  of  bire  misdede  to  driliten  aire  erest  bu  most  liabben 

mine  freonseipe x  %if  bu  wiS  me  agultes.  and  seodSan  bu  most     j  ?fr«md- 

bi3eten  milce  et  bine  drihtene.    Tobreoke  anes  eorSHches  morales 

heste  i  be  wile  wreoe  wrS  be.  hmafald  inare  bu  scoldest  halden  a  hundred- 

>  '  fold  more 

m'stes  biheste  for  bon  be  is  alra  kinge  king  be  mo»  be  leie  .xii.   should  we 

i  °  °   >  '  observe 

moneft   in  ane   prisune  nalde  he   ^efen  al  bet  he  efre  mahte  £ 
bi3eten  wK  bet  he  moste  .xii.  beo  ^er  ut  of.  and  bah  bu  leie  in 
ane  pn'sune  o^er  hwile  bu  hefdest  cla^  to  werien.  and  to  etene 
and  to  drinken.  se  so^licke  on   en'stes  prisune  nis  nan  of  bis   Hell  is 

J  *■  '         Christ  8 

sere  '.  bet  is  in  belle,  ah  a  ber  is  waning  *  and  graming.  and  prison. . 

-      ,  ,    j.  *[Fol.  126.] 

toben  grisbating.  hunger  and  burst,  and  chele.  and  feonda 
bitinga.  and  neddre  slittinga.  wa  is  him  bet  he  efre  wes  iboren 
on  bis  Hue  be  ber  seal  wunian.  For  godes  luue  gaS  to  scWffte  of 
alia  eower  sunne.  for  bah  3e  gan  of  sunne  ower  suraie  to  bote. 
and  ;e  nulled  forleten  hordomes.  and  sifernesse  and  druncnesse.    Forsake 

-*  '  whoredom 

ne  halt  nawiht  bat  scWft.  and  bis  beot  ba  twa  sunne  be  men   and  gluttony, 
fulie^  alra  swrSest.  and  weneS  bet  hit  ne  beo  na  sunne  bute 
he  habbe  scrift.  he  is  forloren  in  to  helle.     Gif  eani  mon  brS 
inumen  in  bere  sunne.     So^licbe  bus  serS  be  boc.  hwet  serS  be 
dusie  to  ufele  hele  wes  ic  iboren  3if  ic  ne  mot  habben  on  bisse 
weorlde  3euenesse.  ah  swa  me  helpe  drihten.  be  ilke  mon  be   j5rf,^athi3 
wule  fulien  alle  his  sunne  lustes.   Non  intrabit  in  regnum  celo-  ^me'lnto"^^ 
rum.  bet  is  ne  kime^  he  nefre  mne  heoueneriche.  and  eft  be   ^^ 
o^er  witege  serS.    Nemo  potest  gaudere  cum  seculo.  &  in  eternum 
regnare   cum.    Christo.    bet  is  to  understondene.    Ne  mei  nan   We  cannot 

enjoy  the 

mon  habben  al  his  wil.  and  blissien  him  mid  bisse  wordle  and  world  here, 

and  live  with 

ec  wunian  a  ytvS  crist  on  heofene.  bah  bu  liuedest  of  adames   Christ 

'  '  hereafter. 

frumSe  bet  come  bes  dei  and  bu  ahtest  al  weorld  iwald.  and 
aire  welene  mest.    benne   bu    scalt  of  bisse   Hue   nalde  hit   be 
binchen  na  mare  bute  al  swa  bu  ene  unpr^edest2  mid  bine  e3en     2  ?unwrij- 
*  forSon  nis  nawiht  beos  weorld  al  heo  a^e^  on  ane  alpi  bra3e     *[Foi.i3a.] 
berihtes  he    ne   brS  wei   hwi   beo   we  uule   on   bisse  wrecche 


34  FIRST   SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

world  is  nought.  It  passeth  all  away  in  a  single  instant,  (and)  forthwith  he 
ceases  to  exist  (lie  is  not).  Alas  !  why  are  we  evil  in  this  wretched  world  1 
Assuredly  she  will  deceive  us  when  we  least  expect.  Alas  !  that  any  man 
should  wrong  another,  for  covetousness  of  this  world's  goods.  Truly  it 
will  all  pass  away,  and  the  wretched  soul  shall  bitterly  suffer  for  it. 

Go  to  thy  father's  tomb,  or  where  any  of  thy  kin  are  lying,  and 
ask  him  what  he  hath  gained  by  his  unrighteous  dooms,  and  by  his 
robbery,  and  by  his  bodily  lusts,  and  by  his  other  sins  while  he  was 
here  in  this  life.  Truly  he  would  say,  could  he  speak,  "  Woe  is  me 
that  I  ever  did  so  much  sin  and  repented  not  of  it !  for  I  endure 
so  great  torment  that  I  would  rather  have,  for  a  single  second,  some 
cessation  and  ease  than  all  the  world  if  were  it  mine.  And,  moreover, 
were  it  possible  to  assume  my  bodily  form  and  be  in  the  world 
ever  more,  I  would  gladly  suffer  and  sit  in  frost  and  in  the  snow 
up  to  my  chin,  and  yet  it  would  appear  to  me  the  softest  bath  and 
the  most  winsome  that  I  ever  enjoyed,  might  I  be  out  of  this  wretched 
life."  And,  moreover,  thou  mightest  undei'stand  when  thou  standest 
at  his  tomb  that  he  was  proud  and  haughty  as  thou  art,  and  thou 
shalt  perish  also,  as  he  is  now,  all  to  nought ;  and  thou  knowest  never 
when.  While  alive  he  was  beloved,  but  hateful  is  he  now,  and  his 
wretched  soul  is  forlorn  (damned).  Wherefore,  dear  men,  understand  your- 
selves while  ye  may  that  this  world  is  worthless  ;  ye  see  it  yourselves. 
Be  he  ever  so  rich,  depart  he  must  when  his  day  cometh.  Wherefore 
go  joyfully  and  repent  of  your  sins  while  ye  are  able.  Unhappy  is 
the  man  that  becometh  old  and  his  days  leave  him,  and  the  day  of 
his  death  approacheth,  and  he  will  not  bethink  that  his  sins  increase, 
which  cause  the  death  of  the  soul  :  because  she  (the  soul)  may  not 
endure  all  the  sins  that  man  putteth  upon  her,  therefore  she  will  go 
out  of  the  body.  Truly  thus  saith  the  book,  That  many  thousand 
men  might  live  many  more  years  than  they  do,  if  they  were  righteous 
and  God-fearing.  Dear  men,  when  ye  go  to  shrift  for  no  shame 
neglect  to  tell  the  priest  all  your  sins,  be  they  ever  so  unimportant  ; 
for  there  is  no  sin  of  which  he  is  ignorant :  either  he  knows  it, 
having  committed  it  himself,  or  he  hath  heard  of  it,  or  hath 
found  it  in  books.  There  is  no  sin  that  is  not  -written  in 
books ;    wherefore    it  is   better  for  you   to    shame  yourself  before  the 


world.     SocVSliche  heo  us  truket  benne  we  lest  wene^.  wei  bet  The  world  is 

'  treacherous. 

eni  mon  seal  wr8   crSerne  misdon  for  bisse  worldes  jifsunge1.  i?3itsunge. 

SoSHche  al  heo  a-ga^.  and  ba  wrecche  saule  kit  seal  abuggen. 

Ga  to  pine  feder  burinesse  o£er  ber  eni  of  bine  curate  IrS  in.  and  Go t0  *y 

'  >  >  father  s  tomb 

esca  kine  kwet  ke  kabbe  biseten  mid  bis  woke  domas.  and  mid  and  ask  him 

->  what  he 

kis  reuunge.  mid  kis  licome  lustes.  mid  kis  o^re  sunne.  kwile  fH"'ed  ''>'  lns 

o  lusts. 

ke  wes  ker  on  bisse  Hue.     So^liche  ke  walde  seggen  3if  ke  mikte 

speken.  wa  is  me  bet  ic  efre  dude  swa  muckele  sunne.  and  keo 

ne  2e  bette.  for  swilcbe  pine  ic  kabbe  bet  me  were  leofere  benne  He  would 

D  .  &ye aU the 

al  world  bak  kit  were  min  most  ic  kabben  an  alpi  bra:e  summe  world  for  ? 

'  i      I      J  little  allevia- 

lisse  and  su?»me  le^e.  and  ec  mostic  underfon  minne  licome  and  Jfonofhis 


beon  on  worlde  a  mare  ic  walde  fein  pinian  and  sitten  on  forste 

and  on  snawe  up  et  mine  chinne.  and  ba  3et  hit  waPS2  me  buncben  2  ?  walde. 

bet  softeste  be^.  and  bet  womsemeste  bet  ic  efre  ibad  moste  ic 

beon  of  bisse  earme  Hue.  and  ba3et  bu  makt  understonden  benne 

bu  stondest  et   kis  burienesse  bet  ke  wes  prud  and  wlonc.  swa 

bu  ert  nu.  and  bu  forwur£est.  eca  swa  ke  is  nu  al  to  noktef  and  Take  heed 

i  r  lest  them 

bu  nast  neure  kwenne  ;  Leof  wes  ke  on  Hue   and  \(vS  is  *ke  •  [Foi.  186.] 

•    i      c  i  perish  like 

mrSe.   and  ba  wrecche  saule  forloren  ;  for-bi  leotcmen  under-  him. 

stondet.  eouseluen  ba  kwile  3e  makten.     Nis  bas  weorld  nawikt 

3e  kit  iseo^  eow  seluen.     Ne  beo  be  nefre  swa  ricke  forS  ke 

seal  benne  is  dei  cumeS.  for-bi  ga^  blnSelicbe  to  bote  of  eower 

sunne  ba  kwile  3e  maien.     Vfel  is  bet  mon  aldeS  and  kis  dases.  Evil  is  the 

r  j         j  r  ■>  man  t]lat 

kim  at-ga^  and  neklecke^  kis  ende  dei  and  nule  kim  bibencken  loads  his  soul 

°  '  with  sins,  so 

bet  kis  sunnen  waxa^.  bat   is   bere   saule  de^  ;  forSon  keo   ne  **** !t  is 

mei  abeoren  alia  ba  sunne  be  be  mon  uppon  hire  de^.  benne  keo  'be^'e  tl,e 

wulle  ut  of  bon  licome.     So^licke   bus   serS   ba  boc  bet  moni 

busent  monne  makte  libben  fele  3ere  mare  benne  ke  do  f  3if  ke 

were  rikt-wis  and  god-furkt  leoue  men  benne  3e  gad  to  scrifte  J.Iake  wmfes- 

°  *  J     °  sion  to  thy 

ne  forlete  3e  for  nane  scame  bet  ^e  ne  seggen  bam  preoste  alle  i>riest- 
eower  sunne  ne  beo  beo  nefre  swa  etkelic.  for  nis  nan  suraie  bet   He  knows  ail 


ke  ne  con  o^er  ke  keo  wat  ¥>urk.  bet  ke  keo  dude  kim  seolf  o^er 
ke  keo  kafS  i-escad  o^er  kaf^  ifunden  on  boke.  Nis  nan  sunne 
bet  nis  iwriten  on  boke.  for-bi  betere  eow  is  bet  eow  sceamie  bi-  it  is  hetter 

'  >  '  to  be  ashamed 

foren  bam  preoste  ane '.  benne  on  domes-dei  biforen  criste.  and  b,efor? '!'"'' 

>  -1  i  than  before 

bi-foren  al  heuene  wara.    and  bi-foren  al  eorSe  wara.  and  bi-   ^'^day 

36  FIRST    SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

priest  alone,  than  on  Doomsday  before  Christ,  and  before  all 
heaven's  host,  and  before  all  earth's  host,  and  before  all  hell's  host, 
and  thy  soul  nevertheless  to  go  into  everlasting  torment.  Dear  men, 
the  priest  is  not  able  to  forgive  any  man's  sins,  not  even  his  own, 
but  he  is  ordained  between  God  Almighty  and  thee  to  instruct  thee 
how  thou  shalt  have  forgiveness  of  thy  sins  from  God ;  and  he  hath 
that  same  power  from  St.  Peter  to  bind  and  to  unbind,  and  from  our 
bishop,  who  is  in  St.  Peter's  office  ;  and  since  he  is  unable  to  be  in 
every  place,  therefore  are  there  priests  under  him.  If  thou  sinnest 
he  shall  advise  on  God's  half  how  thou  shalt  have  Christ's  friendship. 
Assuredly  thou  need  ask  no  more  (than  this).  No  man  may  say 
how  easily  thou  mayest  obtain  God's  mercy.  If  thou  sinnest  renounce 
it  for  ever,  and  repent  it  with  true  confession,  as  I  erewhile  said. 
If  thou  repent  and  yet  hide  some  of  thy  sins,  that  is  not  to  thy 
profit.  Christ  takes  no  heed  of  such  leasings,  he  stands  in  no  need 
of  it ;  either  thou  must  obey  Christ  or  the  devil.  Good  men,  every 
man  must  be  twice  washed  of  his  sins  :  once  at  the  baptismal  bath, 
for  ere  the  child  is  baptized  it  is  the  devil's  ;  the  second  time  thou 
shalt  be  washed  at  true  confession,  when  thou  renouncest  thy  sins. 
Assuredly  if  thou  wilt  entreat  the  Lord  thou  must  be  free  from  thy 
sins,  for  thus  saith  the  book,  Peccatores  Deus  non  audit.  The  prayer 
of  a  sinful  man  God  Almighty  will  not  hear,  except  he  forsake  his 
sins  and  repent.  Dear  men,  though  ye  sin  and  repent,  trust  not 
wholly  to  your  fasts,  if  ye  are  able  to  do  other  good  deeds.  There 
is  no  man  but  what  can  do  something  more  than  fast.  If  he  cannot 
give  alms  of  clothes  or  of  meat,  as  a  rich  man  can,  let  him  do  some 
of  these  things  which  I  will  now  enumerate.  First  of  all  thou  shalt 
go  to  shrift  and  entirely  renounce  thy  misdeeds,  and  fast  so  that 
thy  body  be  the  leaner ;  that  is,  fast  for  thy  Lord's  love.  The  man 
who  thus  fasts  Christ  shall  give  him  such  meat  that  he  will  never 
again  hunger.  The  second  is  to  give  as  much  alms  as  you  can  afford, 
■ — masses  for  all  Christian  souls,  to  poor  men  shoes,  clothes,  meat, 
drink,  warmth,  and  lodging  ;  to  visit  the  sick,  to  help  to  bury  the 
dead,  and  to  assist  them  (the  poor)  with  whatever  thou  art  able.  For 
the  book  saith,   Sicut  aqua  extinguit  ignem,  ita  et  elemosina  extinguit 


foren  al  helle  wara.  and  ba  hwebere  bine  saule  feren  seal  in  to 

eche  pine.     Leofe  men  ne  mei  be  preost  foi^efen  *nane  men     *[Foi.i4a.] 

•  i       i      m  j.-         The  priest 

his  sunne  ne  his  a3ene  ah  he  is  lset  bi-twihan  god  almihtin.   cannot  for. 

give  sins. 

and  be   for  be  wissine  hu   bu  scalt   et  god   seolf  habben  bine 

sunne   foi^euene.    and    he  hauef^1   ba   ilke   mahte    of    Sancte     'sic 

petre  to   biralene.    and  to    unbindene.  and  of  lire  biscope   be 

is  on  sancte  petres  stude  forSon  he  ne   mei  beon   on  ewilche 

stude  for-bi  beo^  ba  preostes  under  heom.     Gif  bu  sunegest  I    lie  can  advise 

thee  how  thou 

he  be  seal  reden  on  godes  halfe  hu  bu  scalt  habben  cristes  freond-   mayest  liave 

'  °  r  Christ's 

scipe  i  So^liche  ne  berft  bu  bidden  namare.     Ne  mei  nan  mon  friendship. 

seggen  hu  lihtliche  bu  maht  habben  godes  milce.  gif  bu  sunegest  i 

forlet  hit  a  mare,  and  bet  mid  rihte  scWfte.  and  bete  a.  alswa  ic 

er  cwe£.  b&h   bu   Sa  to  bote  and  for-heole  summe  bine  sunna.   Hide  not  thy 

'  '  sins  from  the 

nis    bet    nawiht    to    bine   bi-heofSe.       Ne    recche^   cWst    nane  p™st. 
leasunge.  ne  him  nis  na  neo^2.  o^er  bu  most  hersumian  crist.     2?neod- 
o^ier  bam  deofle.    Godemen  uwile  mon  seal  beon  twisen  awesscen  Twice  shall 

'  we  he  washed 

of  his  sunne  enes  et  bam  fulhtbeda3.  for  er  bonne  bet  child  beo   from  our  sins. 

ifubje^  hit  is  bes  deofles.  o^er  si$e  bu  scalt  beon  iwesscen  et 

so^  scn'fte  f  }>enne  bu  forletest  bine  sunne.     So^liche  3if  bu  wult 

habben  bone  to  drihten  f  bu  most  beon  on  ward  bine  suraien  for 

bus  cweS  ba  boc.  peccatores  ofeus  non.  audit.     Sunfulles  monnes 

bone  nulle  *  god  almihtin  iheren  bute  he  wulle  forleten  ba  sunne     *  [Foi.  u&.] 

God  will  not 

and  gan  to  bote  leofemen  bah  3e  sunegien  and  gan  to  bote  ne   listen  to  the 


lipnie  ye  no  al  to  eower  festene  3if  3e  ma3en  eni  oSer  god  don.   sinner. 
Nis  nan  mon  bet  ne  mei  mare  dow  beue  festen.     Gif  he  ne  mei   i>o  something 

1  more  than 

don  elmesse  of  chvSe  ne  of  mete  al  swa  mei  an  riche  mon '.   do  *»t  for  your 


sufflme  of  bisse  binge  be  ic  wulle  nu   cweben.     Alra  erest  bu 

scalt  gan  to  scrifte  and  forleten  burhut  }>ine  misdede  and  festen 

swa  bet  bin  licome  beo  be  lenre  bet  is  fest  for  ^ines  drihtenes 

luue.  be  mon  be  bus  fest  crist  him  3eue:S  swilcne  mete  bet  him 

nefre  eft  ne  hungre^.  bet  o^er  is  do  bine  elmesse  of  bon  bet  bu  give  aims, 

maht  iforSien.     Messen  for  alle  cn'stine  saule.     Wrecche  men  hungry.dothe 

the  naked, 

sceos  and   ckvSes.    and  mete,   and  dringen.   and  wermbe.  and 
herbur3e.  and  to  seke  gan.  and  ba  deden  helpen  to  buriene  and  ^^sifu 
helpen  heom  mid  bon  be  Jui  ma3e.  for  ba  boc  serS.  Sicut  aqua   Jj11^ the 
extinguit  ignem '.  ita  &  elemosina  extinguit  peccatum.     Al  swa 

38  FIEST    SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

2>eccatum.  As  water  quenches  fire  so  alms  quencheth  sin.  The  third 
is  that  thou  shalt  bewail  thy  sins  secretly  (behind  men),  and  pour 
out  thy  tears  very  sorrowfully,  for  the  Lord  speaketh  thus  in  the 
Gospel,  Beati  qui  nunc  fietis  quoniam  ridebitis ;  that  is,  blessed  are 
those  who  now  weep  for  their  sins,  for  they  shall  be  comforted  before 
the  Lord.  The  fourth  is  that  thou  shalt  keep  vigils  for  thy  Lord's 
love,  for  the  book  saith,  Non  sit  vobis  vanum  surgere  ante  lucem, 
quia  promisit  dominus  coronam  vigilantibus.  Be  not  loth  to  arise 
before  day(light),  for  the  Lord  promiseth  the  watchful  a  crown  that 
shall  be  seven  times  brighter  than  the  sun.  The  fifth  is  that  thou 
shalt  forgive  those  men  that  trespass  against  thee ;  and  as  thou  for- 
givest  the  men  that  sin  against  thee,  so  shall  thy  Lord  forgive  thee 
thy  misdeeds  ;  and  so  thou  prayest  him  daily  when  thou  sayest, 
Dimitte  nobis  debita  nostra  sicut  et  nos  dimittimus  debitoribus  nostris. 
Lord  Father,  forgive  us  all  our  sins  as  we  forgive  those  that  trespass 
against  us.  Here  is  a  sorrowful  prayer  to  offer  unless  we  truly  have 
mercy  upon  and  forgive  those  men  who  have  angered  and  injured 
us.  The  sixth  is  that  thou  shalt  reconcile  thyself  with  all  those  who 
are  at  enmity  with  thee,  as  far  as  thou  art  able ;  for  then  thou 
protectest  their  souls,  and  also  thine  own,  from  the  evil  death,  that 
is,  from  hell  torment.  The  seventh  is  charity.  She  perfecteth  and  com- 
pleteth  all  other  things.  By  Christ  !  the  man  that  loveth  not  charity 
shall  never  come  into  God's  kingdom.  Now  may  ye  hear  what  is 
true  charity,  that  each  man  ought  to  possess — that  is,  that  thou  love 
thy  Lord  above  thy  wife  and  child,  and  above  all  earthly  things,  and 
thank  him  for  all  things  ;  and  afterwards  do  unto  each  man  as  thou 
wouldest  that  one  should  do  to  thee  :  that  is  true  charity.  Truly  thus 
saith  the  book,  that  this  shall  bear  your  soul  to  heaven-kingdom. 

Now,  dear  men,  ye  have  heard  what  I  have  said,  and  what  ye  shall 
do  if  ye  can  afford  it.  There  is  no  man  so  rich,  nor  none  so  poor, 
but  what  he  may  give  something  of  those  things  which  I  have  said 
unto  you.  He  who  gives  alms  of  his  unlawful  gains  will  get  no  more 
thanks  of  Christ  than  he  that  should  slay  thy  child  and  should  bring 
thee  his  head  for  a  present.  Wherefore,  good  men,  forsake  your  sins 
and  go  to  true  shrift,  and  leave  your  stealing  and  rapine,  for  there 
is    no    profit   in    these   things ;    and    again    saith    the   book,    No   good 



J>et  water  acwenche^  bet  fur.  swa  ba  elmesse  acwenche^  ba  sunne   Aims  quench 

bat  bridde  is  bet  bu  scalt  bi-wepen  bine  sumie  bi-eften  nionuen 

<rae?  3eoten  ]>'me  teres  swrSe  sariliche  for  bon  dribten  cwe^  on 

ban  god-spelle.    ^ea^i  ^m  wwnc  Jletis  qnom&m  ridebitis.  pet   is 

eadi  beoS  ba  ilke  be  nu  wepe^  for  beore  sunne  *  for  beo  sceolen     *  [Foi.  i5a.j 

beon  igledeS1  bi-foren  dribten  bat  forSe  is  bet  bu  scalt  wakien     '  ?>giedede. 

.  f  •  t  ■      WatcU  al'd 

for  bines  dribtenes  luue.   forSon   be  boc  cwe^.  Non  sit  nobis  pray. 

uanuva.  surgere   ante   lucem.    quia,  promisit   dominixa   coronam 

uigilantibus.      Ne   beo    eow   nobt   laS    to  arisene  er  dei.    for 

dribten  bi-hat  bon  Avakiende  ane  crune  bet  seal  beon  seofesrSe 

bribtre  bene  ba  svinne  fifte  is  bet  bu  scalt  forseuen  bon  monne  be   Forgive  those 
>  >  >       >  J  '  '       that  trespass 

wr5  be  agultet.  and  swa  se  bu  foi^euest  bam  monne  be  wrS  be   against  thee, 
agulte^  i  swa  bin  dribten  forjeueS  be  bine  misdede.  (mcZ  swa  bu 
bine  bidclest  deihwainliche  benne  bu  seist.  Dimitte  nobis  debita 
nostra  sicut  <Sc  nos  dimittimus  debitoribus  nostris.     Laue^2  feder     2?Lauerd. 

so  that  God 

foi^ef  us  alle  ure  gultes  swa  we  ioi^eueS  ban  monne  be  us  to   may  forgive 


agultet.  her  is  ane  reowlic  bone  to  biddene  bute  we  inwarlicbe   as  tll0U 

iinilcien  and  foirjeuen  ban  monne  be  us  wre^e^   and  sceandet.    vatemoster. 

bet  seste  is  bat  bu  scalt  sabtnien.  ba  be  beoS  unisabte  mid  alle   J5e  reconciled 

bine   mabte.  benne  bure3est   bu  bere  saule.  and  ec  bine  a3ene 

from   ban  ufele   dea^e  bet  is  from  belle   pine,    bet  seofe^e    is 

cberite.  beo  fulled  alle  ba  o^re  bing  and  endeS.  witicrist  be  mon 

be  ne  luueS  cherite  ne  cume^  be  nefre  in  godes  ricbe.     Nu  3e   °n  tr"e 

r  °  J       chanty. 

ma3en  iberen  bwet  is  ribt  cberite.  bet  uwile  mon  ab  to  habben 

bet  is  *\et  bu  luuie  bine  dribten  ofer  bin  wif.  and  ofer  child  and    *[Foi.i56.] 

ofer   alle    eorSliche   bing  and  him   bonkien    alles   binges,     and 

seo^dan  beoden  uwile  mon  swa  bu  waldest  bet  me  be  bude.  bis 

is  ribt  cherite.     So^liche  bus  cwe^  be  boc.  bet  bis  seal  beren   it  beareth  the 

'  I  3  >  ^  sou,  t(( 

eower   saule  to  heuene  riche.     Nu  leofe  men  habbe  3e  iherd   heaven. 
hwet  ic  habbe  iseaid  hwet  3e  sculen  don  3if  3c  hit  nu^en  iforSian. 
Nis  nan  mon  swa  riche.  ne  swa  wrecche  bet  he  ne  mei  sum  bing 
ifor^ian  of  ban  be  ic  heou  habbe  iseid.  be  de^  bis  elmesse  of  Give  not 

'  '  '  alms  of  wealth 

binge  mid  wobe  bneten '.  ne  con  him  crist  na  mare  bong3  bene   wrongly 

1      °  J  >       °      »  acquired. 

bah  he  slo3e  bin  child  mid  bere  be  his  heaued  to  lake,  for-bi     3?j>onc. 
godemen  forlete^  eower  sunne  and  gad  to  rihte  scrifte  and  lete^     4 , 
eower  stale  and  eower  reaflac.  for  nis  ber  nan4  fewg  on.  and    h""^10" 

40  ON    THE    LORD  S    DAY. 

that  ye  may  do  shall  go  unrewarded,  nor  even  shall  ye  do  any  evil 
without  bitterly  expiating  it.  Wherefore,  dear  brethren,  hold  brotherly 
love  among  you,  and  strive  ye  now  in  this  short  life  that  ye  may 
come  to  the  kingdom  above,  there  to  dwell  with  the  Father,  the  Son, 
and  the  Holy  Ghost,  ever  without  end.     Amen  ! 



TPvear  men,  if  ye  will  listen  and  willingly  understand  we  will 
speak  to  you  plainly  of  the  privileges  that  pertain  to  the  day 
that  is  called  Sunday.  Sunday  is  called  the  Lord's  Day,  and  also 
the  day  of  bliss  and  of  ease  and  rest  for  all.  On  this  day  the  angels 
of  heaven  rejoice  because  the  lost  souls  have  rest  from  their  torments. 
If  you  are  willing  to  learn  who  first  obtained  rest  for  the  wretched 
souls,  I  will  truly  tell  you.  It  was  St.  Paul  the  apostle  and  Michael 
the  archangel.  These  two  went  once  on  a  time  into  hell,  as  the  Lord 
bade  them,  to  see  how  the  folk  fared  there.  Michael  went  before 
and  Paul  came  after,  and  then  Michael  showed  St.  Paul  the  wretched 
sinful  that  were  dwelling  there.  Afterwards  he  showed  him  high 
trees  burning  horribly  before  hell  gates,  and  showed  him  the  wretched 
souls  hanging  upon  those  trees — some  by  the  feet,  others  by  the  hands ; 
some  by  the  tongue,  others  by  the  eyes ;  some  by  the  head,  and  others 
by  the  heart.  Afterwards  he  showed  him  a  burning  fiery  oven  that 
threw  out  seven  flames,  each  of  marvellous  hues,  which  were  all  horrible 
to  behold,  and  much  harder  than  any  one  dare  endure ;  and  there 
within  were  very  many  souls  anhanged.  Moreover  he  showed  him 
a  well  of  fire,  and  its  streams  ran  burning  fire;  and  twelve  master 
devils  like  unto  kings  guarded  this  well  and  tormented  therein 
the  wretched    and   forlorn    souls,  and   yet   their   own   torment  was   in 


eft  be  boc  serS.  Ne  scule  3e  neure  god  don  unforgolden.     Ne  ec   No  good  or 

r  ?  °  °  bad  deed  will 

ne  scule  ;e  nefre  ufel  don  bet  se  hit  ne  sculen  mid  uuele  bitter  s°  un- 

3  r        J  requited. 

abuggen.     ForSi  leofe  breoSre  balded  broberreddene   eow  bi- 
twenen.   and  earnie  %e  eow  nu   on  bisse  sceorte  liue   bet  we1     '  ?3e. 
bicuniew  moten  to  bere  upplican  riche  and  bere  wunian  mid  be 
feder  and  mid  be  sune  and  mid  be   balie    gast   abuten  ende. 



leofemen  sef  se  lusten  wule?!.  and  se  willeliche  bit  under-  The  privileges 

I     .  J        J  J  of  the  Sunday. 

L -*-*  J     stonden  we  eow  wulle^  *  suteliche  seggen  of  ba  fredome  be     *  [Pol.  16a.] 

limped  to  ban  deie  be  is  iclepe^  su2  sunedei.     Sunedei  is  ibaten  2sic- 

.  .  .  Sunday  is  the 

bes  lauerdes  dei  and  ec  be  dei  of  bhsse  a/?e?  of  lisse  and  of  alle-  Lord's  day. 

irest.    On  bon  deie  ba  engles  of  heofene  ham  iblissie^.  forSi  be  ba  The  souls  °f 

'  '  °  y     r  the  lost  have 

ermittg  saulen  habbeS  rest  of  heore  pine.     Gif  hwa  Avule  witen  ^est  on  this 

hwa  erest  bi-won  reste  bam  wrecche  saule  to  sobe  ic  eow  segge. 

bet  wes  sancte  paul   be  apostel  and  mihhal   be  archangel  heo  raui  and 

'  .  r  Michael 

tweien  eoden  et  sume  time  in  to  belle  alswa  heowi  drihten  het  obtained  it 

for  them. 

for  to  lokien  hu  hit  ber  ferde.     Mihhal  eode  bi-foren  and  paul  They  both 

once  visited 

com  eiter  and  ba  scawede  mihhal  to  sancte  paul  ba  wrecche  sun-  hell, 

fulle  be  ber  were  wuniende.ber-efter  he  him  sceawede  he3e  treon  They  saw 

.  wretched 

eisliche  beornmde  et-foren  belle  sete.  and  uppon  ban  treon  he  souls  hanging 

J  on  trees ; 

him  sceawede  be  wrecche  saulen  a-honge.      Summe  bi   ba  fet. 
summe  bi  ba  honden.  sumrue  bi  be  tunge.  summe  bi  be  e3en. 

summe  bi  be   hefede.  su?/ime  bi  ber  heorte.     Seod^an  he  him  a  fiery  oven 

with  seven 

sceaude  an  ouen  on  bernmde  fure  he  warp  ut  of  him  seofe  leies  flames; 
uwilan3  of  seolcu&re  heowe  be  alle  weren  eateliche  to  bihaldene     s?nwflean. 
and  muchele  strengre  ben  eani  burg  to  bolien.  and  ber  wrS-iwnen 

weren  swrSe  feole  saule  a-honge.  sette  he  him  sceawede  ane  welle  a  we"  of 

°      y  fire  with 

of  fure  and  alle  hire  stremes4  urnen  fur  bernmde.  and  ba  welle  yearns  of 

>  fire ; 

bi-wisten  ,xii.  meister  *deoflen  swilc  ha  weren  kinges  to  pinen  "Ms.strenies. 
ber  wrSinnen  ba  earmmg  saulen  be  for-gult  weren  ;  and  heore 

42  ON    THE    LORD'S    DAY. 

nowise  diminished,  though  they  were  masters  (chiefs).  After  that  he 
showed  him  the  Sea  of  Hell ;  and  in  that  sea  were  seven  bitter 
waves.  The  first  was  snow,  the  second  ice,  the  third  fire,  the  fourth 
blood,  the  fifth  adders,  the  sixth  smother  (smoke),  the  seventh  foul 
stink,  she  was  worse  to  endure  than  ever  any  of  all  the  other  torments. 
In  that  sea  were  innumerable  animals,  some  feather-footed,  others 
entirely  without  feet,  and  their  eyes  were  all  like  fire,  and  their  breath 
shone  as  doth  the  lightning  among  thunder.  These  never  cease,  night 
nor  day,  to  break  the  wretched  bodies  of  those  men  who  in  this  life 
here  would  not  complete  their  shrift.  Some  of  the  men  sorely  weep, 
others  cry  aloud.  Some  there  groaningly  sigh,  others  there  piteously 
gnaw  their  own  tongues.  Some  there  weep,  and  all  their  tears  are 
burning  gleeds  (embers)  gliding  over  their  own  features,  and  very  mourn- 
fully at  all  times  they  cry  and  earnestly  entreat  that  some  one  would 
release  them  from  the  cruel  tortures.  Of  these  torments  speaketh 
David,  the  holy  prophet,  and  thus  saith,  Miserere  nostri  Domine 
quia  foenas  inferni  sustinere  non  possumus.  Lord  have  mercy  upon 
us,  for  we  are  not  able  to  endure  the  torments  of  hell.  After- 
wards he  showed  him  a  place  in  the  midst  of  hell,  before  which 
were  seven  enclosures,  near  which  no  living  man  dare  go,  on 
account  of  the  noxious  vapour,  and  there  within  he  showed  him 
an  old  man  going  about,  led  by  four  devils.  Then  Paul  asked 
Michael  who  the  old  man  might  be.  Then  said  Michael  (the) 
Archangel,  "  He  was  a  bishop  in  the  other  life  that  never  would  keep 
nor  observe  Christ's  laws.  More  often  would  he  treat  wrongfully  Avith 
his  subjects  and  oppress  (them)  for  a  long  time  than  sing  psalms  or  do 
any  other  good  deed."  Hereafter  saw  Paul  where  three  devils  led  a 
maiden  very  remorselessly.  Eagerly  did  Paul  ask  Michael  wherefore 
she  was  so  led  about.  Then  said  Michael,  "  She  was  a  maiden  in  the 
other  life  that  kept  her  body  in  all  purity,  but  would  never  do  any 
other  good  thing.  Willing  alms  gave  she  never,  but  very  proud  she 
was  and  moody,  and  a  liar  and  deceitful,  and  wrathful  and  envious, 
and  therefore  is  she  now  dwelling  in  this  torment."  Now  began  Paul 
to  weep  sorely,  and  the  archangel  Michael  wept  also  with  him.  Then 
came   our    Lord   from   heaven   to    them    in    the  form  of  thunder   and 

IN    DIEBUS    D01IINICIS.  43 

a^ene  pine  neure  uere  be  lesse  bah  lieo  meistres  weren.     Efter   The  sea  of 

3  l  '  >  hell  with  its 

bon  he  him  sceawede  be  sea  of  helle  and  i/man  ban  sea  weren  .vii.   seveu  waves; 

hittere  ube.   be  forme  wes  swnan1.  bat  o^er  is.  bet  bridde  fur.  bet     l  ?snaw- 

feorSe  blod.  be   fifte  neddren.  be  siste  smorSer.  be  seofebe  ful 

stunch.   heo  wes  wurse  to  bolien  benne  efreni  of  alle  ba  o^re 

pine.     Innan  ban  ilke  sea  weren  un-aneomned  deor  summe  fe^er   »>  winch  were 

'  all  sorts  ol 

fotetd.     Summe  al  bute  fet.  and  heore  esen  weren  al  swilc  swa   stni»se 

J  creatines. 

fur.  and  heore  ebem  scean  swa  deft  be  leit  a-monge  bunre.   bas 

ilke  nefre  ne  swiken  ne  dei  ne  niht  to  hrekene  ba  ermmg  licome   Tliese  ceased 

1  °  not  to  torture 

of  ba  ilea  men  be  on  bisse  Hue  her  hare  scriit  enden  nalden.   ll  ^,j.ollom 

Suv^me  of  ban  monne  sare  wepe^.    Su»ime  swa  deor  lude  reined. 

summe  ber  graninde  sike^.  sumnie  ber  reowliche  gne^eft  his  a3ene 

tunge.     Summe  ber  wepeS.  and  alle  heore  teres  beoS  berninde 

gleden  glidende  ouer  heore  a3ene  nebbe.  and  swrSe  reowliche 

ilome  ^ei-^eft  and  3eorne  bisecheS  bat  me  ham  ibure3e  from  bam 

uuele  pinan.of  bas  pinan  speked  dauid  be  halie  wite3e.  and  bus  David  speaks 

serS.  Miserere  nostri  domine  quia  yenas  inferni  sustinere  won   oflie11- 

possumus.     Lauerd  haue  merci  uf  us  forSon  ba  pinen  of  helle  we 

ham  ne  ma3en  rSolien.     *Seo:5-ban  he  him  sceawede  and2  stude    *[Foi.i7a.] 

i/me  inidde-warSe3  helle.  and  bi-foi-en  bam  ilke  stude  werero  seofen     3  '■>  !njdue- 

clusterlokan  bar  neh  ne  mihte  nan  liuiende  mon  gun  for  ban 

ufele  bre^e  and  ber  wrS-iwna  he  him  sceawede  gan  on  aid  mon   t] 

They  saw  in 
the  midst  <j 
hell  seven 

bet  .iiii.  deoflen  ledden  abuten.   ba  escade  paul  to  mihhal  hwet  be   c'u'sters' 

*  j  ±  j        wherein  four 

aide  mora,  were,  ba  cwe^  mihhal  heh  anjrel  he  wes  an  biscop  on   de^?8  were ,, 

'  ox  leading  an  old 

eo^re  liue  be  nefre  nalde  cWstes  la3en  lokien  ne  balden,  ofter  he   mauab"ut; 
walde   anuppon   his   underlinges   mid  wohe  motien  and  longe 
dringan  benne  he  walde  salmes  singen  o^er  eani  o^er  god  don. 
Herefter  iseh  paul  hwer  .iii.  deoflen  ledden  an  meiden  swrSe   a,l(1  three 

1  devils  led  a 

unbisoi^eliche '.   3eorne  escade  to  mihhal  hwi  me  heo  swa  ledde.   "jf^" 
ba  cwe^  mihhal.  heo  wes  an  meiden  on  o$er  liue  bet  wel  wiste   in  this  life 
hire  licome  in  alle  clenesse.  ah  heo  nalde  nefre  nan  o^er  god  don.   tuous  hut  not 

.  ,  charitahle. 

h,lmes3eorn  nes  heo  nefre.  ah  prud  heo  wes  swrSe  and  modi,  and 
M^ere  and  swikel.  and  wre^ful  and  ontful.  and  forSi  heo  br5 

.      .  .  .    ,         „         ,  Paul  and 

wumende  inne  bisse  pine.     JNu  bi-gon  paul  to  wepen  wunder-   Michael  weep 

...  .  f°r  the 

hche.  and  mihhal  heh  engel  ber  weop  for§  mid  him.  ba  com  ure   wretched 
drihten  of  heueneriche  to  heora  on  wunres4  liche  and  bus  cweS.    4?j>unres. 

44  ON    THE    LORD'S    DAY. 

thus  spake,  "Why  weepest  thou,  Paul?"  Paul  answered,  "Lord,  I 
bewail  the  manifold  tortures  which  I  here  see  in  hell."  Then  spake 
our  Lord,  "  Why  would  they  not  keep  my  laws  while  they  were  on 
earth1?"  Then  said  Paul  meekly  to  him,  "Lord,  I  now  entreat  thee, 
if  it  be  thy  pleasure,  that  thou  give  them  rest  at  least  on  Sunday 
ever  until  doomsday  come."  Then  said  God  to  him,  "  Paul,  I  know 
well  where  I  ought  to  show  mercy.  I  will  have  mercy  upon  those 
that  sought  my  mercy  while  they  were  alive."  Then  was  St.  Paul 
very  sorrowful,  and  bowed  him  quickly  to  his  Lord's  feet,  and  besought 
him  in  these  words  which  ye  may  now  hear.  "  Lord,"  he  said  then, 
"  now  I  beseech  thee  by  thy  kingdom,  by  thine  angels,  by  thy  great 
mercy,  by  all  thy  works,  by  all  thy  saints,  and  also  by  thy  elect, 
that  thou  have  mercy  upon  them,  and  the  more  so  since  I  have 
visited  them,  and  give  them  rest  on  Sunday  ever  until  thy  high 
doomsday  come."  Then  the  Lord  answered  him  with  a  more  gentle 
voice,  "  Arise  now,  Paul,  arise !  I  will  give  them  rest  as  thou  hast 
asked,  from  noon  on  Saturday  until  Monday's  dawn,  ever  from  this 
time  forth  until  doomsday."  Now,  dear  brethren,  ye  have  heard 
who  first  obtained  rest  for  the  souls  of  the  damned.  Now  it  be- 
cometh  each  Christian  man  so  much  the  more  to  hallow  and  honour 
the  day  which  is  called  Sunday,  for  of  that  day  our  Lord  himself 
saith,  Dies  dominions  est  dies  Icetitice  et  requiei.  Sunday  is  a  day 
of  bliss  and  rest  for  all.  Non  facietur  in  ea  aliquid  nisi  Deum  orare 
manducare  et  bibere  cum  pace  et  Icetitia.  Let  nothing  be  wrought 
on  this  day  except  to  go  to  church  and  to  pray  to  Christ,  and  to  eat 
and  drink  in  peace  and  gladness.  Sicut  dicitur,  pax  in  terra,  pax  in  coelo, 
pax  inter  homines.  For  as  it  is  said,  "Peace  on  earth  and  peace  in 
heaven,  and  peace  among  all  Christian  men."  Again,  our  Lord  himself 
saith,  Maledictus  homo  qui  non  custodit  sabatum.  Cursed  be  the  man 
who  will  not  observe  Sunday.  And  therefore,  dear  men,  each  Sunday 
is  to  be  observed  as  Easter  Day,  for  it  is  the  commemoration  of 
his  holy  resurrection  from  death  to  life,  and  commemoration  of  the 
Holy  Ghost  which  he  sent  upon  his  apostles  on  that  day  which 
is  called  Whitsunday.  Moreover  we  understand  that  on  Sunday  the 
Lord  will  come  to  judge  all  mankind.  We  ought  to  honour  Sunday 
very  much  and  to  observe  it  in  all  purity,  for  it  hath  in  it  three  worthy 



Ahwi  wepest  bu  paul.  paul  him  onswerde.  LauerS  ic  biwepe  bas 

monifolde  pine  ^e  ic  her  in  helle  iseo.  ba  cwe^  ure  lauerd.    Ahwi 

nalden  heo  witen  mine  *  la3e  be  hwile  heo  weren  en  eorSe  f  ba     *  [Foi.  17&.] 

aeide  paul  him  mildeliche  to  3eines.     Louerd  nu  ic  bidde  be  3ef  Paui^entreats 

bin  wille  is  bet  bu  heom  3efe  rest  la  hwure  ben  sunne  dei  a  bet  &™  them^ 

cume  domes-dei.  ba  cweS  drihten  to  him.  paul  wel  ic  wat  hwer  Doo^sday.tU 

ic  sceal  milcien.     Ic  heom  wulle  milcien  be  weren  efterward 

mine  milce  ba  hwile  heo  on  Hue  weren.  ba  wes  sancte  paul  swrSe 

wa.  and  abeh  him  redliche  to  his  lauerdes  fet  and  on  halsien 

hine  gon  mid  bas  ilke  weord  be  %e  ma3en  iheren.     Lauerd  he 

cweS  ba.    Nu  ic  be  bidde  for  bine  kinedome  and  for  bine  engles. 

and  for  bine  muchele  milce.  and  for  alle  J)ine  weorkes.  and  for 

alle  bine  hale^en.  and  ec  bine  icorene.  bat  bu  heom  milcie  bes  be 

redber  bet  ic  to  heom  com  and  reste  3efe  ben  sunne-dei  a  bet  cume 

bin  heh  domes  dei.  ba  onswerede  him  drihten  mildere  steuene.    God  grants 

'  J  his  request. 

Aris  nu  paul  aris.  Ic  ham  3eue  reste  alswa  bu  ibeden  hauest 
from  non  on  saterdei  a  ba  cume  monedeis  lihting.  bet  efre  forS  to 
domes  dei.  Nu  leofe  bre^re  3e  habbe^  iherS  hwa  erest  hi -won 
reste  b&m  forgulte  saule.  Nu  bi-cunieS  hit  berfore  to  uwilche 
cHstene  monne  mucheles  be  mare  to  hali3en  and  to  wurSien 
benne  dei  be  is  icleped  sunne-dei.  for  of  bam  deie  ure  lauerd  seolf 
ser5.  Dies  dominicits  est  dies  leticie  #  requiei.     *  Sunne  dei  is     *  [Foi.  18a.] 

„       .  ,  «T  /•     •  •  7-       •  7       •    •    Sunday  is  a 

dei  of  blisse  and  of  alle  ireste.     A on  jacietur  in  ea  aliquid  nisi  day  of  rest 

•    •  w  .for  all. 

deum  orare  manducare  #  bibere  cum  pace  et  leticia.     Ne  beo  in   Toil  not  on 

hire  nabing  iwrat  bute  chirche  bisocnie  and  beode  to  criste  and 

eoten  and  drinken  mid  grrSe  and  mid  gledscipe.     Sicut  dicitur. 

pax  in  terra,  pax  in  celo.  pax  inter  homines,  for  swa  is  iset.  grrS 

on  eorSe.  and  grrS  on  hefene.  and  grrS  bitwenen  uwilc  cWstene 

monne.  eft  ure  lauerd  seolf  seit.  Maledictus  homo  qui  non  cus- 

todit  sabatum.     Amansed  beo  be  mon  be  sunne-dei  nulle  iloken.   Cursed  is  he 

'  '  that  keeps 

And  for-bi  leofemen  uwilc  sunne-dei  is  to  locan  alswa  ester  dei  ",ot  *he  .  , 

'  Sunday  holy. 

for  heo  is  mune3ing  of  his  halie  ariste  from  de^e  to  Hue.  and 
mune3eing  of  bam  hali  gast  be  he  sende  in  his  apostles  on  bon 
dei  be  is  icleped  wit-sunne-dei.  ec  we  understonde^  bet  on  sunne   0n  Sunday 

r  1  '  shall  Christ 

dei  drihten  cume^  to  demene  al  mon-cun  :  we  a3en  bene  sunne  come  to  judge 

'  ■>        >  all  mankind. 

dei  swibeliche  wel  to  wurbien.  and  on  alle  clenesse  to  locan.  for 


virtues,  which  ye  may  hear.  The  first  virtue  is  that  it  (Sunday)  on 
earth  gives  rest  to  all  earth-thralls  (slaves),  men  and  women,  from 
their  thrall-works  (servitude).  The  second  virtue  is  in  heaven,  because 
the  angels  rest  themselves  more  than  on  any  other  day.  The  third 
virtue  is  that  the  wretched  souls  in  hell  have  rest  from  their  great 
torments.  Let  each  one  then  always  observe  the  Sunday,  and  the 
other  holy  days  which  in  church  we  are  commanded  to  keep  like  the 
Sunday,  and  let  it  be  a  participator  of  heaven's  bliss  with  the  Father 
and  the  Son  and  the  Holy  Ghost  without  end.  Amen.  Quod  ipse 
prestare  dignetur  qui  vivit  et  regnat  Deus,  per  omnia  secula  secu- 
lorum.     Amen. 



It/Tissus  est  Jeremias  in  puteum  et  stetit  ibi  usque  ad  os.  Qui  cum, 
aliquandiu  ibi  stetisset,  debilitatum  est  corpus  ejus,  et  tandem 
dimissis  funibus  subtractus  est.  Et  cum  eorum  duritiam,  quia  debilis 
erat  sustinere  non  posset,  allati  sunt  panni  de  domo  regia  et  circum- 
positi  sunt  funibus  ne  eorum  duritia  Icederetur.  Dear  men,  we  find 
in  holy  book  that  Jeremiah  the  prophet  stood  in  a  pit  and  in  the 
mire  up  to  his  mouth  ;  and  when  he  had  stood  there  awhile  then 
his  body  became  very  feeble,  and  they  took  ropes  and  cast  unto  him 
for  to  draw  him  out  of  this  pit.  But  his  body  was  so  very  feeble 
that  he  was  not  able  to  endure  the  roughness  of  the  ropes ;  then 
sent  they  clothes  out  of  the  king's  house  for  to  wind  round  the 
ropes,  so  that  his  body,  which  was  (so)  feeble,  should  not  receive  further 
injury.  Dear  men,  those  words  which  I  have  here  said  have  important 
meaning,  and  they  are  good  to  hear  and  much  better  to  retain  (in 
mind).  Is  it  a  good  thing  to  hear  God's  words  and  to  observe  them  ? 
Yea  assuredly,  for  our  Lord  God  Almighty  saith  in  the  holy  gospel, 
Beati  qui  audiunt  verbum  Dei  et  custodiunt  illud.  Happy  and  blessed 
are  all   who   hear  God's  words  and   keep  them.     Now  ye  have  heard 


heo  hafS  mid  hire  breo  wurdliche  mihte  be  2e  ilieren  masen.  ^et   The  three 

J  '      J  virtues  of  the 

forcne  mihte  is  bet  heo  on  eorSe  ytu&S  reste  to  alle  eorSe  brelles  Sunday. 

wepmen  and  wifnien  of  heore  brel  weorkes.  bet  o^er  mihte  is  on 

heouene.  for-bi  ba  engles  hem  heom  rested  mare  benu  on  sum 

ofcer  dei.  bet  bridde  mihte  is  bet  ba  errnmg  sanle  habbe^  ireste 

mne  helle  *  of  heore  muchele  pine.     Hwa  efre  benne  ilokie  wel     *  [Fo1-  1S6-1 

Observe  well 

bene  sunne  dei.  o^er  ba  o^er  halie  dases  be  mon  heot  in  chirche   the  Sunday, 

r  '  '  let  it  partake 

to  lokien  swa  be  sunne  dei.  beo  heo  dal  neominde  of  heofene   of  heavenly 

'  bliss. 

riches  blisse  f  mid  ban  ferde1.  and  mid  ban  sunne.  and  mid  ban     '?fedre. 
halie  gast  ahuten  ende.  amen.     Quod  ipse  prestare  dignetur  qui 
uiuit  <b  regnat  deus.  per  omnia  secida  seculoi-um.     Amen. 



|~  Jt/W  ~|  issus  est  ieremias  in  puteum  et  stetit  ibi  usque  ad  os.   The  text. 
L  J    Qui  euro,  (diquandiu  ibi  stetisset  f  debilitatum  est  corpus 

eius.  8(  tandem,  dimissis  funibus  subtractits  est.  Et  cum.  eorum. 
duriciam.  quia  debilis  erat  sustinere  nou  piosset.  allati  sunt  panni 
de  domo  regia  et  circumpositi  sunt  funibus  ne  [e]omm  duricia 
lederetuR.      Leofemen  we  uindeft  in  halie  hoc.  bet  ieremie   be  Jeremiah 

stood  in  a  pit 

prophefe  stod  in  ane  putte.  and  bet  in  be  uenne  up  to  his  muSe   up  to  bis 

11  1  '  l  mouth  iu  the 

and  ba  he  hefede  ber  ane  hwile  istonde.  ba  bi-com  his  licome  mire. 
swi^e  feble.    and  me  nom  rapes  and  caste  in  to  him  fro2  to     *?for. 
dra^en  hine  ut  of  bisse  putte.    Ah  his  licome  wes  se  swrSe  feble  f   drawn  ouTof 
bet  he  ne  mihte  noht  ibolie  be  herdnesse  of  be  rapes,  ba  sende  me 
elates  ut  of  bes  kinges  huse  for  to  bi-winden  be  rapes,  bet  his 
licome  be  feble  wes  ne  sceolde  noht  wursien.     Leofemen  beos  ilke 
weord  be  ic  habbe  her  iseit3  habbeSS  muchele  bi-taemmge  *and    3sic- 

r  .        *[Fol.l9a.] 

god  ha  beo^  to  heren  and  muchele  betere  to  et-halden.     Is  hit 

god  for  to  hiheren  godes  weordes  and  heom  athalden  f  ^e  fuliwis.   it  is  good  to 

hear,  but 

for  ure  lauerd  eodalmihtin  serS  in  ban  halie  godspelle.  Beati  qui  better  to 

&  .  observe  God's 

audiunt  uerbum  #  custodiuut  illud.     M&ie  and  blessede  beon   word. 
alle  beo  be  ihere^  godes  weordes  and  heom  athalde^.     Nu  ^e 


what  it  is  to  hear  God's  words  and  to  observe  them.  Now  we  shall 
show  you  what  it  is  to  hear  and  not  to  observe  them ;  for  St.  Gregory 
saith,  Melius  est  viam  veritatis  non  agnoscere,  quam  post  agnitam 
retroire.  It  is  better  for  a  man  not  to  know  the  way  to  God  Almighty 
than  to  know  it  and  afterwards  to  disregard  it.  And  in  another 
place  he  saith,  Qui  obturat  aures  suas  ne  audiat  legem  Dei,  oratio 
ejus  erit  execrabilis.  The  man  who  shutteth  his  ears  in  holy  church 
against  God's  law  and  will  not  hear  the  words  which  proceed  from 
him,  his  prayers  shall  be  accursed  and  displeasing  to  God.  Puteus 
est  peccati  profunditas,  quia  quam  diu  stas  in  luto ;  tarn  diu  jaces 
in  mortali  peccato.  The  pit  denotes  deepness  of  sin,  for  as  long  as 
we  lie  in  head-sins  (deadly  sins)  all  that  time  we  stand  in  the 
pit  and  also  in  the  mire  (fen)  up  to  the  mouth,  as  these  men  do 
that  lie  in  adultery  and  gluttony,  and  in  perjury  and  in  pride,  and 
in  other  foul  sins.  And  these  are  principally  rich  men  who  have 
this  great  pride  in  this  world,  that  have  (beautiful)  fair  houses  and 
fair  homes,  fair  wives  and  fair  children,  fair  horses  and  fair  clothes, 
hawks  and  hounds,  castles  and  towns  :  hereupon  they  think  much 
more  than  upon  God  Almighty,  who  hath  sent  them  all  these  things 
when  they  lie  in  such  sins  and  think  not  of  arising.  They  do  daily 
dig  their  pit  deeper  and  deeper.  TJnde  propheta,  Non  claudit  super  te 
puteus  os  suum  nisi  clauseris  os  tuum.  The  prophet  saith  that  the 
pit  closes  not  easily  its  mouth  over  us  unless  we  shut  our  mouths ; 
but  if  we  shut  our  mouths,  then  we  act  as  the  man  that  diggeth 
a  pit  four  days  or  five,  and  when  he  hath  delved  it  for  a  very  long 
time,  then  falleth  he  therein  and  breaketh  his  neck,  that  is,  he 
falleth  into  hell-pain,  from  whence  he  will  never  again  return  to  repent. 
But,  dear  men,  God  Almighty  hath  shown  us  very  great  grace,  since 
he  hath  given  us  to  be  free  of  mouth  that  we  may  with  our  mouths 
bring  ourselves  out  of  this  pit,  which  betokeneth  the  deepness  of 
sin,  and  that  through  three  hard  ways,  which  are  thus  named — Cordis 
contritione,  oris  confessione,  operis  satisfactione.  Through  contri- 
tion of  heart,  through  opening  (utterance)  of  mouth,  and  through 
performance  of  good  works.  Cordis  contritione  moritur  peccatum, 
oris  confessione   defertur   ad   tumulum,    operis   satisfactione   tumulatur 


habbe^  ibercl  wulc  bit  is  for  to  iheren  godes  weordes  and  beom 
ethalden.      Nu  we  sculen  heow  sceawen  bwilc  bit  is  beom  for  to  what  it  is  to 

hear  and  not 

heren  and  nawibt  for  to  etbalden.  for  seint  gregori  serS.  Melius  observe. 

est  uiam  ueritatis  non  agnoscere  f  qw&m  post  agnitam  reiroire. 

Betre  bit  is  pet  mon  ne  iknawe  nobt  be  wei  to  godalmibtin  be  be 

hine  icnawe  and  seod^e  bine  for-boiie  :    and  on  o^er  stude  be  The  words  of 

~     .  .  ...         St.  Gregory. 

sev6.  Qui  ooturat  aures  suas  ne  audiat  legem  dei  '  oratw  eius 
erit  execrabilis.  pe  mon  be  tune^  bis  eren  in  balie  cbirebe  to- 
3eines  godes  la3e  and  nule  noht  iheren  pe  weordes  be  of  him 
beo^.  his  beoden  beo^  aweriede  and  unwurSe  gode.     Puteus  est  The  pit  be- 

.  , .  .  .  tokens  the 

peccati  profunditas.  quia  qnam  diu  stas  m  luto  ■'  tarn  dm  laces  %n  deptii  of  sin; 

mortali  peccato.     pes  put  bitacne^  deopnesse  of  sunne.  for  alse 

longe  alse  we  ligge^J  in  heue^  sunnen  '.  al  ba  hwile  we  stofnjde^ 

in  be  putte.  and  pet  in  be  uenne  up  to  be  mu^e  alse  beos  men  do^ 

be  lisrare^  inne  eubrucbe  and  ine  glutenerie  and  ine  manaftas.  and  the  mire  de- 

\        **  s  notes  foul 

ine  prude,  and  ine  o^re  fule  sunnen.  and  pet  beo^  ricbe  men  sins, 
*alremest  be  habbeS  bas  mucbele  prude  iw  bis  worldc.  be  habbe^     *[FoU9&.] 
feire  huses.  and  feire  hames.  feire  wifes.  and  feire  children,  feire  rich  men  are 

.  ,  1  mostly  guilty, 

bors  and  feire  clabes.  beauekes  and  hundes.  castles  and  tunes, 
her  uppon  heo  benched  mucbele  mare  ben  uppow  godalmibtin  be 
al  bis  heom  haue%  isend  ba  be  ligge^  inne  swilc  sunne.  and  ne 
benched  noht  for  to  arisen  '.  heo  clelue^  deihwamliche  heore  put   who  daily  dig 

J  *  their  pit 

deoppre  and  deoppre.  vndepro])heta.  iVon  claudit  super  te  puteus  deeper  and 

os  smtm  nisi  clauseris  os  tuum.  be  prophete  serS.  pet  be  put  ne 

tune^  nobt  lihtlicbe  his  mu?  ouer  us  bute  we  tunen  ure  mu?.  ah 

3if  we  tune^  ure  mu^f  bemie  do  be1  alse  be  mon  be  delue^  ene     »?we. 

put  feower  da3es  o^er  fiue  and  benne  be  haue^  bine  alra  lengest 

idoluen  f  benne  ualle^  he  ber  inne.  pet  him  breke^  be  sweore.  pet. 

is  pet  he  ualleS  in  to  helle  pine  ber  neuer  eft  ne  cume?  of  bote. 

Ah  leofemen  godalmibtin  haue^  isceawe^  us  wel  muchele  grace.   G°d  hath 

made  ua  to  be 

benne  he  haue$  geuen  us  to  beon  mud  freo.  pet  we  rna3e?i  mid  mouth-free. 
ure  muSe  bringen  us  ut  of  bisse  putte  i  pe  bitacne^  beo  deop- 
nesse of  sunne.  and  pet  burb  breo  herde  weies  be  bus  beo^  ibaten.  ™rf bhard 
Cordis  contricione.  Oris  confessione.  Operis  satisfactione.  bur52  get'ourcVthe 
beorte  bireusunke.  burb  muSes  openunge.  burh  dede  wel  endinge.  pf; . 
Co^xlis  contritione  moritxxv  peccatum.  *oris  confessione  defertur  *  |Foi.20a.] 



in  perpetuum,  that  is,  when  we  are  sorry  in  our  hearts  that  we  have 
sinned,  for  then  we  slay  our  sins.  When  we  repent  of  sin,  then  we  do 
by  our  sins  as  they  do  by  the  dead,  for  after  a  man  is  dead  they  lay 
the  body  in  the  tomb,  so  also  thou  layest  thy  sins  in  the  tomb.  When 
thou  receivest  shrift  of  the  sins  thou  hast  done  against  God's  will,  and 
when  thou  repentest  of  thy  sins  according  to  the  priest's  instructions,  then 
thou  buriest  thy  sins  and  puttest  them  out  of  their  power  over  thee.  Per 
Jeremiam  notatur  quilibet  peccator  qui  in  suo  peccato  moram  facit.  By 
Jeremiah  the  prophet  Ave  should  understand  each  sinful  man  that  lies 
in  grievous  sin,  and  through  true  shrift  will  not  loosen  his  sin-bonds. 
Funiculi  amaritudines  penitential  significant.  The  ropes  that  were  cast 
to  him  betoken  the  hardness  of  shrift ;  for  there  is  no  man  among  us 
that  hath  done  three  cardinal  sins  who  is  so  strong  that  his  body  does 
not  become  very  feeble  before  he  has  undergone  the  shrift  that  thereto 
befall eth.  Panni  circumpositi  funibus,  ecclesice  sacramenta  significant 
quibus  penitentim  duritia  mitigatur.  The  king's  house  betokens  holy 
church ;  the  clothes,  that  were  sent  out  of  the  king's  house  for  to 
cover  the  ropes  with,  betoken  the  holy  orisons  that  they  sing  in  holy 
church,  and  the  holy  sacraments  that  are  consecrated  unto  the  forgiveness 
of  all  sinful.  Dear  men,  now  ye  have  heard  the  signification  of  this 
pit  about  which  I  have  spoken,  and  the  meaning  of  the  prophet,  and 
what  the  ropes  denote,  and  what  the  clothes  betoken  that  the  ropes  were 
enveloped  in.  Hear  now  what  things  dwell  in  this  pit ;  therein  live 
four  kinds  of  reptiles  that  are  now  destroying  all  this  middle-earth. 
Therein  live  the  spotted  adders  that  bear  poison  under  their  tongues  ; 
black  toads  that  have  venom  in  their  hearts  ;  yellow  frogs,  and  crabs. 
The  crab  is  a  kind  of  fish  in  the  sea.  This  fish  is  of  such  kind 
that  the  more  he  endeavours  to  swim  with  the  water  the  more  he 
swimmeth  backwards.  And  the  old  crab  said  to  the  young  one, 
"  Wherefore  swimmest  not  thou  forward  in  the  sea  as  other  fishes 
do?"  and  it  answered,  "Dear  mother,  swim  thou  before  me  and 
teach  me  how  I  shall  SAvim  forwards."  And  she  began  to  swim  forwards 
with  the  stream,  and  always  swam  backwards  (against  it).     These  spotted 


ad  tumulum.  operis  satisfactione  tumulatur  in  perpetuum.  be  we 

be<ys  sari  in  ure  heorte  pet  we  isuneged  habbe^  benne  slage  we  we  siay  our 

sins  with  sor- 

ure  sunne  ;   bene  we  to  sunbote  cume^.  benne  do  we  bi  ure  row. 

sunne  al  swa  me  dea^  bi  be  deade.  for  efterban  \et  be  mon  brS 

dead  me  levS  bene  licome  in  bere  bruh.     Al  swa  bu  leist  bine   webury 

them  when 

sunne  in  bare  bruh  f ,  bwenne  bu  scrift  underuongest  of  be  sunnen   we  repent  of 

r         r  '  .  them- 

be  bu  idon  bauest  to-geines  godes  wille.  benne  bu  bauest  bine 
sunnen  ibet  f ,  efter  bines  scriftes  wissunge.^  benne  buriest  bu 
bine  suwnen  and  bringest  beom  ut  of  bine  on-walde.  Per 
ieremiam  notatur  quilibet  peccator  qui  in  suo  peccato  moram 
facit.     Bi  ieremie  be  prophete  we  a3en  to  understonden  ulcne   Jeremiah  de- 

v  -c     i  •       notes  sinful 

mon  sunfulle.  \et  IrS  in  beuie  sunne  and  burb  so?5e  scnft  his   man. 
sunbendes   nule  slakien.  funiculi  amaritudines  penitencie  sig- 
nificant,   pe  rapes  be  weren  icast  to  him  f  bitacne^  be  herdnesse  The  ropes  de- 

note  the  hard- 

of  scrifte.  for  nis  nan  of  us  se  strong  be  hefde  idon  bre  hefsunnen  ness  of  shrift. 
\et  his  licome  nere  swrSe  feble  er  he  hefde  idre3en  bet  scrift  be 
ber  to  bilimpe^.  panni  circumpositi  funibus  !  ecclesie  sacr&menta 

significant  quibus  penitencie  duricia  mitigatur.  bas  kinges  hus  The  King's 

bitacne^  bali  chirch[e  ba]  elates  \et  weren  isende  ut  of  b[es  church, 
kinges  huse]   for  to  binden  be  rapes  *niidf   bitacnet  be  halie     *[Foi.20&.] 

ureisuns  be  me  singed  in  halie  chirche.  and  be  halie  sacnmiews  be  are  holy 


me  sacred  in  alesnesse  of  alia  sunfulle.     Leofemen  nu  se  habbe^ 

iherS  of  bis  putte  be  bitacnmge  be  ic  habbe  embe  ispeken.  and 

be  bitacninge  of  be  prophefe.  and  ]>et.  be  rapes  bitacnet.  and  hwat 

ba  elates  bi-tacne^  be  be  rapes  weren  mide  biwu?iden.     Ihere^   ofthemhabi- 
>  .       .  tants  of  the 

nuSe  whulche  binges  wunie^  in  bisse  putte.  ber  wunie^  fower  pi*. 

cunnes  wurmes  inne.   bet  fordo^   nuSe   al   beos  midelerd.   ber 

wunie^  in-ne  fase  neddren.  and  beore^  atter  urcder  heore  tunge.   spotted  ad- 
ders, black 
Blake   tadden    and   habbeS  atter  uppon  heore  heorte.    seluwe   toads,  yeiiow 

A  l  J  crabs,  and 

froggen.  and  crabben.     Crabbe  is  an  manere  of  fissce  in  bere  sea.   fr°ss- 
bis  fis  is  of  swulc  cunde.  \>et.  euer  se  he  mare  streng^de^  him  to 
swIYIinminde  mid  be  watere  f  se  he  mare  swimnWS  abac,  and  be   The  fable  of 

the  young 

aide  crabbe  seide  to  be  simge.  hwi  ne  swimmest  bu  forSwarS  in   crab  ami  its 

r      J       o  r  mother. 

bere  sea  alse  o^er  fisses  do^.  and  heo  seide.  Leofe  moder  swim 
bu  foren  me  and  tech  me  hu  ic  seal  swimmen  for&ward  and  [heo] 
bi-gon  to  swiwnien  forward  mid  be  stremc.  and  swam  hire  ber 


adders  betoken  the  deceitful  folk  that  dwell  in  this  world,  that 
speak  as  fair  before  their  fellow  Christians  as  if  they  would  embrace 
them,  and  as  soon  as  they  have  turned  away  from  them  they  slander 
(to-twitch)  and  detract  them  with  evil  words.  Hii  etiam  sunt  doctores 
et  falsi  christiani.  These  men  that  thus  pull  to  pieces  their  fellow 
Christians  behind  their  backs  have  the  name  of  Christians,  but  never- 
theless they  are  Christ's  enemies,  and  are  men-slayers,  for  they  slay 
their  own  souls  and  bring  them  into  the  everlasting  pain  of  hell. 
These  black  toads  that  have  the  venom  in  their  hearts  betoken  the 
rich  men  that  have  much  of  this  world's  goods  and  cannot  moderately 
eat  and  drink,  nor  therewith  do  any  good  for  the  love  of  God  Almighty, 
who  hath  given  it  them  all,  but  lie  upon  it  as  the  toad  does  in  the 
earth,  that  never  can  be  so  moderate  as  to  eat  her  fill,  because  she 
is  afraid  lest  the  earth  (fail)  deceive  her.  This  wealth  which  these 
men  thus  overlie  turneth  to  black  venom,  for  they  fall  thereby  into 
the  strong  pain  that  no  man  may  describe.  These  yellow  clothes 
[betoken  women  that  make  themselves  fair  to  draw  lechers  unto  them], 
for  the  yellow  cloth  is  the  devil's  lair  (covering).  These  women  that 
love  (?  live)  arc  called  the  devil's  mouse-trap,  for  when  a  man  will  bait 
his  mouse-trap  he  binds  thereupon  the  treacherous  cheese,  and  roasteth 
it  so  that  it  should  smell  sweetly  :  and  through  the  sweet  smell  of  the 
cheese  he  entices  many  a  mouse  into  the  trap.  Even  so  do  many  of  these 
women  ;  they  smear  themselves  with  blaunchet  (fine  wheaten  flour),  that 
is  the  devil's  soap,  and  clothe  them  with  yellow  clothes,  that  is  the  devil's 
covert,  and  afterwards  they  look  in  the  mirror,  that  is  the  devil's  hiding- 
place.  Thus  they  act  in  order  to  make  themselves  fair  and  to  draw  lechers 
unto  them,  but  they  defile  themselves  therewith.  Now,  dear  men,  for 
God's  love  keep  yourselves  from  the  devil's  mouse-trap,  and  take  heed 
that  ye  be  not  the  spotted  adders,  nor  the  black  toads,  nor  the  yellow 
frogs.  The  Father,  the  Son,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  shield  us  therefrom 
and  from  all  sins  ever  without  end,  per  omnia  secula  seculorum.     Amen. 

HIC    DICEXDUM    EsT    DE    PHOPHETA.  53 

a2en.  bas  fa:e  neddre  bitacneS  bis  fa^e  folc  be  wunefc  in  bissc  Tiie  spotted 

7  i  7  '  '  '  adders  denote 

weorlde.  ,be  speket  alse  feire  bi-foren  beore  eue?<c?-istene  *alse  slanderers. 

->r  *[Fol.21«.] 

heo  heom  walde  in  to  beore  bosme  puten.  and  swa  sone  se  bi 
beoS  iturnd  awey  from  beom f  beom  to-twicche^  and  to-di^e^ 
mid  ufele  weordes.  Hii  eciam  sunt  doctores  #  falsi  christiani. 
pos  men  be  bus  to-dra3ed  beore  euencWstene  bi-hinden  beo 
babbeS  be  nome  of  cn'stene  ah  bah  heo  beoS  cnstes  unwincs  and  They  are 

'  '  Christ's  ene- 

beoS  monslajen  for  heo  s^e1?*  beore  a3ene  saule.  and  bringeft  «•»»• 
heon1  in  to  bare  eche  pine  of  belle,  bos  blaca  tadden  bet  habbe^S     '  ?  heom. 
bet  after  uppon  beore  heorte.  bi-tacne^  bes  riche  men  be  habbeSS   toads  denote 

...  „  tlie  rich  men 

bes  mucheles  weorldes  elite  and  na  ma3en  noht  ltimien  bar  of  to   who  make  a 

had  use  of 

eten  ne  to  drinken  ne  na  god  don  ber  of  for  be  luue  of  god-  their  wealth. 
almihtin  be  haue^  hit  heom  al  geuen.  ah  ligge^  ber  uppon  alse 
be  tadde  de^  in  bere  eorSe  bet  neure  ne  mei  itimien  to  eten  hire 
fulle '.   swa  heo  is  afered  leste  beo  eorSe  hire  trukie.  beos  ilke 
ehte  be  beos  bus  ouerligge^  heom  turned  to  swart  atter,  for  heo 
failed  ber  burh  in  to  ber  stronge  pine  bet  na  mon  ne  mei  tellen. 
peos  3eolewe  clabes.2  for  be  3eolewe  cla^  is  bes  deofies  belfter.3  clothes  denote 
beos  wimmen  be  bus  luuie^4  beo$  bes  deofles  musestoeh  iclepede.  women, 
for  benne  be  mon  wule  tilden  his  musestoeh  he  binde^  uppon  ba  d\iYn*rmuu'!,t,. 
swike  chese  and  bret  hine  for  bon  bet  he  scolde5  swote  smelle.    ^some- 
and  burh  be  *  sweote  smel  of  be  chese  '.  be  bicherreS  monie  mus  hg'r"f  omitte 
to  be  stoke.    Alswa  doS  monie  of  bas  wimmen  heo  snmrieS  heom    '  ? hekt"- 
mid  blancbet  bet  is  bes  deofies  sape  and  clabe^  heom  mid  3eoluwe     5  ms.  sciode. 

'  .  *[Fol.  216.] 

clabe  bet  is  bes  deofles  belfter.    and  seod^an  heo  lokie^  in  be     6?heister. 
scawere.  bet  is  bes  deofles  hindene.     pus  heo  do%  for  to  feiren 
heom  seoluen.  and  to  dra3en  lechurs  to  ham.  ah  heo  filled  heom 
soluen  ber  mide.    Nu  leofemen  for  godes  lufe  wite^  how  wrS  bes   Keep  away 

>  or         from  the 

deofles  musestoeh  and  wite^  eow  bet  3e  ne  beo  noht  be  foa3e  devU's  traP- 
neddre.  ne  be  blake  tadde.  ne  be  3olewe  frogge.  be  feder.  and  be 
sune.  and  be  halie  gast.  iscilde  us  ber  wrS.  and  wrS  alle  sunnen 
a  buten  e?ide.  per  omnia  secula  secufcruni.     Amen. 

54  the  lord's  prayer. 



~T)ater  noster  qui  es  in  ccelis,  &c. 
Our  father  that  art  in  heaven, 

That  is  all  truthful  indeed  ! 

We  must  to  these  words  look, 
4     That  are  good  for  both  body  (life)  and  soul, 

That  we  may  be  as  his  begotten  sons, 

That  he  may  be  our  father  and  we  his  chosen  (darlings), 

That  we  may  do  all  his  behests 
8     And  act  according  to  his  will. 

Let  us  take  heed  lest  we  offend  him 

Through  Belzebub's  wiles  ; 

He  hath  great  envy  towards  us 
12     All  the  days  of  our  life ; 

About  us  he  is  for  to  terrify  us, 

With  all  his  might  he  will  annoy  us. 

If  we  learn  God's  lore 
16     Then  it  grieveth  him  full  sore, 

Except  we  remain  in  our  evil  habits. 

He  cares  not  that  we  are  sons  (of  God), 

If  we  then  call  him  father  ; 
20     All  that  is  but  little  joy  to  us. 

Let  us  observe  God's  laws 

That  we  have  in  his  saws  (word)  ; 

The  behests  he  therein  commandeth, 
24     Except  we  keep  them,  we  commit  sin. 

And  let  each  man  receive  them 

To  observe  well  anent  him. 

For  so  God  commands  it 
28     In  the  Gospel  which  he  wrote, 

That  we  should  love  God  with  our  might, 





[yyi  Ater  noster  qui  es  in  cells  &  cetera. 
J  Vre  feder  \et  in  heouene  is 

\et  is  al  so^  ful  iwis. 

weo  moten  to  }>eos  weordes  iseon. 
4     \et  to  Hue  and  to  saule  gode  beon. 

\>et  weo  beon  swa  his  sunes  iborcne. 

\et  he  beo  feder  and  we  him  icorenc. 

\et  we  don  alle  his  ibeden. 
8     and  his  wille  for  to  reden. 

Loke  weo  us  wrS  him  misdon 

Jmrh  beelzebubes  swikedom. 

he  haue^  to  us  muchel  nrS. 
12     alle  Jja  deies  of  ure  si& 

abuten  us  he  is  for  to  blenchen. 

Mid  alle  his  mihte  he  wule  us  swenchen. 

Gif  we  leornrS  godes  lare  '. 
16     |?enne  of-jmnche^  hit  him  sare. 

Bute  we  bileuen  ure  ufele  iwune. 

Ne  kepe^  he  noht  *]>et  we  beon  sune. 

Gif  we  clepie^  hine  feder  }>enne. 
20     al  \et  is  us  to  lutel  wunne. 

halde  we  godes  la^e. 

]>et  we  habbe^  of  his  sa3e. 

J>a  bodes  he  beodeS  Jjer  inne. 
24     Bute  weo  hes  halden  f    we  doS  sunne 

and  uwilc  mon  hes  undernim. 

to  halden  wel  anundes  him. 

for  alswa  god  hit  bit  ' 
28     and  inne  )>e  godspelle  j?c  he  writ. 

Luuien  god  mid  ure  mihte 

Our  Father 
which  art  in 

These  words 
are  good  for 
soul  and 

Displease  not 

Cod  through 

lie  is  grieved 
when  we  are 

*  [Fol.  22a.] 

Unless  we 
keep  God's 
behest  we 
commit  sin. 

Love  God 
with  all  thy 


56  the  lord's  prayer. 

Above  all  creatures, 

With  our  souls,  aud  with  our  deeds  ; 
32     That  we  should  him  both  love  and  also  dread. 

This  is  the  first  behest  here 

That  we  ought  to  hold  dear ; 

This  behest  above  all  others  is, 
36     And  let  us  not  observe  it  amiss. 

And  the  second  after  this 

Is  like  to  it  in  truth — 

To  love  thy  fellow  Christian 
40     As  thyself  in  all  things  ; 

With  all  this  have  thou  charity, 

And  true  belief  and  love  of  truth. 

For  God's  love  forsake  what  is  evil  ! 
44     Thou  shalt  see  it  turn  to  thy  advantage. 

Be  thou  not  manslayer  ; 

Nor  be  in  whoi*edom,  day  nor  night  ; 

Nor  oughtest  thou  to  steal, 
48     Nor  any  theft  to  conceal  ; 

A  proud  man  or  (false)  accuser  be  thou  not, 

Nor  envious  in  thy  thought ; 

Be  buxom  (obedient)  toward  God, 
52     And  keep  thou  well  his  behests. 

If  thou  do  this  with  good  entent 

Then  art  thou  God's  son. 

Thus  thou  mightest,  if  thou  wilt, 
56     God's  behests  well  fulfill. 

Sanctificetur  nomen  tuum. 

Thy  name  be  blessed,  that  we  say, 

And  thus  by  these  woi-ds  we  affirm 

His  name  is  holy  and  ever  was, 
60     Ever  alike  firm,  it  is  not  less, 

That  is,  and  was,  and  ever  shall 

Be  blessed  everywhere. 

Then  ought  we  to  understand 
64     From  all  evil  he  shall  preserve  us  ; 












ouer  alle  cuwnes  wihte 

mid  ure  saule  mid  ure  deden. 

bajje  luuien  him  and  ec  dreden. 

J>is  is  J?e  furste  bode  here  J 

]>et  we  a3en  to  habben  deore. 

Jjeos  beode  ofer  alle  cySer  is. 

Ne  habbe  we  hit  noht  onimis.1 

and  J>is  o^er  efter  JjIs. 

J)is  is  ilich  fuliwis. 

Luuien  \>i  cWsten  euenling. 

Alswa  J>e  seoluen  in  alle  }>ing. 

Mid  al  J?is  haue  Jju  char-ite. 

and  so^feste  leaue  and  trow^e  lef. 

for  god  let  \>u  pet  uuele  beon. 

Godere  hele  }m  hit  scalt  iseon. 

Ne  beo  j>u  nawiht  mo?islaht. 

ne  in  hordom  dei  ne  naht. 

Ne  ]>u  na3est  for  to  stele. 

ne  nan  Jjefjje  for  to  heole. 

Prud  ne  wreiere  ne  beo  Jm  noht. 

Ne  nrSful  in  J>i  J>oht. 

beo  buhsum  toward  gode. 

and  wel  hald  ]m  his  bode. 

Do  )?u  )>is  mid  gode  mune. 

J?enne  eart  ]>u  godes  sune. 

J)us  J)U  maht  3b0  Jju  wulle. 

godes  heste  wel  ifulle. 

San[c]tificetur  nomen  tuum. 

pi  nome  beo  iblecced.  \et  we  seggeS 

and  J>us  J>a  wordes  we  bi-legge^. 

his  name  is  hali  and  efre  wea 

iliche  swrSe  hit  nis  noht  les. 

j>et  is  and  wes  and  efre  seal 

beon  iblecced  ofer  al. 

jjenne  a3e  we  to  *  understonden  us 

from  alle  uuele  he  seal  blecen  us. 

Love  and  fear 

1  MS.  onuius. 

Love  thy 
neighbour  as 


Be  not  a  mur- 
derer, commit 
not  adultery, 
and  do  not 

IJe  not  proud 
or  envious. 

but  bo  obe- 
dient to  God. 

Hallowed  be 
thy  name. 

God's  name 
is  holy, 

and  ever  shall 
be  hallowed 

*  [Fol.  226.] 

58  the  lord's  prayer. 

Let  us  bless  (hallow)  then  enough  his  name, 

And  keep  us  from  harm  and  shame. 

In  the  font  we  were  born  again, 
68     Cleansed,  and  by  God  chosen  (adopted)  ; 

His  holy  name  we  took  and  bore, 

In  the  font  where  we  were  cleansed. 

Christians  are  (we)  called,  rich  and  poor, 
72     After  Christ  himself  who  is  God. 

His  name  that  we  of  him  have, 

That  he  it  hallow  we  do  crave. 

Adveniat  regnum  tuum. 

Thy  kingdom  come,  we  do  say  it, 
76     Hearken  all  unto  this  writ  ! 

His  kingdom  is  this  middle  earth, 

Earth  and  heaven,  and  each  abode ; 

Over  all  is  his  great  might. 
80     Lord  he  is  called  with  right ; 

Lord  he  is  of  all  creatm-es, 

In  earth  and  heaven  is  his  might. 

All  the  creatures  that  he  formed, 
84     That  is  the  truth,  it  was  for  man. 

All  things  he  made  to  appear 

Before  he  ever  made  man. 

He  made  man  in  righteousness, 
88     In  the  form  of  his  own  likeness. 

All  deer  (animals)  and  fowl  of  flight 

He  made  to  stoop  adownright  (downwards). 

Man  he  loved  and  cared  for  well, 
92     And  therefore  his  face  upward  he  wrought ; 

That  was  all  for  a  good  skill  (reason), 

If  that  understand  ye  will. 

Face  upwards  he  him  wrought, 
96     He  would  that  man  of  him  thought, 

That  he  should  love  him  with  thought  (in  his  mind) 

As  the  Lord  that  him  wrought. 

Think  now,  men,  what  honour 











To  blecen  J>enne  inoh  his  nome 

airS  kepen  us  from  hearm  and  scome. 

In  }>e  font  we  weren  eft  iboren 

iclensed  and  to  gode  icorene. 

his  halie  nome  we  nomen  and  beren. 

In  \>e  font  ]>er  we  iclensed  weren. 

Cristen  beo^  icleped  riche  and  lo^.1 

efter  crz'st  seolf  )>et  is  god. 

his  nome.  ]>et.  we  of  him  hafen. 

he  hit  hale^e  \>et  we  crauen. 

Adueniat  regnum  tuum. 

Cume  J)i  riche  we  seggefc  hit. 

HercnrS  alle  to  }>is  writ. 

his  riche  is  al  )>is  middeleard. 

EorSe  and  heofene  and  uwilcherd 

ofer  alle  is  his  muchele  mihte. 

lauerd  he  is  icleped  mid  rihte. 

Lauerd  he  is  of  alle  scafte. 

In  eorSe.  in  heuene  is  his  mahte 

alle  Jje  scafte  \>e  he  bi-gon. 

}>et  is  J>et  sod^e  hit  wes  for  mon 

alle  Jnnge  he  makede  a?t2  agan. 

Er  he  efre  makede  mon. 

he  makede  mon  i  rihtwisnesse. 

Onlete  on  his  onlichnesse. 

Alle  dor  and  fi^el  ifliht  f 

lete  he  makede  adunriht. 

)>ene  Mow  he  lufede  and  welbiJ>ohte. 

and  for-]>i  his  neb  upward  he  wrohte. 

\et  wes  al  mid  muchele  skile  '. 

3if  he3  hit  understondon  wile. 

Neb  upwardes  he  him  wrohte. 

he  walde  \>et  he  of  him  J>ohte 

\et  he  lufede  him  mid  J>oht[e]. 

Al  swa  J?e  lauerd  ]>et  him  wrohte. 

^encheft  nu  men  hwilch  wurSin[g] 

In  the  font 
were  we  born 
again  and 

1  B1C. 

and  are  called 
after  Christ. 

Thy  kingdom 

His  kingdom 
is  everywhere. 

Lord  he  is  of 
all  creatures. 

He  made  all 
things  for 

2  it  may  be 

He  made  man 
after  his  own 

Man  he  made 
to  look  up. 


so  that  he 
might  think 
of  God. 

60  the  lord's  prayer. 

100     The  king  of  heaven  to  yon  hath  done, 

To  be  in  heaven,  full  sooth, 

Into  the  seat  of  Paradise, 

From  which  the  angels  down  fell 
104     Into  the  darkness  of  hell. 

That  seat,  as  they  tell  thus, 

Where  God  shall  harbour  us, 

Christ  grant  us  thither  to  come, 
108     And  ever  with  himself  to  dwell ! 

And  Christ  will  amongst  us  be, 

Face  to  face  we  shall  him  see, 

And  dwell  with  him  night 
112     And  day,  up  in  heaven  that  is  so  bright ; 

He  will  be  our  Father  and  we  his  sons, 

For  him  is  all  our  journey, 

That  is  our  country  and  our  kingdom, 
116     With  him  to  dwell  in  heaven. 

Fiat  voluntas  tua,  sicut  in  coelo  et  in  terra. 

Thine  own  will  be,  for  that  say  we, 

In  earth,  and  heaven,  so  let  it  be, 

As  is  in  heaven  thine  own  will, 
120     That  we,  Lord  !    serve  thee  all  with  skill  (rightly), 

For  to  be  (like),  Lord  !   thy  archangels, 

And  thy  beloved  holy  angels. 

When  the  angels  from  heaven  fell, 
124     For  their  pride,  into  hell, 

The  others  were  strengthened  soon, 

That  they  should  never  more  misdo. 

Afterwards  none  might  ever  sin, 
128     Nor  from  God's  will  go  ; 

They  cannot  ever  evil  work, 

Nor  even  once  think  to  do  it. 

God  grant  us  in  heart  to  take  (resolve) 
132     That  we  no  evil  think  to  do, 

And  grant  us  towards  him  good  will, 

And  to  act  towards  all  men  with  right  and  skill  (rightly 
and  reasonably), 



100     eow  haueft  idon  J>e  heouenking  f 

To  bon  in  heuene  fuliwis. 

In  touj^e1  sete  of  para[d]is. 

from  kwonne  ]?e  engles  a-dun  follon2 
104     m  to  *J>e  ]>osteraesse  hellen. 

\et  secle3  swa  ho  radden  ]>us  \ 

J>er  god  seal  herbe^en  us. 

Crist  us  3ife  }>ider  to  cumen. 
108     and  efre  mid  him  solue  to  wunen. 

and  cWstes  wille  bo  us  bitwon. 

neb  wr8  neb  for  him  to  son. 

and  wunen  mid  him  niht 
112     and  dei  up  in  heouene  J>e  is  swa  briht. 

\et  he  beo  feder  and  we  beo  sunes. 

to  him  is  ure  al  to  cumes. 

\>et  is  ure  e^ele  and  ure  riche  f 
11G     Mid  him  to  wunen  in  heouene  riche. 

Fiat  uoluntas  tua.  sicut  in  celo  <Sr  in  terra. 

Jjin  a5en  wille  beo  for  \>et  segge  we. 

In  orSe  in  heuene  swa  hit  beo 

Al  swa  is  in  heouene  ]>in  a3en  wil. 
120     pet  we4  ]>eowen  lauerd  al  mid  skil. 

For  to  beon  lauerd  j>ine  archangles. 

and  Jji  leoue  hali  engles. 

|>a  J;e  angles,  of  heouene  uolle 
124     for  heore  prude  in  to  helle. 

]?a  o^re  weren  fulfeste  sone. 

]>et  ho  ne  mihten  nefre  mare  misdone. 

Sod^on  ne  mihten  sunegenen5  nan  '. 
128     ne  ut  of  godes  wille  gan. 

Ne  mi^en  heo  nefre  ufele  swinken  : 

ne  for  men  enes  hit  bi-Jnnken. 

God  us  3efe  in  horte  to  fon  '. 
132     \et  we  ne  }>enchen  ufel  to  don. 

and  3ife  us  to  him  god  ivvil '. 

and  to  alle  men  '.    riht  and  skil. 

God  hath 
made  us  to 
dwell  in  Para- 

1  ?  In  to  He. 

2  ?  fellen. 

*  [Fol.  23a.] 
from  whence 
the  devils  fell 
into  hell. 

3  ?  setle. 

May  we  see 

Christ  face  to 

and  dwell 
with  him  for 

Heaven  is  our 

country  and 

Thy  will  be 

*  MS.  be. 

May  we  serve 
thee,  Lord, 
and  he  like 
thy  holy 

who  are 
and  cannot 

5  sic. 

nor  even 
think  of  evil. 

62  the  lord's  prayer. 

And  grant  us  so  his  will  to  do, 
136     That  we  both  please  God  and  man  ; 

And  that  he  fill  us  with  his  might, 

And  us  with  his  Holy  Ghost  enlight; 

And  in  charity  (make  us)  dwell  therein, 
140     That  we  fall  not  into  sin  ; 

That  we  have  no  will  to  sin, 

When  our  foes  us  do  tempt, 

No  more  than  the  angels  had, 
144     That  in  God's  love  did  abide. 

Panem  nostrum  cotidianum  da  nobis  hodie. 

Give  us  to-day  our  daily  bread, 

Lord  God,  helper  of  us  all ! 

Give  us  our  livelihood, 
148     And  for  the  flesh  covering  and  clothes. 

Bread  in  Greek  signifies 

Doctrine  to  us  indeed. 

For  as  they  feed  the  flesh  without 
152     With  meat  and  with  clothes  all  about, 

So  behoveth  the  soul  have  food 

With  God's  words,  with  good  mood  (mind). 

God's  songs  are  all  good  (profitable), 
156     To  the  soul  they  send  food; 

We  ought  to  take  heed  to  them, 

And  please  God  himself  therewith  ; 

Then  may  our  souls  live, 
160     That  our  Lord  hath  given  us. 

He  Avho  will  not  listen  to  this  counsel 

Assuredly  he  shall  die, 

For  his  soul  is  lost ; 
164     And  sorrow  is  before  him, 

And  he  shall  go  into  hell,  into  eternal  woe, 

Out  shall  he  come  never  more. 

But,  Lord  God,  hear  our  prayer, 
168     Of  our  sins  make  us  clean. 

May  he  us  give,  as  he  can. 











and  3ife  us  swa  his  wil  to  downe  i 

\>et  we  gode  likie  and  nionne. 

and  \>et  he  fulle  us  mid  his  mihte 

and  mid  his  halie  gast  us  lihte. 

and  in  cherite  to  wnien  inne  i 

\et  we  ne  fallen  naut  ine  sunne. 

\et  we  nabben  wil  to  sunegen. 

jjenne  ure  unwines  us  munegen. 

Ne  mare  }>ene  \>o  engles  *efden 

\et  in  godes  luue  heo  heom  lende. 

Panem  nostrum  cotidianum  da  nobis  hodie. 

Gif  us  to  dei  ure  deies  bred. 

Lauerd  god  al  ure  red. 

Gif  us  ure  liuena^f 

and  to  ]>e  flesce  scrud  and  cla^. 

Bred  on  grikisce  is  f 

Larspel  to  us  fuliwis 

for  alse  me  fet  ]>et  fleis  wrS-uten 

mid  mete  mid  cla^e  al  abuten  f 

swa  bi-houe^  )>e  saule  fode  '. 

mid  godes  wordes  mid  gode  mode. 

Godes  songes  beo^  alle  gode. 

to  ]>ere  saule  heo  senden  fode. 

We  hit  a3en  to  jeme. 

and  god  solf  }>er  mid  iqueme. 

jjenne  mei  ure  saule  lifen. 

\et  ure  lauerd  us  haue^  i3euen. 

Jje  luste  nulled  j>esne  red 

wisliche  he  seal  wurSen  ded 

for  ]>e  saule  of  him  f    is  forloren. 

and  Jje  so^e  is  him  biforen. 

and  fere^  in  to  helle  mid  eche  wa '. 

ut  ne  cume^  he  nefre  ma. 

Ah  lauerd  god  her  ure  bone.1 

of  ure  sunne  make  us  clene. 

Ipet  he  us  3eue  alswa  he  mei ' 

May  God  en- 
lighten us 
with  his  Holy 


so  that  we  fall 
into  no  sin. 


Give  ns  this 
day  our  daily 

and  shrouds 
and  clothes 
for  the  body. 
Bread  denotes 
the  Gospel, 

which  is  the 
soul's  food. 

God's  songs 
are  all  good. 

The  soul  that 
will  not  listen 
to  (iod's  lore 
shall  perish  in 

Lord,  cleanse 
us  from  our 


64  THE  lord's  prayer. 

What  is  needful  for  us  day  by  day 

For  our  life's  and  soul's  food, 
172     So  that  we  may  love  him  with  a  pure  mood  (mind). 

Et  dimitte  nobis  debita  nostra  sicut  et  nos 
dimittimus  debitoribus  nostris. 

Our  sins,  Lord,  be  forgiven  us, 

As  we  do  unto  all  men  that  live. 

Lord,  forgive  us  our  folly, 
76     As  we  shall  forgive  all  others, 

Our  sins  and  our  misdoings. 

And  here  is  a  sorrowful  petition, 

To  God  himself  we  ourselves  accuse, 
180     If  we  these  words  say, 

When  we  have  envy  and  wrath 

Against  any  man  that  is  on  land  (earth). 

For  if  any  man  doth  us  aught  amiss 
184     We  desire  to  have  him  put  to  death. 

Here  is  a  very  evil  boon  (prayer), 

If  we  hate  one  another. 

If  any  do  us  aught  amiss, 
188     And  will  not  act  right  towards  us, 

For  God's  love  forgive  we  them  all, 

For  He  shall  requite  it  well. 

When  shall  this  prayer  profit  us, 
192     And  when  will  God  receive  it  1 

When  I  forgive  hatred  against  me, 

For  the  love  of  heaven's  King, 

And  when  I  believe  and  well  see 
196     That  no  guilt  may  be  forgiven  me 

Unless  I  observe  these  behests 

That  we  have  from  our  Lord  God. 

Love  thy  fellow  Christian  day  and  night 
200     As  thyself,  and  that  is  right. 

If  we  these  behests  observe, 

For  (our)  profit  we  it  say. 

The  Pater   Noster  availeth  me  nought 



\>et  us  bihoueft  ulche  dei. 

To  Hue  and  to  saule  ure  fode 
172     and  him  luuien  mid  clene  mode. 

Et  dimitte  nobis  debita  nostra,  sicttt  et  nos 
dimittimus  debitoribus  nostris. 

Vre  gultes  lauerd  bon  us  foi^euen 

al  swa  we  do}?  alle  men  \et  liuen. 

Lauerd  forjef  us  ure  unskile 
176     and  alswa  we  alle  oftre  wile. 

ure  sunuen.  and  ure  misdo?iniwg. 

and  her  is  a  roulich  moting. 

to  gode  solf  we  us  wreift  i 
180     hwewne  we  ]>os  word  seggeft. 

hwenne  we  habbeft  nift  and  ondef 

*to  eni  moraie  \et  is  on  londe. 

for  3if  eni  mow  mis-deft  us  oht '. 
184     we  wulleft  him  habben  to  dcfte  ibroht. 

her  is  swij>e  ufel  bonef 

5if  we  hetieft  us  bitwene. 

3if  eni  us  misdoft  awiht '. 
188     and  nule  us  do  riht. 

for  godes  luue  for^eue  we  al  J 

for  he  hit  wel  foi^elden  seal. 

Wenne  seal  )>os  bode1  us  god  don  f 
192     and  god  wule  hit  underfon. 

wenne  ic  foi^eue  min  hating  i 

for  ]>e  luue  of  heuene  king. 

Wenne  ic  ileue  and  wel  isof 
196     \et  no  gult  me  foi^cuen  bo. 

for  hweraie  ic  i-halde  \>a  ibode  ' 

J>et  we  habbeft  of  ure  lauerd  gode. 

luue  Jiine  euecWstene  dei  and  nihtf 
200     alswa  j>e  solue  and  \>et  is  riht. 

Gif  we  ]>os  bode  Jnis  bileggeft  f 

ful2  goderhele  we  hit  seggeft. 

\>e  pater  nosier  bi-halt  me  nohtf 

Forgive  us 

as  we  forgive 

We  accuse 
ourselves  to 

if  we  bear 
*  [Fol.  24a.] 

This  is  a 

petition,  if  wo 

liate  one 


1  ?  heode. 

but  it  will 
profit  us  if  we 
forgive  our 

and  love  our 
neighbours  as 

2  ?  for. 

66  the  lord's  prayer. 

204     Unless  I  have  (keep)  this  In  my  mind, 
Then  may  we  believe  and  say  thus, 
The  other  very  little  helpeth  us. 
This  behest,  truly  think, 

208     Of  the  others  is  perfect  confirmation  ; 
Then  may  we  well  believe  all, 
That  whoso  will  and  whoso  shall 
Against  God  do  aught  amiss, 

212     Assuredly  against  the  behest  he  sinneth. 
They  that  bear  hatred  to  another, 
How  may  they  offer  any  prayer  1 
Forgive  wrath  and  mood  (anger)  against  thee, 

216     For  then  is  thy  boon  (prayer)  good. 
That  is  true,  and  God  saith  it, 
And  in  the  Gospel  he  writeth  it, 
Whoso  forgiveth  not  hatred  against  them 

220     God  will  in  nowise  forgive  them. 

Good  men,  listen  to  me.     Hatred  against  you 
Forgive  ye ;  thy  sinful  fellow  man, 
Love  him  for  God's  sake. 

224     Thou  oughtest  to  hate  well  his  sin, 
That  thou  participate  not  therein. 
For  if  thou  thus  dost  full  truly 
Thou  pleasest  God  most  certainly. 
Et  ne  nos  inducas  in  temptation&m. 

228     Lead  us  not  into  temptation. 
That  is  a  kind  of  trial ; 
For  our  tempter  never  ceaseth 
For  to  tempt  us  to  sin ; 

232     He  hath  leave  to  tempt  man  : 

Where  he  may  full  well  he  can  (knows  how). 
He  tempted  God  himself  with  his  wiles, 
And  desired  much  to  afflict  him, 

236     And  his  apostles  in  the  same  way  also, 
And  many  others  thereto. 
May  God  give  us  might  and  (good)  deeds, 



204     bute  ic  }>is  habbe  in  mi  Jjoht. 

J>enne  imi3e  we  wenen  and  seggen  |>usf 

\et  oSer  swrSe  lutel  helped  us. 

}jos  ilke  bode  wisliche  jjing  5 
208     of  o^re  is  ful  festning. 

jjenne  mu3e  we  wel  trowen  al  i 

hwa  swa  wile  and  hwa  swa  seal. 

\et  wK  gode  awibt  mis-do^  f 
212     Iwis  in  \>e  bode  he  misfirS. 

\et  hetunge  habbe^  horn  bitwone  f 

hu  ma3en  heo  bidden  eni  bene. 

for^if  J)i  wre#Se  and  \\  mod  i 
216     for  ]>enne  is  \>i  bode  god. 

\>et  is  soS  and  god  serS  hit '. 

and  in  ]>e  godspelle  he  hit  writ. 

hwa  swa  ne  fo^efeS  heore  hating. 
220     ne  god  ne  fo^eue^  him1  na  J>ing. 

Gode  men  lusted  to  me.  ower  hating 

fo^efe  3e  ]nn  sunful  efenlingf 

luue  him  for  godes  J>ing. 
224     and  ]>u  a3est  *to  hatien  wel  his  sunnef 

\et  ^u  ne  dele  noht  \>er  inne. 

for  3ef  ]ju  jms  dost  wel  iwis  f 

Jju  qwemest  god  to  fuliwis. 

Et  ne  nos  inducas  in  temptationem. 
228     Ne  led  us  noht  in  to  costnunga '. 

]>et  is  an  cum2  of  fundunga. 

for  ure  fond  nefre  ne  linnen ' 

for  to  fonden  us  mid  sunnen. 
232     he  haue^  leue  to  fonden  mon. 

]>er  he  mei  ful  wel  he  con. 

he  fowdede  god  solf  mid  his  wrenche  f 

and  walde  bine  301-ne  swenche. 
23G     and  his  apostles  riht  al  swa  '. 

and  monie  o^re  J>ere  to. 

God  us  3efe  mihte  and  deden  f 

This  petition 
is  the  com- 
pletion  of  the 

IIow  may  he 
who  bears 
hatred  in  his 

heart  offer  up 
any  prayer  ? 

Oiod  forgives 
not  the 

1  ?  henm. 

Love  thy 
but  hate  his 


Lead  us  not 
into  tempta- 

2  ?  cun. 

Our  tempter 
is  ever  busy 
to  lead  us 
into  sin. 

ITe  tempted 
God  himself, 

and  also  his 

68  the  lord's  prayer. 

That  we  fear  not  our  tempter  ; 
240     And  give  us  might  through  his  grace 

That  our  faith  may  be  our  shield 

Against  the  teinptei^'s  trials, 

Through  faith  and  through  works. 
244     In  other  ways  I  have  found 

How  we  may  in  sin  be  bound. 

The  first  is  to  be  servant  (of  sin), 

And  the  other  is  pleasure  (lust)  ; 
248     The  third  is  man's  will, 

And  also,  as  they  say,  our  reason. 

May  Christ  give  us  power  over  him, 

Better  then  may  we  bear  the  contest. 
252     We  may  not  from  us  the  tempter  drive, 

Neither  with  sword  nor  with  knife, 

But  only  through  God's  grace ; 

And  may  he  give  us  strength  and  might, 
256     And  give  us  weapons  for  to  bear, 

With  good  works  ourselves  to  protect  ; 

That  is,  through  truth  and  charity. 

May  our  right  belief,  God,  come  before  thee 
260     Through  fasting  and  through  good  vigils, 

And  also  through  offering  of  prayer, 

And  dwell  ever  in  clean  shrift, 

That  is,  God's  own  gifts. 
264     And  let  us  keep  ourselves  from  obstinacy, 

And  have  fair  speech  and  also  reasonable, 

And  humility  and  patience, 

Which  God  esteemeth  very  good  ; 
268     With  alms  and  also  with  true  intent 

The  indigent  have  given  advice, 

With  lodging  and  with  food, 

And  all  else  that  thou  might  for  their  good  ; 
272     These  are  the  weapons  that  are  good. 

And  let  us  be  very  patient, 

That  we  may  not  fear  the  tempter, 



yet  we  [»ene  fond  nolit  ne  adreden. 
240     and  $efe  us  mi  lite  )>urh  his  held  f 

)>et  ure  leue  beo  ure  sceld 

a3ein  Jjes  fondes  fondunge  f 

jmrh  trowj>e  and  jmrh  swincuuge. 
244     On  o¥er  wise  ic  habbe  ifundc 

hu  me  mei  in  sunne  bon  ibunde. 

\et  forme  is  to  beon  underling. 

and  \>et  or6er  is  liking. 
248     \et  £ridde  is  j>es  monnes  wil. 

and  swa  us  sei^  ure  skil. 

Crist  us  3eue  of  him  mihte 

betere  }>enne  we  habbeS  wrihte. 
252     We  ne  ma3en  j>e  fond  from  us  driuc  t 

ne  mid  sworde  ne  mid  kniue. 

bute  hit  beo  jmrh  godes  3ifte l. 

and  he  us  3eue  streinSe  and  mihte. 
256     and  $eue  us  wepne  for  to  boren ' 

Mid  gode  werkes  for  us  to  weren. 

\>et  is  jmrh  troupe  I  and  jmrh  choritc. 

vre  rihte  leue  god  cume  to  J>e 
260     jmrh  festing  and  jmrh  wacunge. 

and  ec  jmrh  ibodenes  biddunge. 

and  wunien  efre  in  clene  scrifte ' 

\et  is  godes  a3ene  3eifte. 
264     and  halde  we  us  from  uniwil '. 

and  habben  feir  lete  and  ec  skil. 

and  edmodnesse  and  jmlemod  f 

\et  jmnche^  gode  swrSe  god. 
268     Mid  elmesse  and  ec  *mid  trowe  inhed  i 

jje  node  habbe^  3iuen  heom  red. 

Mid  hereber3e.  and  mid  fode '. 

and  mid  j>et  Jm  miht  to  gode. 
272     J50S  beo%  j>a  wepne  \>et  beo^  gode' 

a nd  lice*  we  swfye  |>olemode. 

]>et  we  Jjunnc  fond  noht  ne  dreden. 

May  God  give 
us  his  grace, 
so  that  our 
faith  may  lie 
our  shield. 

Our  lust,  will, 
anil  reason 
lead  us  into 


We  cannot 
drive  the 
tempter  away 
with  sword  or 

Our  weapons 
must  he  truth, 

Easting,  vigils, 
prayers,  and 

slirift ; 

fair  and  ra- 
tional speech, 
meekness  and 


giving  alms, 
good  counsel, 

lodging  and 
food  to  the 

70  THE    LORD  S    PRAYER. 

So  that  he  may  not  deceive  us  through  his  deeds. 
Sed  libera  nos  a  malo.     Amen. 
276     But  do  thou  deliver  us  from  all  evil, 
And  choose  us  for  thine  own, 
And  keep  us  from  his  loss, 
That  loathsome  spirit,  that  loathsome  thing ; 
280     And  from  evil  men  keep  us  also — 
All  that  we  ask  also  thereto  — 
And  from  each  head-sin  (deadly  sin), 
That  he  bring  us  not  into  sorrow  ; 
284     But  if  any  evil  befall  us 

Let  us  thank  God  in  our  hearts. 
For  we  ought  then  our  prayers  to  sing, 
That  God  may  help  us  to  do  good  things, 
288     So  that  life  (body)  and  soul  be  preserved, 
And  both  delivered  out  of  sorrow. 
And  may  he  give  us  his  great  blessing 
And  true  shrift  at  our  ending  (death), 
292     That  we  have  it  so  well  received, 
That  the  soul  may  come  to  him. 
May  he  delay  the  time  of  our  death, 
As  he  through  the  prophet  promised, 
296     "  I  desire  not  that  the  sinner  be  dead, 
But  that  he  live  and  take  good  advice." 
Lord  God  we  pray  thee  thus, 
With  humble  hearts,  grant  us 
300     That  our  souls  be  to  thee  elect, 

And  not  through  the  flesh  forlorn  (damned). 
Suffer  us  to  beweep  our  sins 
That  we  die  not  therein ; 
304     And  grant  us,  Lord,  this  same  gift, 

That  we  repent  of  them  through  holy  shrift.     Ameu. 



ne  he  us  biswike  jmrh  his  deden. 

Sed  libera  nos  a  malo.     Amen. 
276     ac  pu  from  alle  ufele  us  ales. 

and  to  pin  a3en  us  ches  i 

and  kep  us  from  his  waning. 

pat  lape  gast  pet  la^e  ping. 
280     and  from  uuele  men  kep  us  swa ' 

Al  \et  we  biddeS  ec  perto. 

And  from  iwilch  heued  sunne. 

\>et  he  ne  bringe  us  in  to  unwune. 
284     Ac  3if  us  eni  ufel  bitit ' 

ponke  we  gode  in  ure  wit. 

We  ajen  pe?ine  ure  boden  to  singe. 

Ipet  god  us  hclpe  to  gode  pinge. 
288     \et  lif  and  saule  beon  iborjen. 

and  ba^e  ilesed  ut  of  soi^en. 

and  3efe  us  his  muchele  blessunge. 

and  riht  scrift  et  ure  endunge. 
292     \>et  we  habben  him  swa  wel  imune.1 

\>et  pe  saule  mote  to  him  cume. 

Vre  de^  he  do  in  firste  %et'. 

swa  he  purh  pe  witega  bihet. 
29G     Ne  wille  ic  noht  pet  pe  sunfulle  beo  ded  i 

ac  libbe  and  nime  godne  red. 

Lauerd  god  we  biddeS  pus 

mid  edmode  heorte  3if  hit  us. 
300     pet  ure  saule  beo  to  pe  icore. 

Noht  for  pe  flesce  for-lore. 

pole  us  to  bi-wepen  ure  sunne '. 

\>et  we  ne  stcruen  noht  per  inne. 
304     And  3if  us  lauerd  pet  ilke  3ifte  i 

pet  we  lies  ibeten  purh  halie  scn'fte.     Amen. 

But  deliver  us 
from  evil, 

and  cliooso  us 
for  thy  own. 

Keep  us  from 
the  devil's 
loss,  from  had 
and  from 
deadly  sin, 
and  from 

We  ought  to 
sing  our 

which  are 
good  for  soul 
and  hody. 

May  Ciodgive 
us  time  to 

May  he  adopt 
us  for  his 

Let  us  bewail 

and  repent  of 
our  sins. 

72  THE    CREED. 



rM  1ria   sunt    hominum   saluti   necessaria,  fides,    buptismus,    munditiu 


Three   things  there  are   that   each   man  must  have  that  will  follow 

up   his  profession   of  Christianity ;  the   first   is  true  belief,  the  second 

is  baptism,  the  third  is  to  lead   a  fair   (pure)   life  in   this  world.     He 

is  not   fully  a   Christian  man  who  lacks  aught  of  these  three  things. 

Of  belief  our    Lord    hath  spoken  in   the   holy  gospel,   and  saith,   Qui 

non  crediderit  condemnabitur — The   man  that   hath  not  true  belief   in 

him  shall   be  doomed  to  suffer  woe  with   devils   in  hell.      In  another 

passage  the  apostle   hath  spoken  of  true  belief,  and  saith,  Impossibile 

est  hominem  sine  fide  posse  Deo  placere — No  man  may  do  anything 

acceptable  to  God  except  he  have  true  belief  in  him.     Of  holy  baptism 

our  Lord  hath   spoken  in  another  place  and   saith,  Nisi  quis  renatus 

fuerit  ex  aqua  et  spiritu  sancto  non  potest  introire  in  rer/num  coslorum — ■ 

No    man  may  come  into   God's   kingdom   except  he  be  baptized.     Of 

clean   (pure)   life   the   prophet  Isaiah   hath   thus    spoken,  Lavamini  et 

mundi  estate — Wash  you  and  be  clean.     And  David  the  prophet  speaketh 

in  one  of  the  psalms  concerning  clean  life,  and  saith,  Asperges  me  Domine 

iso})o  et  mundabor — Besprinkle  me,  Lord,  with  obedience,  then  shall  I 

be   clean  ;   et  alibi,   Delecto  meo  munda  me  Domine.     And  in  another 

passage  he  saith,  Lord,  cleanse  me  from  all  my  foul  sins.     And  though 

all  men  be  cleansed  from  their  sins  at  baptism,  nevertheless  they  ought 

to  learn  their  belief.     At  the  beginning  of  the  Clmstian  religion  each 

man  learnt  his  belief  ere  he  received  baptism.     But  then  there  were 

many    children    that    died    without  baptism  and   perished,   therefore    it 

was    ordained    by    God's    command    that    children    should    be    baptized 

in    holy  church,  and  their   godfathers  and  godmothers  should   answer 

for    them    at    the    church-door,  and  enter   into   pledges    (covenants)   at 

the  font-stone,  that  they  should  be  believing  (faithful)  men,  and  know 

their   belief  when  they  were  able  to  learn  it.     And  this  the  godfathers 

CREDO.  73 



tr I  TT'"i«  sunt  hominum  saluti  nescessaria.  fides,  buptissmus.   Three  tin'ncs 
M  necessary  tu 

J     mundicia  tiite.  eve,v  <hris- 

1 1  it  u  man. 

pro  J>ing  bod  be£  ech  .Mom.  habbe  mot  bet  wile  his  cristinclom     [Foi.  25&0 
fole3e.  j>e<  an  is  rihte  ileue.  )>ei  o^er  i  fullubt.  bet  ^riddef  feir 
lif  to  leden  on  bisse  Hue.  he  nis  noht  fulliche  cristene  mon  bet 
is   awiht  wone  of  bisse  breo  bing.    of  ileue  spek  ure  drihten   of  Ueiief. 
ine  be  hali  godspel  and  seiS.  Qui  non  crediderit  condempnabitur. 
be  mon.  bet  naue^  rihte   ileue  mid   him.  he  wurh1  idemed   to     '  ?  wurjj. 
J)olien  wawe  mid  douelen  in  helle.  on  o^er  stude  of  rihte  ileue 
spec  be  apostle  and  serS.  Inpossibile  est  homrnem  sine  fide  posse 
deo  placere.     Ne  mei  na  man   do   bing  bet   beo  god   iqueme. 
bute  he  habbe  rihte  ileue  mid  him.  of  be  halie  fulht  spec  ure   of  Baptism. 
drihten  on  o^er  stude  and  serS.  JSTisi  quis  renatus2  fuerit  ex    aJJ"<*  . 

1  J  ruhljed  in 

aqtia  <£•  spirit?*  sancto  non  potest  introire  in  regnum  celorum.     MS- 

Ne  mei  na  .Mow.  cume  in  to  godes  riche  bote  he  beo  ifulhted. 

of  clene  liflade  spec  be  prophete  isaias  and  bus  serS.  Lauamini  of  a  pure  life- 

inundi   estote.    wasche^   ou  (.   and  wonie%  clene.  and  dauid   be 

prophefe  spekeft  in  an  salm  of  clene  lif  and  serS.  Asperges  me 

domine  isopo  &  mundabor  bi-spreng  me  laue/'d  mid  buhsum- 

nesse  i    jjenne  wurSe  ic  clene.  <t  alibi.  Delicto  meo  munda  me 

■  I undue,  and  on   o^er  stude  he  seift.   lauerd  dense  me  of  alle 

mine  fule  sunnen.    and  beh    alle    men   beon    of   bore   smaien   At  Baptism 

we  are 

iclewsed  *et3  be  fulht  f  nobeles  beo  a2en   for  to  cumen4  heore  cleansed  of 

'  '  J  our  sin~. 

bileue.    onforward    bos    cristendomes    ech    man    leornede    his     *[Foi.  260.3 
bileue   er  he  fulht   underfenge.     Ah    ba  weren    monie   childre     4 ,  cumien 
dede  fulhtles.   and  forlorne.  ber   fore  hit  wes  iloked  bi  godes 
wissunge  ine  halie  chirche.  bet  mon  scule  childre  fulhten  and  Whyy°«ns 

°  >  children  are 

heore   godfaderes  and   heore  godmoderes  scullen   onswerie   for  baPtIzed- 
hem   et  be  chirche   dure  and  beo   in  boi^es  et  be   fonstan  bet 
heo   sculen    beon    bi-lefulle   .Men.   and   heore    bileue    cunneu  f 
wenne  heo   lorne  niuje.    and   bis    ne    mei   be  godfadres   ne   be 

74  THE    CEEBD. 

and  godmothers  cannot  do,  except  they  themselves  know  their  belief,  that 
is,  Pater  noster  and  Creed.  No  man  should  himself  refuse  (to  learn)  when 
any  one  for  (his)  need  thereto  offers  (to  teach  him).  Therefore  we  will 
begin  our  lore-spell  (doctrine)  of  (concerning)  belief.  The  true  belief  was 
committed  to  writing  by  the  twelve  apostles  ere  they  separated  and  went 
throughout  this  earth;  and  each  of  them  wrote  one  verse  thereof;  and 
St.  Peter  wrote  the  first.  And  the  psalm  that  they  all  thus  wrote  was 
called  Creed,  after  the  first  word  of  the  psalm.  You  all,  I  expect,  know 
at  least  your  creed,  though  you  do  not  all  know  the  meaning  of  it. 
Attend  now  thereto,  and  I  will  repeat  it  word  after  word,  and  therewith 
what  the  words  signify.  This  word  '  creed'  we  may  understand  in  three 
ways.  The  first  is  Credo  Deo — I  believe  God ;  the  second  is  Credo  Deum 
— I  believe  that  God  is.  These  two  things  do  all  heathen  men  believe. 
But  the  third  no  man  believeth  except  the  good  Christian  and  the 
God-fearing  and  the  believing  (faithful),  Qui  credit  in  Deum — who 
believeth  in  God  ;  and  to  believe  in  God  five  things  are  necessary. 
Sillcet,  eum  dominum  omnium  cognoscere,  super  omnia  diligere,  pre 
omnibus  timere,  et  venerari,  eique  'per  omnia  obedire.  The  first  is  to 
acknowledge  him  as  Lord  over  all  things  ;  the  second  is  to  love  him 
above  all  things ;  the  third  is  to  stand  in  awe  of  him  above  all  things ; 
the  fourth  is  to  honour  him  above  all  things  ;  the  fifth  is  to  obey  him 
before  all  things.  The  man  that  hath  these  same  five  things  in  him 
is  a  believing  (faithful)  man,  and  if  he  lacks  any  thereof,  he  is  not 
as  faithful  as  it  behoveth  him  to  be.  Credo  in  Deum,  I  believe  in  God, 
patrem  omnipotentem,  the  Father  Almighty,  creatorem  cceli  et  terrce, 
creator  and  ruler  of  heaven,  and  earth,  and  of  all  creatures ;  et  in 
Jesum  Christum,  and  I  believe  in  the  Saviour  Christ,  filiu/m  ejus 
unicum,  his  only  Son,  Dominum  nostrum,  our  Lord.  He  is  called 
Saviour  for  he  healed  mankind  of  the  deathly  venom  that  the  old 
devil  blew  into  Adam  and  Eve  and  all  their  offspring,  so  that  their 
fivefold  powers  were  all  taken  from  them ;  that  is,  their  hearing,  their 
sight,  their  blowing  (breathing),  their  smelling,  and  their  feeling  were 
all  poisoned,  but  he  healed  them  with  his  five  holy  wounds  when  he 
suffered  for  us  on  the  cross,  and  gave  everlasting  freedom  to  as  many 
as  would  receive  it.     He  is  his  only  Son,  not  adopted,  but  begotten  ; 

CREDO.  /  L> 

godrnodres  don  i  buten   heo  cunnew  heore  bileue.  bet  is.  -pater 

noster.  ami  credo.     Ne  na  .Mow.  nab.  bim  solue  wernen  hewne1     ' ?  ben»e. 

.Mow.   bim   for   node  ber  to  bide.   ber  fore  we  widen  biginne 

ure  larspel  of  bileue.  bet  rihte  ileue  setten  be  twelue  apostles   The  Belief 

*  '  '  was  composed 

on  write  er  beo  to-wenden  in  to  al  bis  middelerd.  and  ec  of  bJ the,  twelve 

>  Apostles. 

beom  wrat  ber  of  bis  uers.  and  sancte  peter  wrat  bet  ereste. 

and  be  salm  bet  beo  alle  bus  writen  wes  ihaten.  Credo,  efter  ban  why  called 

r  r  r  1  creed. 

formeste  word  of  be  salm.  Alle  $e  kunnen  leste  bet  icb  wene 
ower  credo,  beb  3c  nuten  nawiht  alle  bwat  bit  serS.  Nume^ 
nu  3eme  berto  and  ic  ou  wile  seggen  word  efter  word  and 
bermide    hwat    bet  word    bi-queb.     pis  word,   credo.    Mow.  mei  The  first  word 

'  J  .  .  Iias  a  three- 

understonden.   on  bro  wise,  bet  on  is  f  Credo   deo.      lb  ileue  fold  meaning, 

gode.  bet  oSer  is  f  Credo  deum.  icb  ileue  bet  god  is.   bos  twa 

bing  do^  alle  be^ene  men.  ah  bet  [bridde]   ne  leue^  nan  i  bute 

be  gode  cristene  .Mom.  and  be  godfurhte  and  be  lefulle  *qui    *[Poi.  2g&.] 

credit  in  deum.   be  bileued  in  god.  and  to  luuene2  ine  god  f    a?ieuene. 

mote   fif    binsr.      Silicet.   eum   dominuva    omnium    coqnoscere.  Five  things 

'      °  necessary  to 

super  omnia  diligere.  pre  omnibus  timere.  &  uenerari  eique  per  true  belief- 

omnia  obedire.     pet  an  is  iknawen  bim  to  lauerd  ouer  alle  bing. 

bet  o^er  is  luuien  bim  ouer  alle  bing.  bet  bridde  is '.   babben 

heie  of  him  ouer  alle  bing.  bet  forbe  is  \  wurben  him  ouer  alle 

bing.  bet  fifte  is  I  beon  him  ibucsum  ouer  alle  bing.    pe  .Mow. 

bet  haue$  bis  ilke  fif  bing  mid  him  f  he   is  leful  .Mow.  and  if 

him  is  eni  ber  of  wane  i  he  nis  nawiht  alse  leful  alse  him  bi-houede. 

Credo  in  deum.      Ic    ileue  in  god.   patrem  omnipotentem.   be   1  believe  in 

God  the 

fedelYI  almihti.     Creatorem  celi  &  terre.  scuppende  and  weldende   Father 

L  J  ...  Almighty, 

of  heouene  and  of  orSe  and  of  alle  iscefte  &  in  ihesum  christum   And  in  Jesus 

7-1-1  iii  /-7-  •  •  1  •        i     •    Cllrist.  &c. 

and  ich  ileue  on  be  helende  cn&t.  jihum.  eius  unicum.  his  enlepi 

sune.  dominum  nostrum,  ure  lauerd  he  is  ihaten  helende  for  he   why  our 

Lord  is  called 

moncun  helede  of  ban  debliche  atter.  bet  be  aide  deouel  blou   Saviour. 

on  adam.  and  on  eue.  and  on  al  heore  ofsprinke.  swa  bet  heore 

fif-falde  mihte3  horn  wes  al  binumen.  bet  is  hore  lust,  hore  loking.     *ms.  mihte, 

hore  blawing.  hore  smelling,  heore  feling  wes  al  iattret.  ac  he 

bom  helde  mid  his  halie  fif  wunden  b&  he  bolede  for  us  ine  be   Christ's  five 

*  '  '       wounds 

halie  rode,  and  gef  bom  eche  frechipe  alle  ba  \>et  hit  aide1  cunnen.   J|ealed .man's 

0  l  >      '  five  poisoned 

he  is  his  enlipi  sune.  nawiht  efter  bobnunge.  ac  efter  istrone.   ienses- 

76  THE    CREED. 

for  He  begot  Him  as  the  sun  generates  light,  which  he  spreads  abroad 
into  all  this  wide  world.  And  the  Father  is  in  the  Son  in  three 
ways : — in  strength,  for  he  is  great  and  mighty  above  all  things ; 
in  form  (beauty),  for  the  sun  and  moon  darken  before  his  beauty ; 
in  virtue,  for  he  is  full  of  all  goodness.  And  though  he  be  the  lord 
of  all  creatures,  because  he  created  all  things,  nevertheless  he  is 
not  the  lord  of  all  men,  though  all  men  are  subject  to  him,  but 
he  is  lord  only  of  the  faithful  and  God-fearing  men  and  good 
Christians  that  believe  on  God  ;  for  all  other  men  that  commit 
grievous  sins  and  will  not  forsake  them  are  under  the  devil's  rule,  and 
it  availeth  them  not  while  in  this  state  to  sing  pater  noster  and  creed. 
May  God  give  good  belief  to  all  those  that  have  it  not,  and  grant 
that  we  and  all  others  that  have  it  keep  it  unto  their  life's  end.  Qui 
conceptus  est,  <f)c.  We  have  commenced  to  tell  you  the  meaning  of 
the  creed,  and  have  said  two  verses  thereof,  and  will  now  pass  on  to 
the  third.  And  I  believe  in  the  Saviour,  whom  the  holy  virgin 
conceived  in  her  body,  not  after  the  will  (desire)  of  the  flesh,  nor 
after  carnal  conception,  but  even  as  ye  receive  the  words  that  I 
speak  to  you  from  my  mouth,  so  she  conceived  our  Lord  when  the 
angel  brought  her  the  blissful  tidings,  thus  saying,  Ecce  concipies  in 
utero  et  paries  filium — Thou  shalt  conceive  a  child  in  thy  womb,  and 
bear  a  male  child  and  call  it  Saviour,  and  it  shall  be  king  in  the 
everlasting  kingdom.  And  the  holy  maiden  answered  and  said,  Quo- 
modo  fiet  istud,  ihc. — How  shall  that  be,  since  no  man  hath  touched 
my  body  nor  hath  had  carnal  intercourse  with  me.  Then  answered 
the  angel  and  said,  Spiritus  sanctus,  etc.* 

*  The  MS.  here  ends  rather  abruptly,  but  another  version  of  the  concluding 
portion  of  this  homily  will  be  found  in  the  discourse  on  the  Paler  noster  in  the 
Trinity  College  homilies,  in  Series  ii.  of  this  Collection. 

CREDO.  77 

for  ban  he  him  alse  be  sunne  stxeonb  be  lome  bet  ho  spret  in  to   The  Son  has 

'  '  '     '  the  properties 

al  bis  wide  *worlde.  and  be  fader  is  ine  be  sune  on  bre  wise,   of  the  Father. 

«  *  [Fol.  27a. ] 

On  wacste '.  for  he  is  muchel  and  mihti  ouer  alle  bing.     On 

wlite  f  for  smme  ««(/  mone  bostrejj  for  his  fairnesse.     On  bewe. 

for  he  is  ful  of  alle  godnesse.  and  beS1  he  heo  alle  ichefte  lauerd     >?  peh. 

for  he  alle  bing  iscop.  nobeles  he  nis  nawiht  alle  mowne  lauerd.   Christ  is  not 

'       °  L  '  all  men's  lord, 

bech  alle   men  bon  on  his  onwald (.    but  lefulle  monne  lauerS.   but  only  the 

j     Christian 

and  be  godfurhte.  and  gode  cWstene  .Monne.  lauerd  '.  bet  on  god  man's  lord. 
bileueft.  for  alle  ofcre  .men.  bet  heuie  suraien  dreche^.  and  nulled 
heore   sunnen   forleten  f    bo^   on   be   doules   on-walde.  and  bet 
hwile  ne   studed  howi  nawiht   bet  ho   singe  poter  nosier,    and 
credo.     God  3efe  gode  leue  alle  ba  bet  hit  nabbet.  and  ihalde 
hit  us.  awl  alle  o^re  ba  hit  habbeft  to  hore  liues  ende.  Qui 
conceptus  est  &  cetera.     We  habbeS  bigunnen  ou  to  seggen  on   xiie  second 
englisch  hwat  bi-qu[e]b  be  crede.  awl  habbe'S  ou  iserS  twa  uers.   creed. 
and  wule  nube  \>et  bridde.  and  ic  ileue  on  bene  helend  be  bet 
halie  meide  in  hire  likame  underfeng.  nawiht  efter  flesces  wille.   ofthe 

,  .  .  .  .  miraculous 

ne  efter  likames  ikunde '.   ah  alswa   alse  ^e  nime^  be  worde  bet  conception, 
iho2  speke  to  ou  of  mine  mube  swa  ho  ifeng  ure  drihten.  ba  be    2Sic, 
engel  hire  brohtc  \>c  blisfulle  tidinge.   bus  qwebende.  Ecce  con-   and  its  an- 

.     .        •  o  •        n-  ~\      e  ,  ...    .         ,     nouiiceuieiit 

cipies  in  utero  &  partes  jmit/m.  bu  scald  underton  an  child  \n  pi  to  the  Virgin 
wombe  awl  bere  knaue  child  f  and  haten  hit  helend  and  hit 
seal  king  bon  on  bet  endelese  kineriche.  and  bet  hali  meiden 
onswerede  and  seide.  quomodo  Jiet  istxid  <£•  cetera.  *hu  seal  bat  *[Foi.27&.] 
bon  sobjjen  na  .Moh.  mine  likame  irineS  ne  mid  me  flesliche 
nefde  to  downe.  pa  onswerede  be  cugel  and  seide.  spiritus 
sanctus  <£•  cetera. 

78  THE   NATIVITY    OF   OUR    LORD. 



TTomo  quidcvm  descendebat  ah  Jerusalem  in  JericJio,  et  cetera.  God 
Almighty  hath  spoken  a  parable  to  his  people  in  the  holy 
gospel,  and  saith,  A  man  went  down  from  Jerusalem  into  Jericho, 
and  fell  among  thieves,  who  robbed  him  and  sore  wounded  him,  and 
let  him  lie  half  alive,  and  went  on  their  way.  There  came  a  priest 
by  the  way  and  helped  him  not,  but  went  on  his  way ;  there  came 
a  deacon  [Levite],  &c.  Then  came  there  a  foreign  man  [Samaritan] 
and  had  pity  upon  him  and  washed  his  wounds  with  wine  and 
anointed  them  with  oil  and  bound  his  wounds,  and  put  him  upon 
his  own  horse  and  brought  him  to  an  inn  and  consigned  him  to 
the  innkeeper  to  be  taken  care  of.  On  the  morrow  he  gave  him 
two  pence  to  spend  on  him,  and  said,  "and  if  thou  spendest  moret 
of  thine  own,  when  I  return  I  will  repay  it  thee."  Now  it  behoveth 
us  to  break  these  words,  just  as  we  break  the  nut  for  to  get  at  the 
kernel.  This  man  that  went  down  from  Jerusalem  into  Jericho  betokens 
Adam  our  forefather  who  fell  from  an  exalted  position  to  a  low  one. 
Jerusalem  denotes  "  Sight  (vision)  of  peace,"  and  Jericho  signifies  "  ab- 
sence of  light."  Here  we  may  understand  that  he  fell  from  high  to  low, 
when  he  fell  from  that  blissful  abode  into  the  wanting  of  bliss.  He 
fell  among  thieves.  What  are  the  thieves  1  They  are  those  that  were 
once  angels  in  heaven,  and  fell  out  for  their  pride.  When  he  fell 
among  them  and  followed  their  lore,  and  broke  Christ's  behests,  then 
they  robbed  him  of  the  great  power  that  Christ  had  given  him,  over  all 
the  earth's  produce,  over  the  fishes  in  the  water,  and  fowls  in  the 
air,  and  all  kinds  of  wild  animals,  and  all  kinds  of  reptiles.  Adam 
might  call  all  of  them  unto  him  and  all  would  come  unto  him.  But 
as  soon  as  he  sinned  they  all  fled  and  shunned  him — those  that 
before  loved  him  now  wounded  him.  When  he  felt  ashamed  before 
his   Creatoi-,   then    he    suffered   thirst  and   hunger  and   cold   and   every 




Z!7H  omo  quidam  descendebat  ab  ierusalem  in  ierico.  &  cetera.  The  text. 

L  J     Grodalmihti  sevS  an  forbisne  to  his  folk  in  be  halie 

godspel  and  serS.      A  mon  lihte  from  ierusalem  in  to  ierico.  and  The  parable 

of  the  G 1 

fol  imong  boues.  ho  him  bireueden.  and  ho  him  ferwundeden  and  Samaritan. 

let-ten  bine  liggen  half  qwic.  and  wenden  for$.      per  com  a  prost 

bi  be  weie  ami  him  nawiht  ne  help  '.  and  wende  for$  ber  com  an 

diacne.  et  cetera.  ba  com  Jjcr  an  helendis  .Mon.  and  heuede  roujje  How  the 

Samaritan,  a 

of  him.  and  wesch  his  wunden  mid  wine,  and  smerede  mid  oli  foreign  man, 

took  care  ol 

awl  bond  his  wunden.  and  brohte  him  huppen  his  werue.  and  him  whom 

1  A  the  thieves 

brohte  him  to  an  hors  huse.  and  bitahte  hine  be  hors  horde  f  to  left  'I:ilt'- 

>  quick. 

witene.  A  be  marten  bitahte  him  twa  pene^es  to  spenen  on  him 
and  seide.  and  yif  bu  mare  spenest  of  bine  hwan  ic  a3en  cherre  f 
al  ic  be  3elde.     Nu  hit  iburd  breke  bas  word  f  alse  me  breke^ 

be  nute  for  to  habbene  bene  curnel.     pes  Mon.  bhet  a  lihte  from  The  man  who 

.               .  went  fnmi 

ierusalem  \n  to  ierico.  bet  his  bitacned  adam  ure  forme  federf  Jernaaiemto 

p             ii*                 i  Jericho 

bet  alihte  from  hehe  w  to  lahe.     Ierusalem.  bitacned  gribes  sihbe.  denotes 
and  ierico  f   trukinge  of  lihte.  her  me  mei  understonde  bet  he 

*  alihte  from  hehe  to  lahe  from  derewurS  wunmge  '.  in  to  wone  *  [Fol.  28a.] 

of  blisse.     He  uol  imong  beues.  hwet  bo^  bas  beues  f  bet  bo^  bo  The  thieves 

1                                      '        r                 r                 r  are  the  fallen 

bet  weren   imakede  engles   in   houene.   and  fellen   ut  for  hore  angels, 

wrechede.  be  he  uel  imo?ig  bom  ami  fole3ede  hore  lare '.  and  brec 

cWstes  heste.   ba  ho  hine  bireueden  of  bere  muchele  mihte.  bet  who  deprived 

'                                                    '  man  of  his 

cWst  him  hefde  isefen  of  al  ber  orbe  scrude   of  be  uisces  ibe  earthly 

'               '                                 '                         '  power. 

wetere.  and  fu3eles  ibe  lufte.  and  alles  cunnes  wilde  dorf  and 
alles  cunnes  wurmes.     Al  adam  him  mihte  to  clopie.  anil  al 

Adam's  sin 

walde  him  to  cume.     Al  se  hwat  se  he  foimilte  wes  f  al  hit  him  brousnt  upon 

°  him 

ulel1  and  scunede '.   bet  him  er  luuede  ho  him  for  wundeden  f    ba  *  ?  uieh. 

be  he  heuede  scome  a3eines  his  scuppende.  ba  he  hefde  burst  and  hanger, 

hunger  and  chele  and  alle  wreche  sibe  f  ho  hine  bilefde  listen  and  °'tI,er  ' 

'                                                °°  miseries. 

*  For  the  probable  commencement  of  this  discourse,  see  homily  "  In 
'lie  natalis  Domini,"  in  Second  Series  of  this  Collection. 

80  THE    NATIVITY   OF    OUR   LORD. 

misery.  They  (the  devils)  left  him  half  alive ;  half  alive  he  was 
when  that  he  had  sorrow  within  himself  for  his  sins.  Here  we 
ought  to  understand  why  it  says  "half  alive"  and  not  "half  dead." 
Hereof  we  may  take  an  example  by  two  brands  (torches),  when  the 
one  is  aquenched  altogether,  and  the  other  is  aquenched  except  a 
little  spark ;  the  one  that  hath  the  one  spark  in  it  we  may  blow 
and  it  will  quicken  (revive)  and  kindle  the  whole  brand.  The  brand 
that  is  wholly  quenched,  though  one  blow  on  it  for  ever,  may  never 
again  be  kindled.  These  two  brands  betoken  two  men  :  the  one 
sinneth  and  is  sorry  for  his  sin,  but  cannot  subdue  his  flesh.  We 
may  preach  to  this  man  with  God's  word,  through  which  he  will 
forsake  his  sins  and  believe  and  be  enkindled  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  as 
is  the  brand  of  the  little  fire.  This  other  man  sinneth  and  loveth 
his  sins,  as  doth  the  fat  swine  to  lie  in  the  foul  mire.  This  same  man 
is  hard  to  preach  to ;  but  Christ  may  enlighten  him  with  (a)  gracious 
mind.  We  may  understand  by  this  that  Adam  was  sorry  for  the  sins 
that  he  had  committed,  and  for  this  sorrow  it  is  said  that  he  was  left 
half  alive.  Now  cometh  the  priest  that  helped  him  not :  this  betokens 
the  world  that  was  from  the  beginning  and  lasted  ever  unto  the  time 
of  Moses  the  prophet.  In  this  world  there  was  neither  law  nor  law- 
expounder,  and  though  the  patriarchs,  as  Abel  and  Noah,  Abraham  and 
Isaac,  were  good  men,  being  enlightened  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  yet  all  this 
goodness  could  not  preserve  them  from  going  into  hell  ;  and  all  this 
period  elapsed  and  ever  lay  this  wretch  forwounded.  Now  is  the 
priest  gone  and  hath  helped  him  not.  Now  cometh  this  deacon  :  that 
betokens  Moses  the  prophet,  who  brought  the  law  (of  circumcision) — 
that  on  the  eighth  day  the  male  child  should  be  circumcised  with  a 
flint  knife  ;  and  he  established  law  and  lore  among  mankind,  how 
they  should  serve  God  Almighty  and  perform  his  will  upon  earth ; 
and  all  this  could  not  preserve  them  from  going  into  hell.  Now  is  this 
deacon  gone.  Now  comes  the  foreign  man  and  hath  pity  upon  this 
wounded  man.  He  is  called  foreign  for  he  is  from  a  foreign  (uncouth) 
land,  (and  betokens)  the  king  of  heaven  who  came  upon  earth  and  turned 
himself  into  his  (man's)  form.  Hereof  speaketh  St.  John  the  Evangelist 
in  the  Apocalypse,  A  fowl  came  flying  from  heaven  into  eai'th ;  here 
he  took  covering  of  fathers  and  wings.     With  this  flight  he  flew  into 

DE    XATALE    DOMINI.  81 

half  q?dc.  half  q?<ic  ho  wes  '  ba  be  he  sarinesse  heuede  wiS-innen   The  devils  left 

^  *  r     '  him  "half- 

him  f  for  his  sunnen.     Her  me  ah  to  understonden  for-whi  hit   qui<*" 
serS  alf  qwic.  and  noht  alf  ded.  her  of  me  mei  ane  forbisne  of  twa   The  term 

"  half-quick  ■ 

brondes.  hwanne  be  an  is  aqwenched  al  to  gederes.  and  be  o¥er  is   is  explained 
aqitenched  al  buten  a  gnast  bene  bet  haued  bene  ene  gnast  upen   brands, 
him.  me  mei  blauwen.  and  he  wule  aq?/ikien  and  al  be  brond 
tenden.  be  brond  be  is  al  aqwenched  bah  me  blouwe  efre '.  ne 
qwike^  he  neure.  bas  twa  brondes  bitacne^  twein  men.  be  an   The  two 

brands  de- 

sunegeS.  and  is  sari  for  his  sunne.  ah  he  ne  mei  his  flesc  awelden.    note  two  sorts 

of  men. 

bis  rnowne  me  mei  sermonen  *mid  godes  worde.  for  hwat  he     *[Foi. 286.] 

seal  his  sunne  uor-saken  and  bileuen  and  bon  itcnt  of  ben  hali 

gast.     Alse  is  be  brond  of  be  lutle  fare,     pes  o^er  ,Mo?i.   \et 

sunege^  and  luue^  his  sunnen  alse  de^  bet  fette  swin   \et  fule 

fen  to  liggen  in.  bes  ilkc  .Mow.  ia  strong  to  sermonen  f  ah  cWst 

hine  tende  mid  holde  mode  ber  we  mu^en  understonde  bet  adam 

wes  sari  uor  be  sunne  bet  he  heuede  idem,  and  for  bisse  sarinesse 

hit  is  iseidf  bet  he  wes  half  qwic  bileued.     Nu  cume^  be  prest   The  priest 

TOO  helped 

bet  him  nawiht  ne  help,    bis  bitacneS  be  world  bet  wes  from   nottl1 

,  the 

biginnegge  and  eue  f  bat  cume  to  moises  be  prophete.     In  bisse   "/^"wortd*68 

worlde  nas  na  la3e  ne  na  larbeu.  and  bah  bes  patriarches  alse   {'^'of1'6 

abel  and  noe  and  abraham  and  ysaac.  gode  men  weren  burh  bet      oses' 

ho  weren  itemle  of  ban  halie  gast.  and  al  bos  godncsse  horn  ne 

mihte  werien.  bet  ho  ne  wenden  alle  in  to  belle,  and  al  bos  world 

wende  forb  cmd  efre  lei  bes  wreche  for-wunden.     Nu  is  bes  prest 

uorbe.  and  him  naueb  nawiht  iholpen.     Nu  cume^  bes  diakne  '.    The  deacon 


bet  bitacne^  moyses  be  prophete.    he  brohte   be  la3e '.    bet  me   Moses  the 

sculde  in  be  ehtube  dei  bet  knaue  child  embsniben  mid  ane  ulint 

sexe.  and  sette   imowg  monkunne  la}e  and  lare  hu  me  sulde 

godalmihti  serue.  and  his  wille  wurche  in  orSe.  and  al  bis  horn 

helpe   ne  mihte '    bet  ho  ne  wenden  alle  in  to  helle.     Nu   is 

bes  deakne  forbe.     Nu  kume^  bes  helendisse  M.on.  and  haueS 

reunesse  of  bisse  forwu«dede  *.More.  elelendis1  he  is  icleped  for  he   *  [Fo1-  29«] 

•  ^  ?  L'itiiidis, 

is  of  unkube  bode,  be  king  of  heuene  be  com  in  to  hei'be  and   Ttie  forej<,,i 
auenede2  him  in  to  his  iscefte.  her  of  seid  I  seint  Iohan  be  ew«n-   Christ? 
geliste  in  apocalipsi.     A  vuhel  com  flon  from  houene  into  orSe. 
her  he  uette  fe)>er-home  and  wenge  mid  bisse  fluhte  he  fleh  into 



82  THE    NATIVITY    OF    OUR    LORD. 

heaven,  where  he  took  that  form  which  was  not  his  own,  and  re- 
linguished  nought  of  what  he  was.  This  is  to  be  understood  of  the 
Son  of  the  living  God,  the  great  Loi-d  that  filleth  all  the  world  of 
himself,  who  enclosed  himself  in  a  virgin's  womb,  as  the  sun  shineth 
through  the  glass  window  without  breaking  or  cracking  the  glass. 
And  the  sun  shineth  there  through,  and  receiveth  whatsoever  colour  it 
thereon  findeth ;  if  the  glass  is  red,  it  shineth  red.  In  like  manner  did 
the  Son  of  the  living  God  come  into  the  virgin,  and  she  blemished  not 
at  all  her  maidenhood.  If  she  were  blemished  in  her  maidenhood,  then 
her  son  could  not  have  had  the  name  that  was  given  him  at  circumcision, 
that  was  Saviour ;  and  if  he  bad  marred  the  maidenhood  of  his  mother, 
then  could  not  the  breaker  be  called  healer.  [He  is  called  healer]  because 
he  came  and  healed,  who  never  broke.  He  is  called  foreign  because  he  is 
here  and  is  not  from  hence.  This  man  who  came  from  heaven  into  earth 
and  took  man's  nature  upon  him  for  man's  sake,  what  need  had  mankind 
that  he  should  become  man  1  Man  had  lost  the  right  of  speaking 
before  God ;  then  came  this  man  who  had  never  sinned  and  who 
might  speak  everywhere.  This  man  became  spokesman.  He  recon- 
ciled God  and  man.  He  came  to  this  forwounded  man.  Well  !  he 
came  to  him  when  he  became  such  as  he  is,  only  without  sin. 
He  was  bathed  in  wine  and  anointed  with  oil.  We  ought  to  under- 
stand what  the  weapons  are  that  Adam  was  wounded  with  —  with 
the  same  weapons  we  are  wounded — with  the  spear  of  pride,  of 
covetousness,  of  greediness,  of  wrath,  of  whoredom,  with  envy,  with 
sloth.  These  are  the  weapons  that  Adam  was  wounded  with.  Now 
it  behoveth  the  wounded  wretch  to  have  a  physician  (leech).  We  are 
wounded  and  stand  in  need  of  a  leech.  Adam  was  healed  through 
God  Almighty  himself,  and  it  behoveth  us  to  be  healed  through  the 
priest's  mouth.  He  washed  his  wounds  with  wine.  What  is  wine 
in  a  wound  1  Wine  maketh  the  wound  smart,  but  the  smarting 
cleanseth  the  wound,  so  that  it  receives  no  further  injury.  Just  so  holy 
shrift  shall  be  in  our  wounds  when  we  fast  and  renounce  the  flesh 
and  much  of  our  will  (lusts)  on  account  of  our  sins.  What  is  the  oil  1 
Oil  hath  in  itself  the  properties  of  lightness  and  softness  and  healing. 
Such  shalt  thou  have  when  thou  hast  performed  thy  shrift  of  thy 
misdeeds,  then  shalt  thou  have  lightness  and  softness  and  healing.      This 


houene  ber  he  uatte  bet  he  nes  and  nawiht  ue  lefde  of  bet  he  wes. 

bis  is  to  understonden  bet  hit  wes  bes  liuiendes  godes  sune  be   The  mira- 
culous con. 
nmchele  lauerd  i  bet  al  be  world  fulled  of  him  solue.  bitunde  him   ceptfon  ex. 


solue  in  ane  meidenes  innebe  alse  be  sunne  seined  burh  be  glesne 
ehburl.  be£  gles  ne  breke^  ne  chined  and  be  sunne  schine^  ber 
burh.  and  ho  nime¥>  al  swuch  hou  alse  ho  ber  on  uint.  3if  be£ 
gles  is  red  f  ho  schine^  red.  Alse  be  liuendes  godes  sune  in  to 
be  uieidene  com.  and  ho  of  hire  meiden-had  nawiht  ne  wemde.    The  purity  of 

the  Virgin 

3ef  ho  awemmed  were  of  hire  meiden-had  '.  benne  ne  mihte  noht  Mary. 
hire  sune  habbe  bene  nome  bet  him  wes  i3efen  at  circumcisiun  bet 
wes  helend.  and  3ef  he  hefde  on  his  moder  ibroken  hire  meiden- 
had  I  ne  mihte  nawiht  brekere  bon  icloped  helere.  for-bi  he  com 
and  bette  be  ne  brec  nefre.  for-bi  he  is  icleped  elclendis.  for-bi 
be  here  he  is  '.  and  honen  he  nis.  bes  .Mom.  bet  com  bus  from   Christ  took 

*  i  j  j  upon  him 

houene  in  to  hor^e  and  uppen  him  nom  morales  icunde  for  man's  nature. 
morales  node.    Hwet  node  efde  moncun  bet  he  .Mom.  were  I  Mon 

hefde  uorloren  *efre  steplme  bi-uore  gode.      pa  com  bes  .Mon.  *  [Foi.  29&.] 

he  nefre  ne  gulte.   bes  mihte  speken   ouer  al  bes  .Mon  bi-com  He  became 

our  spokes- 

uorspeker.  he  isehtnede  god  and  man.  he  com  bi  bis  forwundede   nuin- 

mon.     Wei  he  com  bi  him  J  ba  he  bico??i  alswich  alse  he '.  wib- 

ute  sunne  ane.     He  wes  iwunde  mid  wine,  and  smirede  mid  oli. 

We  asen  to  understowden  hwet  bo^  be  wepne  bet  adam  wes  mide   The  weapons 

'  r  i         r  with  whic]l 

forwunded.  mid  ba  ilke  wepne  we  bofc  forwuraled.  mid  spere  of  Adam,  w,as 

'  x  x  wounded 

prude,  of  sitcunsje.  of  sifernesse.  of  eorre.  of  hordome.  mid  onde.    were J,ride- 

1  r  a  j  covetousness, 

mid  aswolkenesse.  bis  bo^  ba  wepne  bet  adam  was  mide  for-   &c- 

wuraled.     Nu  bihoue^  be  forwunded  wreche  bet  he  habbe  leche. 

we  boS  forwu?ided  us  bi-houed  leche.     Adam  wes  declined  burh    ffod  healed 

Adam  of  his 

god  almihti  solf.  and  us  bi-houeS  leche  burh  prestes  mu?.  he   wounds. 

weis  his  wunde  mid  wine,  hwet  is  win  in  wunde  '.     Win  makeS 

wunde  smerte.     Ah  be  smertinge  clense^  be  wuralc  i  swa  bet  ho 

ne  seal  of  bere  wunde  habbe  nan  o^er  uuel.     Al  so  hali  smft  h^e8h^>tea 

brS  in  mine  [urel1  wuwde  hwan  we  scale2  festen.  and  fleis  bileuen   . '  The  words 

L         J  in  brackets 

ami  muchel  of  ure  [mine]  wille  for  ure  [mine]  wrechede.     Hwet   a[e  W1'!t1ten 

L  J  L  J  above  the 

is  bet  oli '.     Oli  haue^  huppen  him  lihtnesse  and  softnessc  and   oioT^u] 

hele.     Alse  bu  scalt  habben  hweraie  bu  hauest  idon  bi  scrift  of  The  oil  de- 
notes the 

bine  misdede  benne  bu  scalt  habbe  lihtnesse  and  softuesse  and   comfort  aris- 
ing from 

84  THE    NATIVITY    OP    OUR    LORD. 

is  the  oil,  the  great  satisfaction  (reward)  that  thou  shalt  have  when 
thou  hast  repented  of  thy  misdeeds.  Then  he  brought  him  on  his  own 
beast,  that  is  a  rude  mare,  which  denoteth  our  vile  flesh  whensoever  we 
have  made  the  body  subject  to  the  soul.  He  brought  him  to  an 
inn  and  delivered  him  to  the  innkeeper  and  bad  him  take  care  of  the 
wounded  man.  What  is  this  inn  ?  It  is  holy  church.  What  is  holy 
church1?  All  Christian  folk.  Wherefore?  In  holy  church  are  better 
and  worse.  Even  so  in  an  inn  there  are  foul  and  clean.  He  that  hath 
charge  of  the  inn  shall  make  it  clean  wherever  it  is  foul.  That  be- 
tokeneth  the  pi'iest  who  shall  among  Christian  men  cleanse  the  sinful 
of  their  sins.  He  hath  on  the  morrow  received  two  pence  which  the 
foreign  man  gave  him.  These  are  the  two  laws,  the  old  and  the  new 
which  the  priest  shall  spend  among  all  his  flock.  If  he  spendeth  more 
of  his  own  when  he  again  returneth  he  will  repay  him  the  whole  of  it. 
What  is  this  that  he  may  spend  more  of  his  own  1  Good  example  of  his 
own  conduct ;  also  all  those  that  are  under  him,  that  take  more  upon 
them  than  (is  commanded  by)  the  behest  of  holy  church,  that  is  to  say, 
the  maiden  that  preserveth  her  virginity,  which  is  not  a  behest  of 
holy  church,  and  the  widow  ber  widowhood,  and  a  man  to  forsake 
the  world.  In  the  day  of  award  when  God  Almighty  shall  winnow 
what  was  before  thrashed  out,  he  will  see  which  are  those  that  can 
withstand  the  lust  of  the  flesh  and  have  restrained  the  will  of  their 
own  flesh.  That  is  denoted  by  the  corn  that  the  wind  pierceth  through, 
[and]  by  the  small  chaff  that  flieth  forth  with  the  wind  [and]  becometh 
rubbish.  The  corn  we  put  into  the  garner,  betokeneth  the  good  man 
who  shall  be  received  into  heaven ;  those  that  follow  the  lust  of 
the  flesh,  as  the  small  chaff  doth  the  wind,  shall  remain  (for  ever) 
in  darkness.  May  God  Almighty  shield  us  that  we  be  not  of  the 
small  chaff,  but  that  we  may  be  of  the  corn  that  shall  be  placed  in 
the  garner,  that  is,  in  heaven,  with  the  Father,  the  Son,  and  the 
Holy  Ghost,  per  omnia  secula  seculurum.     Amen. 

DE    NATALE    DOMINI.  85 

hele.    bis   is  bet  oli   be   inuchele   mede    bet  *bu   scalt   habben  *[Foi.  30a.] 

hwenne   bu  hauest  ibet  bine   niisdeden.   jjenne  be  brobte  bine 

uppen  bis  werue  bet  is  unorne  mare,  bet  bitacne^  ure  unorne   The  mare 

denotes  our 

fleis.  hwense  we  babbe^  imaked  bene  licome  to  ber  saule  biboue.  flesh- 
he  bine  brohte  to  ane  hors-buse.  and  bitabte  hine   ban  hors- 
horde.  and  bed  hine  witen  bene  forwundede  .Mow.     H[w]et  is 

bis  hors-usf  bet  is  hali  chirche.  hali  chirche  bwet  is  f  al  cn'stene  The  inn  is 

holy  church, 

folc.  for  hwon  '.      In  halie  chirche  bo£  betei-e  and  wurse.     Alse   in  which  are 
in  hors-buse  bo^  fnle  and  clene.  he  bet  haue^  bet  hors-hus  te 
witenef   seal  ber.  ber  hit  is  ful  f   makien  hit  clene.  bet  bitakne^ 
be  prost  bet  seal  among  cristene  monkun  bene  sunfulle  of  sunne 
clensen.  he  haue^  obe  maiden  ba  twein  pene3es  be  be  helelendisse.1    '  ?  heiendisse. 
Mow.  bitabte.  bet  bo^  ba  twa  la3en  be  aide  and  be  nowe  bet  prost   The  two 
seal  spenen  among  al  his  underbede.  3ef  he  mare  spene^i  of  his  f    old  and  the 

new  laws. 

hwense  he  a3ein  cherreS  al  he  hit  him  wule  jelden.  bwet  is  bet 

he  mei  mare  spenen  of  his  a3en  f   feire  forbisne  of  his  a3ene   How  the 

liflade.     Alse  alle  bo  bet  him  bo^  undei'bede.  bet  nime^  mare  spend  more 

of  his  own. 

uppen  horn  ben  be  heste  of  hali  chirche.  bet  is  to  understonden. 
Meiden  bet  hire  meiden-hat  wit.  and  haldeb  so  se  hit  nis  noht 
heste  of  hali  chirche.  and  widewe  of  hire  widewe-had  *ne  .Mon.    *  [Foi.  306.] 
be  worlde  to  forsaken.     In  be  deie  of  liureisun  hwense  god  al-   The  separa- 

...  1  .  ..  .  tion  of  the 

mihtin  wule  windwm  bet  er  wes  ibor|s]chen.  he  wile  ison  hwicbe  good  from 

'  .  the  evil  at 

bo%  bo.  bet  mu3e  stonden  a3ein  bes  fleisces  lust  and  wernen  his   doomsday. 

a3ene  fleisces  iwille.  bet  bitakne^  bet  corn  bet  burled  be  wind,  bet 

smal  chef  bet  Aid  ford  mid  be  windef    bicume^  wurbinge  bet 

corn  me  de^  in  to  gerner.  bet  bitakene^  be  gode  men  be  scule 

bon  idon  in  to  beuene.  be  ilke  be  fo^e^  bes  fleisces  lust.     Alse 

de%  bet  smalchef  be  windef    bo   scule   bileuen  in   bosternesse. 

God  almihtin  iscilde  ut  bet  we  ne  bo   noht  of  be  smalcheue. 

Ah  bet  we  moten  bon  of  be  corne  be  me  seal  don  in  to  be  Jhe^o™  that' 

gernere  bet  is  in  to  heuene  f  be  feder  and  be  sune  and  be  halie  info'the put 

gast.  per  omnia  secula  seculoi*um.     Amen.  nerf en  y  gar 




From  the  holy  Easter  Day  are  reckoned  fifty  days  unto  this  day  ; 
and  this  day  is  called  Pentecost,  that  is,  the  fiftieth  day  of  (from) 
Eastertide.  This  day  was  established  and  observed  in  the  old  law. 
God  bade  Moses  in  the  land  of  Egypt  that  he  and  all  the  Israelitish 
folk  whom  he  had  led  thither,  that  they  of  each  family  should  offer  to 
God  a  lamb  of  one  year  old,  and  mark  with  the  blood  their  doors 
and  lintels,  as  on  that  same  night  God's  angel  went  and  killed  the 
eldest  and  dearest  child  in  each  house  of  the  Egyptian  folk,  and 
the  Israelites  departed  from  that  land  that  very  night,  for  they  had 
there  endured  great  affliction,  and  God  led  them  dry-footed  over  the 
Red  Sea.  Then  went  Pharaoh,  the  king  of  the  land,  after  them 
with  a  great  army,  and  when  they  came  into  the  midst  of  the  sea, 
then  were  God's  folk  gone  up  from  the  sea  again,  and  then  God 
sank  Pharaoh  and  all  his  host.  God  then  bade  Moses  and  the  people 
that  they  should  observe  this  time,  with  great  bliss,  each  year.  Then 
was  this  season  ordained  among  the  people  as  Eastertide,  because  God 
rid  them  of  and  destroyed  their  enemies.  Then  fifty  days  from 
Eastertide  God  gave  laws  to  the  people.  And  God's  foretoken  was 
seen  upon  a  hill,  that  is,  the  mount  of  Sinai,  for  there  came  great 
light,  and  (an)  awful  sound,  and  blowing  of  trumpets.  Then  God 
called  Moses  nearer  to  him,  and  he  was  with  God  forty  days  and 
wrote  the  old  law  under  God's  direction.  Then  was  this  day  called 
Pentecost  in  the  Old  Testament.  The  lamb  offered  up  by  the  command 
of  the  angel  betokeneth  Christ's  death,  who  was  meek  and  without 
guilt,  offered  to  his  father  for  our  ransom.  Now  is  his  passion  and 
his  resurrection  our  Eastertide,  because  he  delivered  us  from  the 
devil's  bondage,  as  he  delivered  the  Israelites  from  Pharaoh's  bondage. 
And    our     foes,    the    devils,    are    sunk    into    hell    through    the    holy 



'TXlrani  ban  halie  tester  dei  f    boS  italde.  fifti  da^a  to  bisse  The  feast  of 

Pentecost  on 

L-*-  J     deie  and  pes  dei  is  ihaten  pentecostes  bet  is  be  fiftuSa  the  fiftieth 

'  1  '  '  day  from  the 

dei  fram  bau  ester  tid.  bes  dei  wes  on  bere  aide  lase  iset  and  feast  of  Pass- 

*  '  '  J  over, 

ihalden.     God  het  Moyses  on  egipte  londe  bet  he  and  al  bet  which  was 
israelisce  folc  bet  he  bider  iled  hefde '.   bet  heo  sculden  offrien  of  Moses  in 


elchan  hiwscipe  gode  an  lomb  of  ane  jeres  and  merki  mid  ban 

blode  hore  duren.  and  hore  ouersleaht.  ba  on  bere  ilke  nihte  i 

iwende  godes  engel  to  and  acwalde  on  elche  huse  of  bam  egiptiss- 

en  folche  bet  frumkenede  childe  and  bet  lefeste  '.  and  bet  israelisce 

folc  ferde  on  bere  ilea  nihte  of  bam  londe.  forSon  muchele  wawen 

bet  hi  ber  rSoleden.  *and  god  horn  ledde  ofer  ba  rede  se  f  mid     *[Foi.3ia.] 

dru5e  fotan.  ba  iwende  pharaon  be  kin[g]   of  bam  londe   efter  Israelites  ° 

heom  ledde1  muchele  ferde.  ba  be  heo  comen  on  midden  bere  se.  over  t°heeRed 


ba  wes  bet  godes  folc2  up  of  bere  se  agan.  and  god  hisencte  ba  be    1  ?'mide. 
pharaon  c.  and  al  his  genge.     Da  het  god  moyse  and  ban  folce  bet 
heo  heolden  ba  tid  mid  muchlere  blisse  ewilche  3ere  ba  wes  bon 
folce   iset   bo  tid  to   estertide  f   for  bon  god  heom  aredde  wrS 
heore  ifan  and  heom  fordude.     Da  fram  bam  ester  tid  fifti  dasa  Fifty  days 

""       after,  the  old 

isette  god  bam  folke  la3e.  and  wes  ise3ew  godes  fortacne  uppon  law  was  given 
ane  dune  bat  is  be  mont  of  synai.  for  bet3  com  muchel  liht.  and    3  ?  j,er, 
eislic  swei  and  blawende  beman.  ba  cleopede  god  be4  uer  Moyses    4  ms.  fe. 
him  to.  and  he  wes  mid  gode  fowerti  da3es  and  awrat  ba  aide  e 
bi  godes  wissunge.  ba  wes  be  dei  pentecostes  ihaten  on  bere  aide 
isetnesse.  bet  i-offrede  lomb   bet  be  engel  het  offrian  bitacne^S 
cWstes  de^be  bet  wes  milde.  and  wrSutau  gulte  his  feder  i-offrad '. 
for  ure  alesendnesse.      Nu  is  his  browunge  and  his  ariste  ure  Easter  com- 

tip  in  i  i  memorates 

ester  tid  i  for^on  bet  he  us  alesde  from  deofles  bewdome  alswa   ChriBt's  pas- 
sion and 
he  alesde  bet  israelisce  folc  of  pharaones  bewdome  and  ure  ifan   resurrection. 

bet  beo^S  ba  deofles  beoS  bisencte  in  to  helle  burh  be  halie  fullht 

»8  j  THE    DAY    OF    PENTECOST. 

baptism,  if  we  observe  it  aright,  even  as  Pharaoh  with  his  host 
was  (drowned)  in  the  Red  Sea.  These  fifty  days  from  Easter  Day  are 
all  hallowed  unto  one  thanksgiving  (celebration),  and  this  day  is  our 
Pentecost  Day,  that  is,  our  Whitsunday,  which  is  the  fiftieth  day  from 
Easter  Day.  On  the  old  Pentecost  God  gave  a  law  to  the  Israelites 
how  they  should  lead  their  life ;  on  this  day  came  the  Holy  Ghost 
under  the  form  of  fire  to  God's  company.  And  forasmuch  as  the 
lamb  typified  Christ's  passion,  so  also  the  old  law  in  Moses'  days 
typified  the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  under  God's  grace.  Three  periods 
are  there  in  this  world.  One  is  that  which  was  without  law,  the 
second  is  that  which  was  under  the  law,  the  third  is  now  after  the 
advent  of  Christ.  This  period  is  ordained  under  (by)  God's  grace. 
We  are  not  without  law,  nor  may  we  observe  the  Mosaic  law  bodily, 
but  God's  grace  directs  us  to  his  will,  if  we  be  mindful  of  God's 
behests  and  of  the  apostle's  lore  (precepts).  It  is  related  in  the  epi- 
stolary lesson  how  the  Holy  Ghost  on  this  day  came  to  the  faithful 
assembly.  Luke  the  evangelist  wrote  it  in  the  book  that  is  called 
Acts  of  the  Apostles,  saying,  Cum  comyilerenlur  dies  pentecostes  erant 
omnes  discipuli  puriter  in  eodem  loco.  Et /actus  est  repente  de  cozlo  sonus 
tanquam  advenientis  spiritus  veliementis  et  replevit  totam  domum  ubi 
erant  sedentes.  The  holy  assembly  of  Christ's  apostles  were  abiding 
patiently  (unanimously)  in  their  prayers  in  an  upper  chamber,  after  Christ's 
ascension,  awaiting  his  promise ;  when,  on  this  day,  that  is,  Pentecost, 
which  in  our  speech  is  called  Whitsunday,  there  came  suddenly  a  great 
sound  from  heaven  and  filled  all  the  upper  chamber  with  fire.  And  there 
was  seen  before  (above)  each  of  them,  as  it  were,  fiery  tongues,  and  they 
were  then  all  filled  with  the  Holy  Ghost  and  began  to  speak  with  divers 
tongues  according  as  the  Holy  Ghost  taught  them.  Then  were  there 
gathered  together  within  the  city  of  Jerusalem  true  (pious)  men  of  every 
nation  that  dwelt  under  heaven,  and  the  apostles  spake  to  the  assembly 
of  the  people  and  each  of  them  recognised  his  own  speech.  Then  were  the 
people  much  amazed,  and  in  astonishment  thus  spake,  None  ecce  omnes 
isti  Galilei  sunt ;  et  quomodo  nos  audivimus  unusquisque  linguam  nostram 
in  qua  nati  sumus.  Behold  !  are  not  these  that  here  speak  Galileans, 
and  each  of  us  hath  heard  how  they  speak  our  own  speech  in  which 
we  were  born  1     Lo  !  what  shall  this  be  1     Then  said  the  Jewish  men 


3if  we  hit  ariht  halde^  alswa  pharaon  wes  mid  his  ferde  on  bare 

rede  se.     Das  fifti  da^es  fram  ban  esterliche  *deie  he<yS  alle  ihal-  *[Foi.3i6.] 

3ode  to  ane  heruiige  c.   and  bes  dei  is  ure  peutecostes  dei.  bet  is  Pentecost  is 

ure  witte  sunuedei  bet  is  be  fifteo3a:Se  dei  fram  bam  ester  deie.  on  sunday. 

bam  ealdan  pentecoste  god  sette  .e.  bain  israelisce  folce  hu  heo 

sculden  heore  lif  leaden  f  on  bisse  deie  com  be  halie  gast  on  fures  on  this  day 

'  '  the  Holy 

heowe  to  godes  hirede.  forSi  alswa  bet  lomb  bitacnede  cristes   Ghost  came 

°  '  upon  the 

browunge '.   Swa  ec  beo  aide  .e.  on  moyses  da3en  bitacnede  god-  apostles. 

spelles  bodunge  I  under  godes  3ife.     Dreo  tide  beo^  on  bissere 

worlde.     An  is  bet  wes  buten  .e.  and  o^er  is  be  bet  wes  under 

bere  .e.  be  bridde  is  nu  efter  cristes  to-cume.      peos  tide  iset 

under  godes  3ife.  we  ne  beoft  na  buten  .e.  ne  we  ne  moten. 

halden  moyses  .e.  licamliche.     Ac  godes  3ife  us  wissa^  to  his 

willen.  3if  we  imuvtdie  beo^  godes  bibode  and  bera  apos/la  lare. 

Hit  is  ireht  on  bes  pistles  redinge  £  hu  be  halia  gast  on  bisse  deie 

com  to  ban  ileaufullen  hirede.     Lucas  be  godspellere  awrat  on   it  is  recorded 

'  r      S         I  by  St.  Luke 

bere  boc  bet  is  inemned  actus  a\)osto\orum.  and  cwe$5.     Cum  com-   »n  the  Acts 

plerentur  dies  pentecostes  erant  omnes  discijmli  jmriter  in  eodem  Apostles. 

loco.     Et  y'actus  est  repente  de  celo  sonus  tanquam  aduenientis 

s/>iritus  uehemeutis  8t  repleuit  totam  domuvn  ubi  erant  sedentes. 

Dat  halie  hired  cristes  apostles  weren  wuniende  edmodliche1  on   u1c4anmod" 

heore  ibeoden  on  ane  upflore  *  efter  cristes  upsti3e  onbodinde  his     *  [Foi.  32a.] 

bi-hates.  ba  on  bisse  deie  bet  is  pentecostes  and  wittesunnedeie  on 

ure  speche  I   com  ferliche  muchel  swei  of  heofne  and  fulde  al  ba  The  descent 

1  \      of  the  Holy 

upfleunge2  mid  fure.    And  wes  ise:?en  biforan  heore  elche  swilc  hit   Spirit  m  the 

x  J  form  of  fire. 

were  furene  tungen.  and  heo  weren  ba  alle  ifullede  mid  ban  halie     2  ?  upfier- 


gast.  and  on-gunnen  to  speoken  mid  mislichen  spechen  hi  bam  bet  The  apostles 

...  1  •  1  -11       >v  -l  i      speak  with 

be  halie  gast  him  tahte.  ba  weren  ber  lgedered  wroinne  bere  buruli   divers 


of  ierusalem  trowfeste  men  of  elchere  beode  bet  under  heofene  erde- 
den.  and  be  apostles  speken  to  bes  folkes  igederunge.  and  hcor 
eclicnew3  his  al^ene  speche.  ba  iwarS  bat  folc  swrSe  abluied'4     //y'^T' 
and  mid  wunilrunge  cwe^en.  None  ecce  omnes  isti  galilei  sunt  i  Tiie  people 


8s  quomodo  nos  audiuimus  unusquisque  linguam  wostram  m  qua 
nati  sumus.  La  hu  ne  beaS  ba  bet  here  speca^  galileisce '.  and 
ure  elc  iherden  hu  hi  spechen  ure  speche  on  ban  bet  we  akenned 
weren '.     Lahwet  seal  bis  beon  '.   ba  seiden  ba  iudeiscen  men  a 

90  THE   DAY    OF    PENTECOST. 

in  scorn,  "  These  men  are  drunk  with  new  wine."  Then  answered  Peter, 
"  It  is  undern  time  (the  third  hour),  how  might  we  at  this  time  be 
drunken  1  But  the  saying  of  the  prophet  Joel  is  now  fulfilled.  God 
said  through  the  mouth  of  the  prophet  that  he  would  send  his  spirit  over 
human  flesh,  and  men's  sons  shall  prophesy,  and  I  will  send  my  tokens 
on  the  earth."  Peter  said  moreover,  "  Know  ye  assuredly  that  Christ 
arose  from  the  dead  and  in  our  sight  ascended  to  heaven,  and  sitteth 
on  his  Father's  right  hand,  as  David  prophesied  of  him,  saying,  Dixit 
dominus  domino  meo  sede  a  dextris  meis.  The  Lord  said  to  my  Lord, 
Sit  on  my  right  hand  until  I  put  thine  enemies  under  thy  footstool." 
When  the  people  heard  this,  then  their  mood  changed,  and  they 
said  to  the  apostles,  "Dear  men,  what  must  we  do?"  Then  answered 
Peter,  "  Repent  of  your  sins  and  receive  baptism  in  Christ's  name, 
then  shall  your  sins  be  forgiven  and  ye  shall  receive  the  Holy  Ghost." 
Then  received  they  his  lore  (doctrine),  and  in  that  day  three  thousand 
men  were  baptized,  and  they  were  all  in  unity  and  followed  the  apostles, 
and  sold  their  property  and  gave  the  value  of  it  to  the  apostles, 
and  they  distributed  it  to  each  according  as  they  had  need.  After- 
wards, at  a  second  preaching  (of  the  Gospel)  five  thousand  men 
believed  in  Christ.  Then  became  all  these  believing  men  as  if  they 
had  one  heart  and  one  soul,  and  none  of  them  had  separate  goods, 
but  all  their  things  were  common  among  them,  and  there  was  no  lack 
amongst  them ;  and  those  that  had  land  sold  it  and  brought  the 
worth  of  it  to  the  apostles'  feet,  and  they  distributed  it  to  each 
according  as  they  had  need.  Then  God  wrought  many  wonders 
among  the  people  through  the  hands  of  the  apostles,  so  that  they 
laid  the  sick  men  by  (along)  the  street  where  Peter  went  forth,  and  as 
soon  as  his  shadow  glided  over  them  they  were  healed  of  all  infirmities. 
They  set  their  hands  on  believing  men  and  they  received  the  Holy 
Ghost.  Then  was  there  a  man  named  Ananias  and  his  wife  Sapphira ; 
they  agreed  between  themselves  that  they  would  join  the  apostles'  com- 
pany, and  so  they  did.  They  took  counsel  together  to  withhold  some  of 
their  goods  from  the  apostles,  for  they  knew  not  what  might  befall 
them.  When  the  man  came  with  his  treasure  (money)  to  the  apostles, 
then  Peter  said  to  him,  "  Ananias,  the  devil  hath  deceived  thine  heart, 
and  thou  hast  lied  to  the  Holy  Ghost.     Why  wouldst  thou  act  deceit- 


bismer.   bas  men   beoS  mid    miste  fordrencte.     Da  and-vmrde   The  apostles 

are  accused 

petrus.  hit  is  undertid  hu  mihte  we  on  bissere  tide  beon  for-   of  being 

1  drunk. 

drencte  I     Ac  bes  \vite3an  cwide  ioheles  is  ifulled.     God  cweS   st.  Peter's 


burn  bes  wite3an  mu?.  bet  be  walde  bis  gast  asenden  ofer  men- 

nesc  flesc.  and  monna  bern  sculen  wite3an.  and  ic  sende  min 

tacna  3eond  *  ba  eorSe.  petrw.?  cwe^  ba.  wite  ^e  so^liche  bet  crist     *  [Fo1-  326.] 

aras  of  cleave  mid  on  ure  iwitnesse  astab  to  heofene.  and  sit  on 

bis  feder  riht  alfe  '.  alswa  dauvS  bi  him  wite3ede  bus  cwe^inde. 

Dixit  dominus  domino  meo  sede  a  dextris  meis.     Drihten  cwe^  to 

mine  dribtene.  site  to  mine  ribt  alfe.  for5  bet  ic  alegge  bine  feond 

under  bine  fot-sceomele.  ba  bet  folc  bis  iberde  ba  iturne1  beore  mod   The  mood  of 

'      '  '  the  people  is 

and  seden  to   ban  apostflan.     Leofemen  bwet  is  us  to  donne  :    chafed. 

1  ?  itumde. 

Da  awJ-wrde  petrus.  Bi-reowsia^  eo[w]re  sunnan  and  under- 
foS  fulubt  on  cristes  nome.  benne  beoft  eowre  sunnen  aleide  and 
3e  underfo^  bene  balie  gast.  ba  underfengen  beo  his  lare  and 
busen  to  fulehte  on  bon  deie  '.  breo  busend  monna.  and  ba  weren    Three  thou- 

-'  '  '  '  '  sand  arc  con- 

alle  mid  sibsumnesse  I  and  fuleden  bam  aposdes.  and  salden  beore 
elite  and  bet  feh  bitabten  bam  apostles  and  beo  hit  delden  elcan 
alswa  beo  neode  hefde.  eft  on  ane  o^re  boduwge  3e-lefden  fif 
busend  monna  on  criste.  ba  iweorden  alle  bos  ilefede  men  swulche 
hi  alle  hefden  ane  heorte  and  ane  sawle  ne  beore  nan  nefden 
sunderlich  elite  ac  heoni  alen  wes  imene  beore  bing  ne  ber  nas   Jhey  have  all 

'  '  things  in  eom- 

nan  wone  bi-twuxan  heom  and  ba  bet  lond  hefden  he  hit  sealden  I   mon- 

and  bet  wurS  brohten  to  bes  apostl&s  fotan  and  heo  hit  delden 

elchun  alswa  heo  neode  hefden.  ba  warbte  god  feole  tacne  on  ban 

folke  burh  bere  aposdan  hondan  *swa  bet  ileiden  ba  untrm/imen     *[Foi.33aj 

men  bi  bere  stret  bere  petrus  forS-eo^e  and  swa  re^e  swa  bis   st.  Peter's 

shadow  heals 

sceadu2  heom  on  gla^  heo  weren  iheled.  from  alle  untruwmesse.   nianysick 


heo  setten  beore  horalen  ofer  ilefde  men  '.  and  heo  underfengen     2  It  may  bc 


bene  halian  gast.     pa  wes  bere  an  mon  ananias  lhaten  and  his   The  story  of 

wif  saphira.     Heo  bispeken  heom  bitweonen '.    bet  heo  walden   sappMra. " 

ibi^en  to  bere  aposllan  fereden  and  swa  duden.     Heo  nomen 

heom  to  bam  rede  bet  heo  walden  sum  of  beore  ehte  etholdan. 

bam  aposllan  f  for  heo  nusten  hwet  heom  ilumpe.  ba  com  be  mon 

mid  his  gersume  to  ban  aipostolum.  ba  cweS  petras.     Ananias  be 

deofel  bipehte  bine  heorte  and  bu  hauest  ilo3en  ban  halie  gaste ' 

verted  to 


fully  with  thine  own  (things)  1  Thou  hast  lied  not  to  men,  but  unto 
God."  When  he  heard  these  words  then  he  fell  down  and  (departed) 
died.  When  he  was  buried,  then  came  his  wife  Sapphira  and  knew 
not  what  had  befallen  her  husband.  Then  said  Peter,  "  Why  have 
ye  two  so  done,  that  ye  durst  tempt  God."  When  she  heard  this 
then  she  fell  down  and  died,  and  they  buried  her  with  her  husband. 
Then  came  there  great  dread  on  God's  folk  (church)  and  on  all  those  that 
heard  these  tidings.  The  apostles  afterwards,  ere  that  they  separated, 
placed  James,  that  was  called  righteous  (the  Just),  on  Christ's  seat,  and 
all  the  faithful  congregation  were  obedient  to  him,  after  (according  to) 
God's  teaching  (instruction)  ;  he  then  occupied  that  seat  thirty  years, 
and  after  him  Simeon,  the  Lord's  kinsman.  And  after  this  example  arose 
monastic  life,  together  with  the  unity  and  concord  that  they  should 
practise,  according  to  the  instruction  of  their  abbots.  Ye  heard  a  little 
while  before,  in  this  discourse,  that  the  Holy  Ghost  came  upon  the 
apostles  with  fiery  tongues  and  gave  them  the  power  by  which  they 
knew  all  languages,  for  what  the  humble  assembly  merited  from  God 
through  their  meekness,  that,  long  before,  the  angels  of  heaven  had  lost 
for  their  pride.  It  happened  after  Noah's  flood  that  giants  desired  to 
rear  up  a  city,  and  a  tower  so  high  that  its  top  should  ascend  to  heaven ; 
and  there  was  but  one  speech  among  all  mankind,  and  the  work  was 
begun  against  God's  will ;  therefore  also  God  scattered  them  so  that  he 
gave  each  of  the  workers  an  uncouth  (unknown)  speech,  and  none  of 
them  knew  another's  speech.  They  then  left  their  building  and  dispersed 
throughout  all  the  earth,  and  afterwards  there  were  as  many  tongues 
as  there  were  workers,  in  all  two  hundred  men.  Now  again  on  this 
day,  through  the  coming  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  all  languages  were  again 
and  concordantly  received,  for  Christ's  apostles  were  speaking  in  all 
tongues,  and  even  more  wonderfully,  because  when  one  of  the  apostles 
preached  in  one  tongue,  to  each  man  that  heard  the  discourse  it  appeared 
as  though  he  spake  in  their  own  speech,  whether  they  were  Hebrews,  or 
Greeks,  or  Romans,  or  Egyptians,  or  of  whatsoever  land  they  were,  that 
heard  that  lore  (doctrine).  In  this  fellowship  the  meekness  of  the  apostles 
obtained  (for  them)  this  power,  and  the  pride  of  the  giants  earned  confu- 
sion.    The  Holy  Ghost  was  seen  over  the  apostles  in  the  form  of  fire,  and 


hwi  woldest  bu  swikian  on  J)ine  a3ene  binge  i     Ne  lu3e  bu  na 

moi/num  f  ac  dudest  gode.  ba  be  ba  woi'de  iherde  '.   ba  feol  he   The  death  of 

,..„,.         Ananias  and 

adun  and  lwat  and  ba  he  lburied  wes  f   ba  com  his  wif  saphira   Sapphira. 

and  nuste  hwet  hire  were  iluwpen  wes.     D[a]  cwe^  petrws  hwi 

iwearS  bine  swa  bet  3it  dursten  fondian  godes  '.  ba  heo  J>ls  iherde  I 

ba  feol  heo  ber  adun  and  iwat  a«rf  me  buriede  heo  mid  hire  fere. 

Da  iwearS  ber  muchel  eie  on  godes  folke.  and  on  alle  J>am  bet 

beos   ti^inge   iherdon.     Da  aposfoli  si^an  er   bon  bet  heo  to-   James  ap- 

1  .  pointed  head 

ferden  isetten  iacob  bet  wes  ibaten  rihtwis  on  cristes  selt  and  alle   51th6, 

>  Church. 

beo  ileafulle  laftunge  him  ihersummede  f    efter  godes  *tecunge.     *[Fol.  836.] 

he  ba  iset  bet  seld  .xxx.  3era  and  efter  him  simeon  bes  h[e]lendes 
mei.  and  efter  bissere  bisnunge  weren  ai*erede  munecbene  lif  mid. 
mid  bere  annesse  and  sibsumnesse  bet  heo  sculen  bolien  f  bi  heore 
abbodes  iwissuwp-e.  :e  iherden  a  lutel  er.  on  bisse  redunge.  bet  ^e    The  apostles 

03  >  °       '  through 

halie  gast  com  ofer  ba  apos^las  mid  fui'ene  tungen  I  and  heom  3ef  "net^,,iej9tI 
)jo  mihte  bet  heo  cuben  alle  spechen f  forSon  bet  ^eo  edmode   f™'*es 
isomnunge  iernade  et  gode  '.  bet  muchel  er  be  engles  of  eofene  for 
heore  modinesse  forluren.  hit  itimode  efter  noes  node  bet  eontas   The  giants 

'  lost  it 

walden  areran  ane  buruh  and  anne  stepel  swa  hehne  f   bet  his  Rof   t'i™ugh 

1  '  pride. 

asti3e  up  to  heofena.  and  ba  wes  an  speche  on  al  mowcun.  and  bet 

weorc  wes  bierunnen  on-2en  godes  iwillan.     God  ec  forSon  heom    The  confu- 
°  y      o  sion  of 

to  drefde  swa  bet  he  3ef  ewilcura  of  ban  wurhtan  selcu^e  speche '.  ton6ues. 

and  heore  nan  ne  icnew  o^res  speche.  bi '  bileafden  heo  heore  timbr-  ' ?  for  J* 

unge  and  to  dreofden  3eond  al  middeleard.  and  be^an2  weren  2?se'5,5an. 
swa  felen  spechen  swa  bere  wurhten  were?i,  bet  weren  twa  hun 

manna.     Nu  eft  on  bisse  deie  burh  bes  halie  pastes  to-cume  f  On  the  day  of 

'  '  '  °  Pentecost  all 

•weren  alle  ispechen  asein  inumen.  and  isome  '.  forSon  bet  cristes    8Peecl'es 

1  3  >  restored. 

apos£las  weren  specende  mid  alle  spechen.  and  ec  bet  wunderluker 

forSon  bet  ba  an   of  bon  apos£lwm  bodeden  mid  ane   speche  f 

elche   men   wes    ibubt    bet    ba   bodunge    iherde  '.     swilche   heo 

spechen    mid    heore    speche   *  weren    heo    ebreisce.    weren    heo     *[Foi.  34a.] 

grekisce.  oSer  romenisce.  o^er  egiptisse.  o^er  of  hwulche  londe 

swa  heo  weren  bet  be  lare  iherden.     On  bissere  ifereden  iemede3     3?iernede. 

bere  &r>ost\&n  admodnesse  bas  mihte.  and  bere  eontan  modinisse 

r  .  r  Of  the  two 

larnede  iscendnesse.  be  heolia4  oust  wes  isesen  ofer  ba  apos^las    forms  in 

'  l  which  the 

on  fares  heowe.  and  ofer  crist  on  hifsl  fuluhte  on  ane  culfre    Holy  Ghost 

L  J  was  seen. 

94.  THE    DAY    OF    PENTECOST. 

over  Christ  at  his  baptism  in  the  likeness  of  a  dove.  Why  over  Christ 
in  the  form  of  a  dove,  and  why  over  Christ's  flock  in  the  likeness  of  fire  1 
Because  that  kind  of  bird  is  very  (meek)  simple,  harmless,  and  peace- 
ful. The  Saviour  is  the  judge  of  all  mankind ;  but  he  came  not  to 
judge  mankind,  as  he  himself  hath  said,  but  to  heal  (save).  If  he  then 
would  have  judged  mankind  when  he  first  came  upon  earth,  who  would 
then  have  been  saved  1  But  he  would  not  judge  the  sinful  at  his  coming 
(advent),  but  he  desired  to  gather  them  into  his  kingdom.  He  would 
first  with  gentleness  direct  us,  that  he  might  afterwards  preserve  us  in 
(at)  his  doom  (judgment)  ;  and  therefore  was  the  Holy  Ghost  (seen)  upon 
Christ  in  the  form  of  a  dove,  because  he  was  living  in  this  world  in 
simplicity  (meekness),  in  innocence,  and  in  peace ;  for  he  cried  not  aloud, 
nor  was  he  of  bitter  speech,  nor  did  he  ever  stir  up  contention,  but  bore 
with  man's  wickedness  through  his  gentleness.  But  he,  who  at  his  first 
advent  led  through  kindness  the  sinful  to  goodness,  will  judge  the  guilty 
with  stern  doom  (justice)  at  his  second  coming,  that  is,  doomsday. 
The  Holy  Ghost  was  seen  in  the  form  of  fire  upon  the  apostles,  because 
he  made  them  to  be  burning  (zealous)  in  God's  will,  and  to  be  preaching 
concerning  God's  kingdom.  Fiery  tongues  they  had  when  they  lovingly 
proclaimed  the  greatness  of  God,  so  that  the  hearts  of  heathen  men,  that 
were  cold  through  unbelief  and  fleshly  lust,  might  be  inflamed  to  obey  the 
heavenly  behests.  If  the  Holy  Ghost  teach  not  the  heart  of  man  and 
his  mind  within,  in  vain  will  be  the  words  of  preachers  spoken  out- 
wardly. The  nature  of  fire  is  that  it  consumes  whatsoever  is  near  it ; 
even  so  shall  the  teacher  do  who  is  enkindled  with  the  Holy  Ghost, 
first  he  shall  remove  himself  from  sin,  and  afterwards  his  flock.  In  the 
likeness  of  a  dove  and  in  the  form  of  fire  was  God's  Spirit  manifested, 
because  he  makes  those  to  be  meek,  and  without  evil,  and  burning  (zealous) 
in  God's  will,  whom  he  fills  with  his  grace.  Simplicity  (meekness)  is 
not  pleasing  to  God  without  wisdom  (prudence),  nor  wisdom  without 
simplicity.  What  is  simplicity  without  righteousness  1  and  what  is 
wisdom  without  true  love  to  God  and  to  men  1  And  therefore  the 
Holy  Ghost,  who  teaches  both  righteousness  and  meekness,  should  be 
manifested   both  as   fire   and   as   a   dove,   for   he   causes    men's    hearts, 


onlicnesse.      Hwi  ofer  criste  on   culfren  heowe.   and  hwi  ofer  AVhy  under 

these  two 

cristes  liirede  on  fures  ilicnesse  1    forSon  be    bet   fi^el-cun    is  forms  > 

swiSe  bilehwit.  and  wit-utan  la^e  and  isibsum.  be  helend    is 

alles  moncunnes  dema.     Ac  he  ne  com  na  to  demane  moncun   Christ  came 

not  to  con- 

swa  se  heo  him  seolf  cwe=S  i  ac  to  helenne.  Gif  he  walde  ba  deom» tlie 
deman  moncun  ba  be  he  erest  to  middelearde  com.  hwa  weren 
banne  ihalden  '.  Ac  he  nalde  mid  his  to-cume  ba  sunfullen 
fordemen  '.  ac  he  walde  to  his  riche  heom  igederian.  Erest  he 
walde  us  mid  IrSnesse  isteoren  bet  he  mihte  seo^an  on  his 
dome  us  ihalden.  and  forSon  we[s]  be  halia  gast  on  culfren  onlic- 
nesse bufan  criste.   forSon   bet  he   wes   dreihninde    on    bissere   The  dove  de- 

*  _         m  notes  simpli- 

worlde  mid  bilehwitnesse.  and  mid  nane  la^nesse  and  mid  sib-   city  and  inno- 

sumnesse.  for  he  ne  remde  ne  of  bitere  speche  nes.  ne  he  sake 

ne  asterde  f  ac  forbere  monna  hufelnesse  burh  his  IrSnesse.     Ac 

be  bet  on  bam  ercan1  to-cume  IrSegedde  ban  *  sunfullen  to  bere     'erran. 
r     r  r  o  r  i  „,  [FoL  346>] 

godnesse  i  he  denial  strSne  dom  bam  forsunegede  on  his  etter 
to-come  bet  is  on  domes  deie.  be  halia  gast  wes  isesen  on  fures   ifoeHoly 

'  '  J  (ihost  was 

heowe  bufan  bam  apostfas.  forSon  be  he  dude  bet  heo  weren  seen  as  fire, 
bhnende   on   godes   willan.   and   bodiende    umbe    godes   riche. 
Furew  tungen  heo  hefden   ba  be  heo   mid  lufe  godes  murlrSe 
bodeden.  bet  Sere  he^ene  monnan  heortan  bet  calde  weren  burh  and  enai.ied 

>  '  the  apostles 

ilefleaste  and  flescliche  iwilnuwge  '  muhten  beon  atende  to  ban   Jo  enkindle 

°  '  the  cold 

heofenliche  biboden.    3if   be    halia   gast    ne    learS   bes    monnes  J;^tsof 

heorte  and  his  mod  wrS-innan  t  on  idel  beo^  bes  budeles  word 

wrS-utan  icleopde.  bes  fares2  icunde  is  bet  hit  forSnime^  swa    2?  fures. 

hwet  him  neh  brS.     Alswa  seal  be  larSeu  don  be  ^et  brS  mid 

ben3  halia  gast   itend.     Erest  he  seal  hine  seolfne  wrS   sunnan     3  ?  ms.  bet. 

isteoraw.  and  seo^an  his  heorde.     On  culfre  onlicnesse  and  on 

fures  heowe  wes  godes  gast  isceawed.  forSon  bet  he  de^  ba  be 

beoS  bilehwite.  an/1  wrS-utan  ufelnesse.  and  birnende  on  godes 

willaw.  bet  he  mid  his  2if  ifulleS.      Ne  brS   beo  bilehwitnesse   Simplicity 

'  J  '  without  wis- 

eodes   icwime   butas4    sno5temesse    ne    snetemesse  butan   bile-   (!;,m  I'"1 

0  pleasing  to 

hwitnesse.  hwet  brS  bilehwitnesse  butan  rihtwisnesse  f  and  hwet   God- 

4  ?  butan. 

*  brS  sneteraesse  bute  so^e  lufe  to  gode  and  to  monnen  f  forSon     5  sno  ntfrst, 

...  ...  ,  ■,    r    but  altered  to 

be  halia  gast  be  bet  teeS  riht-wissnesse  and  bilehwitnesse  scuic"   sne. 
beon  isceawed  eftSer  3c  on  fare.  3c  on  culfren.  forSon  bet  heo  d&6     »  ,sc0ujde 


whom  he  enlighteneth  with  his  grace,  that  they  shall  be  meek  through 
innocence,  and  kindled  through  (by)  love  and  wisdom.  God  is,  as  Paul 
said,  a  consuming  fire  ;  and  he  is  the  ineffable  and  invisible  fire.  Of 
this  fire  speaks  the  Saviour,  "  I  came  because  I  would  send  fire  on 
earth,  and  I  will  that  it  burn."  He  sent  the  Holy  Ghost  on  the  earth, 
and  he  with  his  blast  (inspiration)  enkindled  earthly  men's  hearts.  Then 
burnetii  the  earth  when  the  heart  of  the  earthly  man  is  kindled  to  the 
love  of  God,  which  before  was  cold  through  fleshly  lust.  The  Holy 
Ghost  is  not  in  his  nature  existing  as  he  was  seen,  for  he  is  invisible  ; 
but  he  was  manifested  in  the  form  of  a  dove  and  of  fire,  for  the  sign 
(reason)  we  have  previously  mentioned.  He  is  called  in  Greek  UapdKXrjTos, 
that  is,  the  Comforting  Spirit,  because  he  comforteth  the  (sorrowful) 
dreary,  those  that  are  sorry  for  their  sins,  and  he  giveth  them  forgiveness 
and  hope,  and  alleviates  their  sorrowful  mood  (mind).  He  forgiveth  sins, 
and  he  is  the  way  to  the  forgiveness  of  all  sins.  He  giveth  his  gift  (grace) 
to  whom  he  will.  To  one  man  he  giveth  wisdom  and  speech  (eloquence), 
to  one  good  thought,  to  one  great  (faith)  belief,  to  one  power  to  heal  sick 
men,  to  one  prophecy,  to  one  a  discrimination  of  good  and  evil  spirits. 
To  one  he  gives  divers  tongues,  to  one  man  interpretation  of  divers 
speeches  (sayings).  All  these  things,  and  many  others,  doth  the  Holy 
Ghost,  distributing  to  each  as  he  thinks  fit,  for  he  is  the  Almighty 
Creator  ;  for  so  soon  as  he  enlightens  man's  heart  and  mind,  it  turneth 
from  evil  to  good.  He  enlightened  David's  heart,  when  he  in  his  youth 
loved  the  harp,  and  made  him  to  be  a  psalm-wright.  There  was  a  herds- 
man called  Amos,  whom  the  Holy  Ghost  turned  to  a  good  prophet. 
Peter  was  a  fisher,  whom  the  same  Holy  Spirit  of  God  turned  to  an 
apostle.  Paul,  that  injured  the  Christians,  him  he  chose  for  a  teacher 
of  all  the  Gentiles.  Matthew,  that  was  a  toll-gatherer,  him  he  converted 
to  an  evangelist.  The  apostles  durst  not  preach  the  true  belief  for  fear 
of  the  heathen  (?  Jews)  ;  but  when,  subsequently,  they  were  enkindled  of 
the  Holy  Ghost,  they  were  not  afraid  of  any  bodily  torments,  and 
therefore  without  fear  preached  God's  bliss.  The  greatness  (dignity) 
of  this  day  is  to  be  praised  (celebrated),  because  that  Almighty  God, 
himself,  on  this  day  condescended  to  be  poured  out  on  mankind.  At 
the  birth  of  Christ,  God  Almighty's  Son  became  human  man,  and  on 


bere  monnan  heortan  bet  he  onlihte^  mid  his  3ife.  bet  heo  becvS 

IrSe  burh  un-cladnesse '.  and  iteuS  burh  lufe  and  snoternesse.  God   ^uniaSnesse. 

is  swa  paul  cwe^.  bet  niininde  fur  and  he  is  un-asecgliche  fur.    God  is  a  co, 

...  .  sumiiig  fire. 

and  uniseweuhch  fur.  Bi  bam  fure  cwt^  be  helende.  Ic  com 
for^on  bet  ic  walde  sen  dan  fur  on  eorSan.  and  ic  wile  bat  hit 
berne.  he  sende  bene  halia  gast  to  eorfcan  and  he  mid  his  bleade   The  Holy 

.  .  Ghost  in- 

ou-ealde  eorSlichen  monnan  heortan  benne  birne^  ba  eorS2  benne   flames  the 

cold  hearts  of 

bes  eorShche  monnes  heorte  brS  itend  to  godes  lufe.  ba  bet  er  men. 

wes  cald  burh  flescliche  lustes.     Ni3  na  be  halia  gast  wuniende  2?eor°e- 
on  his  icunde.  swa  se  he  lsejen  wes  f   forSon  bet  he  is  unisejenlic. 

Ac  for  bere  itacnunge  swa  be 4  er  seiden.  bet  he  wes  isejen  on  *  ?  we. 

culfre  and  on  fure.     He  is  ihate  on  grekisc  paraclitws.  bet  is  be  He  is  called 

&        ,       1  r  r       the  Com- 

frofre  gast.  forSon  bet  he  ifrefra^  ba  drorijan.  ba  be£  heore  sun-   forter. 

nan  bireusia^.  and  3ifS  heom  for^ifnesse.  and  huht.  and  heore 

jeomerinde  mod  ilvSega^.  heo  fo^ife^  sunna.  and  he  is  be  wei  to 

*alre    sunnen   forjifenesse.    he   jifS  his    jefe   ban   be£  he    wule.    •[Foi.366.] 

Summe   Men  he  }if  wisdom   and    speche.    Summe  god   rSonc. 

Summe  muchele  ileafe.  Summe  mihte  to  helene  un-trume  men. 

Summe  witegmige.  Summe  iscead  godra  gast.  and  ufele.  Summe   T,|e  gifts  of 

&     °  7  .  the  Holv 

he  jifS   misliche  irord.   Summen.  maw   irecednesse  of  misliche   Ghost. 

spechen.     Ealle  J>as  bing  and  moni^e  o^re  de^  be  halija  gast  f 

to  delende  uwilchen  bi  ban  bet  him  iwurS  I    forSon  bet  he   is 

almihtin  wurhte.  for  swa  re^e  swa  he  bes  mannes  heorte  and 

his  mod  on-lihte '.    hit  iwendeS  from  ufele  to  gode.  he  on-lihte   T1)e  Holy 

Ghost  eon- 

daurSes  heorte  ba  be  he  on  jeojobe  herpan  lufede.  and  warhte   verts  sinners. 

hine  f    to   salm   wurhtan.      Amos   het    a   reo^er   heorde  bene 

aw[e]nde  be  hah^a  gast  to  ane  gode  witege.  petrws  wes  fixere 

bene  iturnde  be  be5  ilcan  godes  gast  to  apostle,  paul  bet  hermede     5sic. 

c?'istene  men  I  bene  he  iches  to  lai^ewe  alle  beoden.    Mathews  bet 

wes  cachepol  bene  he  iwende  to  god-spellere.     Da  aposZlas  ne   The  apostles 

dursten  bodian  ba  so^en  ileafen  for  bon  eie  of  bon  helene.     Ac   preach  the 

1  J  Gospel  before 

ba  srS^an  heo  weren  itend  of  ban  halia  gaste.  hi  neren  aferede  of  l,he  Holv 
'  re  Ghost  en- 

nane  licamliche  pinuwge.  and  berfore  wrS-utan  fore  godes  blisse   {jf^6"6'1 

bodedan.     Disses  deijes  hehnesse  is  to  heriane.  forSon  bet  be 

almihti  god  hine  seoffimede*mede6  bet  he  walde  monna  cun  on    *[Foi.3f>n.] 

6  •  seolfne 

bisse  cleie  isundian.  on  cn'stes  akennednesse  iwearS  be  almihtija  imedemede. 



this  clay  became  faithful  (believing)  men  God's  sons,  and  even  as  Christ 
also  saith,  "I  said  ye  are  God's  children."  The  elect  (chosen  men)  are 
God's  children  not  naturally,  but  through  the  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost. 
One  God  is  naturally  in  three  persons — the  Father,  the  Son,  who  is  his 
wisdom,  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  who  is  the  Will  of  them  both.  Their 
nature  is  indivisible,  ever  existing  in  one  Godhead.  The  same  said 
of  his  elect,  "Ye  are  Gods."  Through  Christ's  humanity  men  were 
redeemed  from  the  devil's  bondage  ;  and  through  the  coming  of  the 
Holy  Ghost  men's  souls  were  brought  unto  God.  Christ  received 
humanity  at  his  coming  (upon  earth),  and  men  received  God  through 
the  outpouring  of  the  Holy  Ghost.  The  man  that  hath  not  God's 
Spirit  in  him  is  not  God's.  Each  man's  work  showeth  what  spirit 
directeth  him.  God's  Spirit  directeth  ever  to  holiness  and  to  goodness. 
The  devil's  spirit  leadeth  ever  to  sin  and  to  wicked  deeds.  The  Holy 
Ghost  came  twice  upon  the  apostles.  Christ  breathed  the  Holy  Ghost 
over  the  apostles  before  his  ascension,  thus  saying,  "  Receive  the  Holy 
Ghost."  Again  on  this  day  he  (they  1)  sent — the  Almighty  Father  and 
the  Son — the  Spirit  of  them  both  upon  the  apostles.  While  yet  living  in 
the  world,  the  Saviour  breathed  his  Spirit  upon  the  apostles  for  a  sign 
that  they  and  all  Christian  men  should  love  their  neighbours.  Also  he 
sent,  as  he  before  promised  them,  the  Holy  Ghost  from  heaven,  because 
that  we  should  love  God  above  all  things.  The  Holy  Ghost  is  one, 
although  he  came  twice  upon  the  apostles.  So  also  there  is  one  love 
and  two  behests,  that  we  should  love  God  and  men.  But  we  should 
learn  from  men  how  we  may  come  to  love  of  God,  as  saith  John 
the  Evangelist,  "  He  that  loveth  not  his  brother  whom  he  hath  seen, 
how  can  he  love  God  whom  he  hath  not  seen  bodily?"  We  celebrate 
the  coming  of  the  Holy  Ghost  with  songs  of  praise  for  seven  days, 
because  he  enlighteneth  our  mind  with  sevenfold  graces  (gifts),  that 
is,  with  wisdom  and  understanding,  with  counsel  and  sti'ength,  with 
good  deeds  and  with  piety,  and  he  filleth  us  with  the  fear  of 
God.  He  that  through  good  deserving  (deserts)  attaineth  to  these 
sevenfold  graces  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  will  have  all  bliss.  But  he  that 
desires  to  attain  to  this  bliss  must  believe  in  the  Holy  Trinity  and 
in  true  Unity,  that  is,  that  the  Father  and  his  Son  and  the  Spirit  of 
them  both,   are   three   in   persons   and   one  God,   indivisible,    existing 


godes  sune  to  monnesce  men  ibroht.  and  on  bisse  deie  iweorden 
ileafulle  men  godes  and  swa  se  crist  cwe£.     Ic  cwe^e  5e  beo^  The  elect 

are  God's 

godes  bern  ba  icorene  men  beo^  godes  bern  i  na  icuwSliche  f  ac  ehOdren. 

burh  bes  hahjan  gastes  3ife.     And1  god  is  icundeliche  on  breom.  i?An. 
Hadan  feder.  and  sune.  bet  is  bis  wisdom,  and  be  ha^e  gast '.  be 

bet  is  beore  beire  wille.     Heore  cunde  is  unto-deledlich  efer2  2  Ms- efter- 
wuniende  on  ane  godnesse.  be  ilea  cwe^.  bi  his  icorene  ye  beo^ 

godes.  purub  cristes  menniscnesse  men  weren  alesde  from  deofles  Through 


^eowdome.  and  burh  bes  balse  gastes  to-cume  mennen  saule  were   humanity 

men  were 

ibrobt  to  gode.     Crist  underfenc  meniscnesse  on  bis  to-cume.    delivered  out 

of  the  power 

and  men  underfengen  god  '.   burb  bes  ba^an  gastes  isundunge.  be  of  the  devil- 
mon  bet  nafS  godes  gast  on  him  nis  he  na  godes.    Elches  monnes 
weorc  cuSan  hwile  gast  bine  wissa^.     Godes  gast  wissa^  efre  to 
bali3nesse.  and  to  godnesse.  Deofles  gast  wissa^  to  sunnan  f  and  to 
mandeden.  be  haha  gast  bicom  twa  ofer  ba  aposilas.    Crist  ableow   T1)e  Holy 

1  J     °  r        l  Ghost  came 

bana3  ha^a  gast  ofer  ba  apo^las  f   er  his  upst[i]3e  bus  cweSinde   JjJ^  ™*f 
onfoft  haline  gast.  eft  on  bisse  deie  he  sende  be  almihtin  feder    3sic. 
and  be  sune  heore  *  beire  gast  to  bam  apostfli '.   ba  3et  wuniende    *[Foi.  366.] 
on  bissere  weorlde.  be  belende  ableu  his  gast  on  his  aposdas 
for  ^ere  itacnunge.  bet  heo  and  alle  cristen  men  scullan  lufian 
heore  nehstan  f    al   swa  he   heom   er  bihet    bene  ilea  gast  of 
heofne.  for^on  bet  we  sculen  lufian  god  ofer  alle  oSer  bing.     An   The  Holy 

'  °  '      °  Ghost  is  one, 

is  be  halie  gast  bah  bet  he  twa  bicome  ofer  ba  apos^las.     Al  swa   although  he 

'<->•'  >         a  came  twice 

ec  is  an  lufe  f  and  twa  biboden.  bet  we  sculen  lufian  god  I  and.    °v^]* 

Men.     Ac  we  sculen  leornian  on  mannew  hu  we  ma3en  bicuman 

to  godes  lufe.    Al  swa  Iohan  be  godspellere  cwe^.  be  bet  ne  lufe£ 

his  broker  bene  bet  be  isihS.  hu  mei  he  lufian  god  bene  bet  he  ne 

isilrS  licomlicbe  i  we  wurSia^  bes  hahjen  gastes  to-cume  mid  loft-4     4  ■ lnf-- 

songe  seofen  da3es.  forSon  bet  he  onlihte  ure  mod  mid  seofanfald 

3ife.  bet  is  mid  wisdom,  and  a^ite  mid  rSohte.  and  streinde  mid 

gode  dedan '.  and  trewfestnesse.  and  he  us  ifulS  mid  godes  ei3e. 

be  bet  ^urh  gode  iearnmzge5  bi-cunr8  to  bissan  seofsenfalden  sefan    He  who  win 

1      r  °  °  *  come  to  the 

of  bam6  hahan  gaste  '.  he  haue$  alle  blisse.     Ac  be  bet  wule  to   gifts  of  the 

,  ¥     r  Holy  Ghost 

bare  blisse  bicumera  f  he  seal  ileafan  on  ba  haha  breomnesse.  and   F1"?'  ^H.e\e 

'  r  J     r  in  the  Trinity 

on  softre  annesse.  bet  is  be  feder.  and  his  sune  and  heore  beira    6sic. 
gast  heo  beoft  breo  on  hadan  and  an  god  unto-*delendlich  on    *[v^ns7a,-] 


in  one  Lordship  and  Godhead.  This  belief  was  betokened  by  the  three 
thousand  men  that  first  inclined  to  belief,  after  the  coming  of  the  Holy 
Ghost.  And  as  the  three  thousand  men  were  one  fellowship  (commu- 
nion), even  so  the  Holy  Trinity  is  one  God  ;  and  that  fellowship  is  as 
one-minded  (unanimous)  as  though  they  were  all  one  in  heart  and  soul, 
because  that  of  the  Holy  Trinity  thei'e  is  one  Godhead  and  one  nature, 
and  one  will  and  one  inseparable  work.  The  faithful  (believing)  men 
brought  their  wealth  and  laid  it  at  the  feet  of  the  apostles.  By  that  is 
denoted  that  Christian  men  should  not  put  their  trust  in  temporal  pos- 
sessions, but  in  their  God  alone.  The  covetous,  that  setteth  his  thought 
on  his  goods,  is  the  devil's  child,  except  he  cease  to  do  so.  Because 
covetousness  had  no  place  in  the  hearts  of  those  who  held  their  goods  of 
little  worth,  therefore  did  they  put  their  goods  in  common  amongst  them, 
that  they  might  be  in  true  unity  without  covetousness.  The  apostles 
set  their  hands  over  believers,  and  the  Holy  Ghost  came  upon  them 
through  their  confirmation  (bishoping)  ;  and  bishops  of  the  same  order 
are  still  in  God's  Church  and  observe  the  institution  in  their  confirmation 
(bishoping),  so  that  they  place  their  hands  over  baptized  men  and  pray 
that  the  Almighty  Ruler  may  send  them  the  sevenfold  gifts  of  the  Holy 
Ghost.     Qui  vivit  et  regnat,  &c. 



f\mnia  nimia  nocent,  et  temper antia  mater  virtutum  dicitur,  that  is 
in  English,  All  things  overdone  (all  excesses)  are  injurious,  and 
moderation  is  the  mother  of  all  virtues.  Overliving  in  eating  and 
in  drinking  maketh  the  man  unwhole  and  his  soul  loathsome  to 
God,  and  so  our  Lord  hath  said  in  his  Gospel.  On  the  other  hand, 
immoderate  fasting  and  too  much  abstinence  in  eating  and  drinking  make 
the  man  infirm  and  bring  him  to  great  grief,  as  say  the  books,  That 
some  men  fasted  so  that  they  sorely  afflicted  themselves   and   had   no 


ane  drihtnesse  and  godnesse  wuniende  beos  ileafan  itacneden  ba  The  Trinity 

in  Unity, 

breo  busend  men.  bet  erest  bu3en  to  ileafan  efter  bes  halja  gastes   denoted  by 
to-cume.  and  alswa  beo  breo  busend  weren  an  iferende1.  alswa  is   thousand 

>         >  >  converts  on 

beo  hal^e  breomnesse  an  god.  and  bet  iferende  is  swa  anmod   p^f^f 
swulc  heom  alle  an  weren  on  heorte.  and  an  sawul  f  forSon  bet  feno\vship0ne 
bere  haljan  )>remnesse  is  an  godnesse.  and  an  icunde.  and  an    i  ?  iferedene. 
iwille.   and  an  wore  un-to-delendlich.     Da   ileaffullen  brohton 
heore  gersum  and  leiden  heo  et  bere  apos^lan  fotan.     Mid  ban  is 
itacned  bet  cristene  men  ne  sculen  heore  bileafe  bisettan  on  bere 
weordliche  eahte  '.    ac  on  heore  god  ane.  be  ^itsere  be  biset  his 
ibonc  on  his  ehte '.    he  br5  bes  deofles  bern  buten  he  hit  iswike  f 
forSon  heo  bet  ba  jitsunge  heoldew  heore  eahte  unwur^Jliche  nefde   True  unity  « 
nenne  stude  f  on  heore  heortan2.  and  for  bi  heo  dudan  heore  bing  covetousness. 

.  2  The  proper 

heom  aemene  :   bet  heo  so^re  sibsumnesse  butan  aitsunge  beon   >  rder  w— heo 

lieolden  heore 

mihten,  ba  apos^las  setten  here  hondan  ofer  ileaffulle  men  f  and  eaht  oawnr. 

liche  fortion 

heom  com  to  be  halja  gast.  burh  heore  bisceopurcge.     Bisceopas  petpa3itsung 

bes  ilean  hades  on  godes  ila^unge.  and  halda^  ba  isetnesse  on 

heore   bisceopunge   swa   bet  heo  setteS   heoraw.  *handan  ofer  *[Foi.  376.] 

ifuljede   men.    and    biddaS   bet    be   almihti  welden[de]    heom 

sende  ba  seofenfalde  jife  of  bam  haljan  gaste.     Qui  uiuit  & 

.Kegnat,  &c. 




mnia  nimia  nocent.   &  temperancia  mater  uirtutum  di-  Of  eight  vices 

and  twelve 

citur.  bet  is  on  englisc.  alle  ofer  done  bing  dena^3.  and  abuses  of  this 

imetnesse  is  aire  mihta  moder  be  oferlifa  on  hete  and  on  wete  3  ?  deriaft. 

maca^  bene  mon  un-halne.  and  his  saule  gode  la^e^4  and  swa  ure  4  MS- lade^- 

„  ,  Excess 

drihten  on  his  goclspelle  seide.     pEt  ber  tojemes  unimete  festen  injurious. 

and  to  michel  forhefednesse  on  hete  and  on  wete  macaS  bene  the  mother  of 
mon  un-halne  and  on  michelere  sarinesse  bringe^  swa  swa  us 
seggeS  bee.  bet  sume  men  festen  swa  bet  hi  swencten  swrSe 


reward  for  that  great  affliction,  but  the  farther  were  they  from  God's 
mercy.     Easily  may  the  man  find  how  he  may  injure  himself,  but  we 
must  recollect  that  no  self-murderer,  that  is,  self-slayer,  shall  come  into 
God's  kingdom.      Now  there  are    eight   cardinal  sins   that   reign    very 
powerfully  in  us.     One   is  called   Quia,  that  is,  greediness   in    English, 
which   causeth  that  the  man  eateth  and  drinketk  before  the  time,  or, 
on    the   other   hand,   taketh    too    much    to    eat   and    drink.       This   sin 
destroyeth    both    soul   and   body ;    for  it    bringeth  upon    a    man   great 
diseases,  and  bringeth  (him)  to    death  through  excessive  drink ;  and  it 
destroys  also  the  man's  soul,  for  it  will  sin  often  even  when  he  knoweth 
not  how  he  conducts  himself  on  account  of  his  immoderate  drinking. 
The  second  sin  is  fornication  and   immoderate  lasciviousness,  which  is 
called   Fornicatio.     It  defileth    the    man,    and    of  the  limbs  of   Christ 
maketh  whores'  limbs,  and  of  God's  house  the  abode  of  ills.     The  third 
sin  is  Avaritia,  that  is,  evil  covetousness.     It  is  the  root  of  every  crime  ; 
it  produceth  rapine  and  injustice,  theft,  leasing  and  perjury ;  it  is  like 
unto    hell,  because   that   they  both    have   such    insatiable   greediness  as 
to  be  never  full.     The  fourth  is   called  Ira,  that  is,  in  English,  wrath 
(anger).      It   causeth   man    not   to   have  the   control    over   his    anger, 
and  maketh  murders  and  evils  of  many  kind.     The  fifth  sin  is  Tristitia, 
that    is,    sorrow    of   this   world ;    when   the    man    sorroweth   altogether 
too  much   for  the  loss  of  his  wealth,  which  he  hath  loved  too   much, 
and    chideth  then  with  God  and   increaseth  his    sins.     There  are   two 
sorrows ; — the  first   is   this  evil   one  (just  mentioned)  ;    the  second  is 
salutary,    that   is,    that   a   man    be   sorry   here    in   the    world    for   his 
sins.      The    sixth   is    called    Desidia,   that    is,   sloth    in   English,    when 
the   man   desires    not   to    do    any  good  in    his   life  ;    but   is   ever   un- 
ready for   any  good   deed.     The    seventh  is  called  Jactantia,  that    is, 
idle    boasting   in    English,    when    man    is   greedy    of   praise,    and    acts 
deceitfully,   and   does   more   for   praise   than   for   the   love   of  God   if 
he  distributes  aught   (to  the   poor),  and  therefore  the    notoriety   shall 
be   his    reward    for  the    deed,  and  in   the  other   world  his  retribution 
awaiteth  him.       The  eighth  sin  is   called  Superbia,  that  is,  in  English, 
moodiness    (pride).       It    is    the   beginning   and    end   of   all    evils  ;     it 
turned   angels    into    horrible    devils,  and  maketh   man   also,  if  he  wax 
very  proud,  the  associate  of  devils,  who   previously  fell  out  of  heaven 
through    pride.       Now  are   there    eight   head   (cardinal)   virtues  which 


heom  seolfe.  and  nane  mecle  nefden  for  ba  rnichele  iswinche.  ac  Excess  in 

fasting  is  not 

bes  be  fir  weren  fram  godes  milce  [EJa^e  mei  be  mon  fundan  hu   commend- 

he  hine  seolfe  amerre.  ac  we  scole  witan.  bet  nan  seolf  cwale  bet 

is  asen-sclaja  ne  cumeS  to  godes  riche.     Wu  beo^  .viii.  lieofod   There  are 

J  eight  cardinal 

sunmm  be  rixa£  on  us  to  swrSe.     On  is  icwe^en.   Gida.  \et  is  sins. 

1.  Gluttony. 

3ifernesse  on  englisc.  beo  de£  bet  mon  et  er  timan.  and  drinceft. 

o$er  eft  to  muehel  nime^  on  ete  o^er  on  wete.     Deos  suwne 

forded   ei^er  ye  saule.  %e  lichoma.   for  *heo   mace^   ban   men    •[Fol.38o.] 

muchele  untrumnesse  and  to  debe  bringe^  mid  unmete  druncbe. 

and  heo  forded  ec  bes  monnes  saule  for  beo  seal  sui^an  oft. 

benne  be  nat  bu  be  ferS  for  his  feondlicban  druncbe.     pa  o^er  2.  Adultery. 

sunne  forliger  and  unimete  galnesse.  ]>et  is  ibaten  fomicatio.    He 

bukVS1  bene  mon  and  mace^  of  cristes  leomaw  heoranna  leomaw  '.     1  ?  befuieS. 

and  of  godes  husa  gromena  wunhmge.  ba  bridde  sunne  is.  Aua-  3.  Avarice. 

ricia.  bet  is  beo  ufele  3itsunge.  beo  is  more  of  elcbere  wohnesse 

heo  rnaca£  reaflac  and  unribte  domes,  stale  and  lesunge.  and 

forsworenesse.  heo  is  belle  ilicbe.  forSon  be<  hi  ba  habbe^  un- 

afillendliche  gredinesse  f  \et  hi  nefre  ne  beoS  fulle.  beo  feorSfe]   4.  Anger. 

sunne  is  ibatan.     Ira.  \>et  is  on  englisc  wemodnesse.  heo  de^  \et 

be  mo«  ne  ah  his  modes  iwald  and  heo  maca^  monslehtas.  and 

monies  cunnes  ufel.     peo  fifte  sunne  is.  Tristicia.  \>et  is  bissere  5.  Wanhope. 

worlde  sarinesse  be?ine  be  mon  sor3e£  alles  to  swi£e  for  his 

hehte  lure,  be  he  luuede  to  swrSe.  and  chit  benne  wiS  gode. 

and  his  sunnen  ecbe^.     Twa  sarinesse  beo^.  an  is  beos  uuele 

o^er  is  halwende.  ]>et  is  ]>et  mon  beo  sari  her  on  worlde  for  his 

sunnen.     peo  sixte  is  ibaten.    Desidia.  \>et  is  slew^e  on  englisc   6.  siotn. 

benne  ban  mon  ne  lust  on  his  Hue  nan  god  don.  and  brS  eure 

unjearu   to  elchere  duje^e.       *pe   seofe^e   sunne   is  icwe^en.    *[Foi.  386.] 

lactancia.  \>et  is  ide^elp  on  englisc.  benne  mon  brS  lof^eorn.     '    oastins- 

and  mid  fikemmge  fearS  and  de^  for  3elpe  mare  benne  for  godes 

luue.  3if  he  awiht  delan  wule.  and  forfcon  brS  be  lesse2  his  edlen    2  ifor  hiisse. 

bere  dede.  and  his  wite  abided  on  bere  o^Sre  weorlde.     pe  ebtu^e  8-  Pride- 

sunne  is  ihatan.    Supevbia.  \et  is  on  englisc,  modinesse.    Heo  is 

ord  and  ende  of  alle  uuele.  heo  macode  englas  to  ateliche  deoflan 

and  bene  mon  make^  ec  3b0 3  heo  modigaS  to  swi^e  bes  deofles    3  ms.  31s. 

ifere  '.  be  feol  cr  ut  of  heouene  burh  modinesse.     Nu  beo^  .viii. 


may  overcome  all  these  sins,  through  God's  assistance.  The  first  is 
Temperantia,  that  is,  moderation  in  English,  that  man  be  modei*ate 
in  all  things  and  partake  not  of  too  much  in  eating  and  drinking, 
nor  sit  at  his  table  before  time.  Brutes  eat  as  soon  as  they  get  it, 
but  the  discreet  man  ought  to  keep  to  his  meals,  and  then  in  reason 
adhere  to  his  regimen.  Then  may  he  in  suchwise  overcome  greedi- 
ness. The  second  virtue  is  Castitas,  that  is,  cleanness  (chastity)  in 
English,  that  the  layman  should  keep  himself  without  fornication  law- 
fully and  reasonably.  The  consecrated  servant  of  God  should  ever 
observe  his  chastity  above  all  things,  and  thus  then  shall  the  foul 
lasciviousness  be  overcome.  The  third  virtue  is  Largitas,  that  is, 
liberality  in  English,  that  a  man  should  wisely  spend  the  things  which 
God  gives  him  to  enjoy  in  this  life  and  not  for  worldly  praise.  God 
desires  not  that  we  be  greedy  niggards,  nor  also  for  worldly  praise 
that  we  waste  our  property  ;  but  let  us  deal  out  our  wealth  wisely 
so  that  it  may  be  pleasing  to  the  Lord  ;  and  if  we  give  alms,  let 
us  give  them  without  boasting,  then  may  we  destroy  the  excessive 
covetousness.  The  fourth  virtue  is  Patientia,  that  is,  in  English, 
patience  (forbearance),  that  the  man  be  patient  and  forbearing  for 
God's  sake,  and  ever  let  his  discretion  prevail  over  his  wrath ;  for 
the  Saviour  speak  eth  thus  in  his  Gospel,  In  patientia  vestra  'possidebitis 
anirnas  vestras,  that  is  in  English,  In  your  patience  ye  have  preserved 
your  souls ;  and  again  the  heavenly  wisdom  saith,  Ira  requiescit  in 
sinu  stulti,  that  is,  Anger  hath  its  dwelling  in  the  bosom  of  the  fool, 
that  is,  when  the  man  is  very  angry-minded  ;  and  the  Almighty 
Judge  shall  judge  you  with  righteousness,  and  therefore  we  should 
overcome  wrath  with  forbearance.  The  fifth  virtue  is  Sinritalis  laititia, 
that  is,  ghostly  bliss,  that  the  man  rejoice  in  God  amidst  the  sor- 
rows of  this  stark  (harsh)  world,  so  that  we  be  not  despairing  in 
misfortunes,  nor,  on  the  other  hand,  rejoice  too  extravagantly  in  pros- 
perity. And  if  we  lose  these  poor  worldly  things,  then  we  shall 
know  that  our  abode  is  not  here,  but  in  heaven.  If  we  trust  in  God, 
as  the  Apostle  hath  said  of  himself  and  other  righteous  men,  Nostra 
autem  conversatio  in  ccelis  est,  that  is,  our  dwelling  is  in  heaven, 
thither  we  shall  hasten  from  this  tribulation  with  spiritual  joy ;  then 
shall  the  evil  sorrow  with-al  be  overcome  through  our  good  endurance. 
The    sixth  virtue   is   Instantia  boni  operis,  that  is,   diligence   in    good 


heafod   mihtan.    pe    ma3en   ouercumen   alle    pas   sunnaw   purh  Eight  car- 

k  rm  •    n  •  dinal  virtues. 

drihtnes   fultum.       An    is    [TemperantiaJ    bet   is    metnesse    on   \  Modera- 
englisc.  bet  mon  beo  imete  on  alle  ping  and  to  muchel  ne  pigge 
on  ete  ant?  on  wete.  ne  er  tinian  to  his  borde  ne  sitte.     Nutenu 
eta^  swa  er1  swa  hi  hit  habbe£>.  ac  pa  iscead-wise  mon  seal  kepan    i  ?  ec. 
his  meles  and  pemie  mid  isceade  his  isetnesse  halden.  penne  mei 
he  ouercuman  swa  pa  3iue  [rjnesse.   pe  o^er  mihte  is  Castitas.  bet  2.  Chastity. 
is  clenesse  on  englisc.  bet  be  leawde  mon  hine  halde  but  an  for- 
li^ere  on  rihte  la3e.  and  mid  isceadwisnesse.  peo  ihadode  godes 
peowa  halde  eure  his  clenesse  ouer  alle  ping,  and  penne  bv6  ouer- 
cumen swa  ec  pa  fule  galnesse.     pe  pridde  mihte  is.  Laryitas.  bet  3.  Liberality. 
is  custinesse  on  englisc  pet  mon  wisliche  *  spene  pa  ping  pe  him    *  [Foi.  39a.] 
god  lene  on  pisse  Hue  to  brukene.  and  noht  for  world  3elpe. 
God  nele  bet  we  beon  gredie  3itseras.  ne  ec  for  weorld  3elpe  for- 
worpan  ure  ehtan  ah  dele  we  ure  ehtan  mid  wisdome.  swa  bet 
hit  drihtne  likie.  and  3if  [we]  almesse  do^  :  don  hi  butan  3elpe 
penne  ma3e  we  fordon  swa  pa  deofliche  3itsunge.    pe  feorSe  mihte   4.  Patience. 
is.  paciencia.  bet  is  on  englisc  ipuld.  bet  pe  mon  beo  ipuldi.  and 
polemod  for  godes  luue.  and  lete  elchur2  hisiwit  weldre  pene  his    2?*fre. 
wre^e.  forSon  pe  helend  cwe^  pus  on  his  godspel.     In  paciencia 
ttestra  possidebitis  animas  uestras.  bet  is  on  englisc.  on  eower 
ipulde  3e  habbeS  eower  saulen  ihaldene  and  eft  pe  heouenlich[e] 
wisdom  cwe^.     Ira  requiescit  in  sinu  stulti.  bet  is  wre#Se  hafS 
wunuwge  on  pes  dusian  bosme.  bet  is  penne  pe  mon  brS  to  red- 
mod,  and  pe  al  weldenda  dema  cleme^  eou  mid  rihtwisnesse.  and 
we  sculen  mid  ipulde  ouercuman   pa  wrefc^e.      pe  fifte  mihte   5.  Spiritual 


is.  [Spiritalis  laetitiaj  bet  is  gastliche  blisse  bet  pe  mon  on  god 

blissie  bitwuxe  pa  sorinessen  pissere  sterke  worlde.  swa  bet  we3    3  Ms- pe- 

on  unilimpan  to  ormode  ne  beon  f  ne  eft  on  iselhoan  to  swrSe 

ne  blissian.  and  yl  we  forleosaS  pas  lenan  world-ping  f  penne  we 

sculan  witaw  bet  ure  wunuwge  nis  nauht  her  f  ac  is  on  heuene  f   0ur  c°n'  . 

to  «  versation  is 

3if  we  hopia^  to  gode  swa  pe  apostel  seide  bi  him  and  bi  o^ran   in  heaven- 
rihtwise.     [Nostra  autem  conversatio  in  cells  estJ]    bet  is    ure 
wununge  is  on  heuene.  pider  Ave  sculen  *  hil^en  of  pissere  erfe^-    *  £Fo!-  396-l 
nesse  mid  gastlichere  blisse.  penne  bi^  pa  ufele  sarinesse  mid  alle 
ouercuman  mid  ure  prode  ibulde.     pe  sixte  mihte  is.  \Instantia  6-  Peraver- 

01*  L  ance  m  good 



works,  for  if  we  be  diligent  in  good  works  then  may  we  in  this 
wise  ovei'come  sloth,  for  it  will  be  a  longsorue  (lasting)  reproach 
(to  us)  if  all  our  life  be  in  vain  here.  The  seventh  virtue  is  Caritas, 
that  is,  true  love  to  God  and  to  man ;  that  we  should  engage  in  good 
works  for  the  love  of  God,  and  not  for  the  sake  of  idle  boasting  (vain- 
glory), which  is  displeasing  to  him;  but  let  us  do  alms  as  he  hath 
taught  us,  for  love  to  God,  and  not  for  praise ;  so  that  our  Lord 
may  be  ever  praised  in  our  good  works,  and  that  vain-glory  be  ever 
despicable  in  our  sight.  The  eighth  virtue  is  called  Humilitas,  that 
is,  true  meekness  towards  God  and  to  man,  with  purity  of  mind ; 
for  he  who  is  [wise]  is  never  proud.  Of  what  may  the  man  be 
proud  1  though  he  be  well-to-do  and  prosperous  he  may  find  many 
who  are  better  to  do  and  of  higher  estate  than  he.  Nor,  on  the 
other  hand,  may  he  be  proud  of  his  weal,  or  of  his  wealth,  because 
he  knoweth  not  the  day  nor  the  hour  that  it  shall  all  pass  away. 
Nor  of  anything  ought  a  man  to  be  proud,  if  he  is  wise.  Now  ye 
have  heard  how  these  holy  virtues  overcome  the  sins  which  the  devil 
soweth  in  us,  and  if  we  will  not  subdue  them  they  will  sink  us  into 
hell.  We  may  through  God's  help  overcome  the  devilish  sins  through 
warfare,  if  we  keenly  fight ;  and  finally  obtain  for  ourselves  the  ever- 
lasting honour  ever  with  God  himself,  if  we  strive  for  it  now  while 
here.  Now  there  are  twelve  vices,  which  we  shall  first  declare  to  you 
in  Latin,  and  afterwards  in  English.  Duodecim  abusiva  sunt  seculi. 
Hoc  est.  Sapiens  sine  operibus  bonis.  Senex  sine  religione.  Aclolescens 
sine  obedientia.  Dives  sine  elemosina.  Femina  sine  pudicitia.  Dominus 
sine  virtute.  Christianus  contentiosus.  Pauper  superbus.  Rex  iniquus. 
Episcopus  negligens.  Plebs  sine  disciplina.  Populus  sine  lege  \  et  sic 
suffocatur  justicia  Dei. 

Twelve  abuses  there  are  in  this  world  for  harm  to  all  mankind  if 
they  might  hold  sway  ;  and  they  subdue  righteousness,  and 
mar  belief,  and  bring  mankind,  if  they  were  able,  into  hell.  That 
is,  if  the  wise  man  be  without  [good  works,  and  if  the  old  man 
be  without]  piety,  and  if  the  young  be  without  obedience,  and 
the  rich  without  charity  (alms-deeds),  woman  without  purity,  and 
the   lord    (ruler)    without    might   (virtue),  and    if  the    Christian    man 


boni  operis.]  \>et  is  anreduesse  godes  werkes.  for  3if  weo  beo$ 

anrede  on  ure  gode  werckan  f  benne  ma3e  we  swa  ouercumew  ba 

slauSe.  for  kit  br5  lonsum  bismer  3if  al  ure  life  br8  on  unnet  her. 

pe  seofe^e  mihte  is.  [Caritas.]  \et  is  so^  luue  to  gode  and  to  7.  charity. 

monnen.  ]>et  weo  on  gode  weorcas  godes  luue  kepan  f  and  naut 

ide^elp  be  is  him  ansete.  ac  uten  don  elmessen  swa  he  us  tehte 

gode  to  luue.  and  naut  for  herimge.  ac  \et  ure  drihten  beo  eure 

ihered  on  ure  godan  weorcan.  and  be  idele  3elp  us  beo  eure  un- 

wur5.     pe  eahtu^e  mihte  is  ihaten.    [Huniilitas.~\   \et  is   soS  8.  Humility. 

edmodnesse  to  gode  and  to  monnen.  mid  modes  lusternesse. 1  for    1?  hiutter- 


be  be  brS  [wis]  he  neme2  modi.     On  hwan  mei  be  mon  modegian     2  ?  ne  wur$ 

beh  he  beo  wel  ijx^en  and  ibunge?i.  for  he  mei  findan  fele  be 

beo^   bet   ijK>3en   and   isto3en   bene   he.      Ne  eft   he    ne   mei 

on  his  welan.  ne  on  his  ehte  modegian.  forSow  \et  he  nat  bene 

dei  ne  bene  time  J>e  hit  al  forletan  seal.     Ne  on  nane  binge  ne  Eschew  pride. 

ah  be  mon  to  modegian.  3if  he  wis  biS.  nu3  3e  habbeS  iherd  hu    3ms.  bu. 

bes  halie  mihten  ouercumaS  *ba  sunnan  be  deouel  bisawe^  on    *[Foi.  40a.] 

us.  and  yi  we  nelleS  heom  ouercuman.  hi  biserameS  us  on  helle. 

[W]e  ma3en  burh  godes  fulste  ba  fondliche  sunnan  mid  icompe 

ouercuman.  3if  we  kenliche  fehtaS  and  habban4  us  on  ende  }>ene     *?  originally 

eche  wurSment  a  mid  gode  seoluan.  3if  we  swincaS  nu  her.    N\  of  tweI^e 

beoS  .xii.  un}>eawes.  be  we  sculew  eou  seggan  erest  on  bocleden  f 

and  srSban  on  englisc.      Duodecim  abusiua  sunt  seculi.     Hoc 

est.     Sapiens  sine  o])eribus  bonis.      Senex  sine  religione.     Ado- 

lescens  sine   obediencia.    Diues   sine    elemosina.     Femina  sine 

pudicitia.      Dominws    sine   uirtute.     Christwwms    contenciosus. 

Pauper  superbus.     Bex  iniquus.      Upiscopus  negligens.     Plebs. 

sine  disciplina.     Poptdus  sine  lege.  &  sic  suffocatur  iusticia  dei. 



welf  unbeawes  beo5   on  bissere  weorlde  to  hermen  alle  These  vices 

....  .    .  Ti-i  v      m  x     •        mar  belief. 

monnen.  3if  hi  moten  rixian  and  hi  aleggaft  nntwis- 
nesse.  and  bene  ileafan  amerraS.  and  moncun  bringe^  ^if  hi 
motan  to  helle.  pet  is  3if  be  wisa  mon  brS  butan  [gode  wercan. 
and  3if  be  aide  brS  butan 5]  treuscipe.  and  3if  be  3unge  brS  5  See  P.  109, 
butan  hersumnesse.  and  be  richen  butan  elmesdedan.  wif  butan 
clenesse.  and  be  lauerd  butan  mihte.  and  3k0  be  cristcne  mon 


be  quarrelsome,  and  if  the  poor  be  proud,  and  if  the  king  be  un- 
righteous, and  if  the  bishop  be  negligent,  and  the  people  without 
correction  or  without  law.  Now  if  the  wise  man  who  should  give 
other  men  good  example  be  without  good  works,  will  not  his  lore 
then  soon  be  of  little  value  to  the  laity,  if  he  himself  will  not  do 
as  he  teacheth  them  to  do  1  His  lore  will  not  be  profitable  or 
acceptable  to  the  laity,  if  he  by  his  works  sets  aside  his  own  teaching. 
Again,  if  the  teacher  fall  into  error,  who  shall  afterwards  be  his  teacher  ? 
If  the  eye  becomes  blind,  the  hand  will  not  be  well-seeing.  The 
old  man  who  is  without  religion  is  like  the  tree  that  beareth  leaf 
and  blossom  but  no  fruits,  and  is  worthless  to  its  owner.  What 
is  ever  so  foolish  and  blockish  as  the  old  man  that  will  not  turn 
his  thoughts  to  God  with  good  intent,  when  his  limbs  show  him 
that  he  will  not  be  long  alive  1  A  young  man  may  doubt  whether 
he  may  live,  but  the  old  man  may  certainly  look  for  death.  The 
old  man  should  guard  against  evil  thoughts,  for  the  heart  nor  the 
tongue  become  old,  but  these  two  things  oft  injure  the  old  man.  Let 
the  old  man  observe  therefore  what  is  profitable  to  old  age,  and  disregard 
those  things  that  hurt  the  soul.  The  third  abuse  of  this  world  is,  that 
the  young  man  be  without  obedience.  Unworthy  shall  he  be  in  old 
age  that  other  men  should  be  subservient  to  him  who  in  his  youth  would 
not  honour  his  elders.  Our  Saviour  in  his  youth  was  obedient  to  his 
parents,  and  his  heavenly  Father  he  obeyed  even  to  the  death.  And  as 
it  behoves  the  old  man  to  have  virtuous  habits  and  true  religion,  so  also 
it  becomes  the  young  man  that  he  have  obedience  and  submission. 
God's  law  biddeth  also  each  man  ever  to  honour  his  father  and  his 
mother  with  much  honour,  and  if  he  curseth  them  he  is  worthy  of 
death.  The  fourth  abuse  is  that  the  rich  man  should  be  without  charity 
(alms-deeds)  and  hide  his  goods,  and  assuredly  earn  for  himself  hell- 
torment.  Accursed  is  the  covetous  who  comes  to  destruction  through 
his  wealth,  and  through  his  own  goods  perishes  ever  in  eternity ; 
but  blessed  are  ever  the  meekhearted,  for  they  shall  find  mercy. 
Again,  he  who  gives  alms  for  his  Lord's  love,  hides  his  treasure 
in  heaven,  where  no  thief  may  steal  away  (his)  treasures,  but  where 
they  shall  be  an  hundredfold  preserved  for  him.  In  many  ways  may 
a  man   do  alms — in  meat   and    drink,  and    also  in    clothing ;    and   by 


bi^  sacful.  and  3if  J?e  wrecche  bi$  modi,  and  3if  be  king  *br5    *[Foi.  406.]| 

linrihtwis.  and  3if  be  biscop  brS  3emeles.  and  bet  folc  butan  steore 

eft1  butan  la3e.  Nu  3if  J?e  wisa  nion  brS  butan  gocle  wercan.  be  be   1.  of  the  wise 

man  without 

o^er  monnen  scolde  sullan  gode  bisne.  bu  ne  brS  sone  bis  lare  ban   good  works. 

lewede  mownen  unwurS.  ^if  be  seolf  nule  don  swa  swa  be  beom 

teche^  to  donne  f     Ne  br$  naut  his  lare  fremful  ne  icweme  ban 

ileweden  '.  yf  lie  mid  wercan  to-werpe^  bis  boduwge.     Eft  ^if  be 

larSeu  dwela^.  hwa  brS  sr£San  his  larbeu  \    Gif  bet  e^e  ablinda^ '. 

ne  brS  naut  be  bond  wel  lokinde.     J)e  aide  mon  be  brS  butan   2.  of  the  old 

man  without 

treowscipe.  br5  iliche  ban  treo  be  bere^  lef  and  blosman.   and   belief. 

nane  westmas  ne  bere£.  and  brS  unwurS  his  lauerde.     Hwet  is 

eure  swa  dusi  and  swa  stuntlic  swa  is  bet  be  aide  mon  nule  his 

mod  to  gode  awendan  mid  gode  huhte.  benne  bis  leoman  him 

cuba^  bet  he  ne  bi$  quic  longe '.   3unge  nmnnan  mei  tweonian 

hwe^er  hi  moten  alibban.  ac  be  aide  mei  him  witan  iwis  bone 

de^.     Dan  alden  his  to  warniene  wK  uuele  ibohtas  for  beo  heorte   T1>e  tongue 

and  the  heart 

ne  alde^  naut  ne  ba  tunge.  ac  bas  twa  bing  deria$  oft  ban  alden.   do  not  get 
Wite  for  bi  be  aide  aide2  hwet  is  elde  bihouige.  and  ba  ^ing  for-     2sic. 
seo  bat  his  saule  deria^.     pe  bridde  unbeau  is  on  bissere  worlde.   3-  of  the 

young  man 

bet  3ung  mon  beo  butan  ihersumnesse.  *vnwur5e  brS  be  on  elde   without 

'        J      °  '  ohedience. 

bet  him  o^er  men  benien3  be  on  his  suhe^e  nule  his  eldian4  her-    *[Foi.  41a.] 

.  .  .  .  '  MS.  we- 

sumian.  Vre  helend  on  his  3uhe:Se  wes  ihersum  his  cunne.  and  his   "ien. 

7  *  '!  eldran. 

heouewlich  federe  he  hersumede  to  $a  de^e.  Swa  swa  ban  alden 
bihouaS  du3ende  bewas  and  [t]riwe  treofestnesse '.  swa  biriseS 
ban  3u?7gan  bet  he  abbe  ihersumnesse  and  ibuhsumnesse.  Godes 
la3e  bit  ec  mon  wurSie  efre  his  feder  and  his  moder  mid  muche- 
lere  wurbunge.  and  3b0  he  heom  werie^ '.  he  biS  de^es  wurSe. 
pe  feorSe  unbeu  is  bet  be  riche  mon  [beo]  butan  elmesdedan.  and  4.  Of  the  rich 

.  •     1  •  •  man  without 

bihude  his  feh.  and  3eornliche  halde  hit  him  to  belle  wite.  vniseli  charity. 
brS  be  3itsere  be  burh  his  isellrSe  leosa^.  and  burh  his  ah3ene  ehte 
forwurS  a  on  echnesse.  ac  iselie  beo^  efre  ba  mildheortan.  for  bi 
heo  imeta^  ba  mildheoi-tnesse.  Eft  be  Se  dele^  elmessan  for  his 
drihtnes,  luuan  f  be  bihut  his  gold  hord  on  heouene  riche.  ber  nan 
beof  ne  mei  [his]  magmas  forsteolan.  ac  heo  beo^  bi  hundfalde 
ihalden  him  ber.     On  monie  wisen  mon  mei  wurchen  elmessan.    of  divers 

.  .  kinds  of 

on  ete  and  on  wete.  and  ec  on  lwedan.  and  bet  mon  gistas  almsgiving. 


receiving  strangers,  and  visiting  sick  men,  and  comforting  the  sorrowful, 
or  by  leading  a  blind  man,  or  supporting  the  infirm,  or  healing  the 
sick,  if  he  know  aught  of  leech-craft  (the  healing  art)  ;  or  if  he  forgiveth 
those  who  have  offended  him  ;  or  if  [he  succour]  the  distressed  ;  or  if  he 
carry  [a  dead]  man  to  the  tomb.  All  this  is  alms ;  and  also  that  a  man 
chastise  the  frail  body,  for  correction,  which  must  be  corrected,  for  that 
is  mercy  that  the  wise  man  with  reproof  rectify  the  unwise.  Lay  never 
up  in  thine  hoard  what  may  be  of  service  to  destitute  men,  for  thou  thy- 
self enjoyest  not  thy  weal,  though  thou  keep  it  secretly  (hoarded  up). 
Thou  gatherest  more  and  more,  and  men  die  of  hunger,  and  thy  wealth 
rots  before  thine  eyes.  Let  us  not  do  so,  but  let  us  do  as  our  Lord  hath 
commanded  us.  He  hath  said  in  his  gospel,  Date  elemosinam,  et 
omnia  munda  sunt  vobis,  that  is,  Give  alms,  and  all  things  shall  be 
pure  to  you.  The  fifth  abuse  is,  that  a  woman  be  without  chastity. 
An  unclean  woman  suffers  shame  in  this  world,  and  is  despicable 
in  this  life,  and  after  this  life  shall  have  no  joy  with  God.  Wisdom  is 
needful  to  men,  and  chastity  to  women,  for  chastity  shieldeth  them  from 
vices.  Where  chastity  is,  there  also  are  good  virtues ;  and  the  chaste 
woman  shunneth  covetousness,  stirs  not  up  strife,  but  appeases  wrath, 
and  scorns  lasciviousness  and  covetousness ;  she  guards  herself  against 
drunkenness,  and  loves  not  idle  words.  Verily  chastity  subdues  all 
vices,  and  observeth  good  virtues  which  are  pleasing  to  God  and 
man.  The  sixth  abuse  is,  that  he  who  is  appointed  a  lord  (ruler), 
cannot,  for  pusillanimity,  check  his  men,  but  is  so  powerless  in  mental 
vigour  that  he  dare  not  cause  his  men  to  stand  in  awe  of  him, 
nor  will  teach  them  to  follow  any  wisdom.  Some  lords  approach 
God  through  their  lordship,  as  Moses  the  leader  did,  who  spake  to 
Almighty  God  ;  and  some  lords  in  their  rule  displease  God,  as  Saul 
the  king  did,  who  disregarded  God's  commands.  The  lord  shall  be 
gentle  to  the  good,  and  awful  (terrible)  to  the  wicked,  so  that  he 
may  put  down  their  folly ;  and  he  shall  be  true  to  his  word,  and 
listen  to  wise  lore  (counsel).  The  good  men  shall  love  him  for  his 
gentleness,  and  the  foolish  shall  ever  fear  him,  else  his  reign  shall 
neither  be  firm  nor  lasting.  He  shall  so  conduct  himself  that  a  man 
may  contradict  him  and  remind  him  of  his  needs  (faults)  ;  and  what- 
soever  the   lord    may    do    harshly   to    his    men,    it    must   be    done   for 


underac  and  to  seke  monan  ga.  o^er  sarine  frefra^.  o^er  blindne   of  aims. 

°  _  giving. 

mon  let.  o^er  bere%  unliable.  irSer  unliable  lechna^  ^if  be  leche- 

dom  con.  *o:Ser  3if  be  miltsaS1  ban  men  be  hine  abelb.  o^er  ^\i  *[Foi.  41&.] 

be  3eber-godne2  mon  fere$  to  buriene.     Al  bis  bvS  almesse  and  SaS. 

ec  bet  mon  biswinke  bene  stunte  lichome  for  steore  be  be3  steoran  2 ;,'"."'/ 

seal  for  bet  is  mildheortnesse.  bet  be  wisa  mon  mid  steore  bene  "eode  ide^ 

\   .  .  .  or5er3ifhe 

unwisan  iriblecbe.     Ne  ligge  nefre  on  bine  beorde.  bet  bauelese   forfttarene. 
monnam  meie  fremian.  for  bu  ane  ne  brukest  naut  binra  welena  f     3  S1C- 

Hoard  not  up 

bah  bu  hi  demliehe  4  liable.     Du  gederast  mare  and  mare,  and  thv  wealth. 

*  ?  dGrnlicliG 

men  cwela^  on  hungre.  and  bine  welan  forrotia^  biforan  bine 
eb^an.  Ne  don  we  naubt  bus.  ac  uten  don  al  swa  lire  dribten 
cwe^.  he  seide  on  his  godspelle.  Date  elemosinam '.  &  omnia 
munda  sun  [t]  nobis,  bet  is.  dele^  elmesse  and  alle  bing  eou  beo^ 
clene.     pe  fifta  unbeu  is  bet  wif  beo  buten  clenesse.     Vnclene  5.  ofthe 

woman  with- 

wif  boleS   scome  on  weorlde.  and  unclene  wif  bvS  unwurS  on    out  chastity. 
liue.  and  efter  bisse  hue  nane  blisse  naf"5  mid  gode.     Wisdom 
birise^  weran.  and  clenesse  birisa^  wifan.  for  be  clenesse  iscilt 
heo  wrS  uTnlbeawes.     Der  ba  clenesse  brS  '.   ber  beo^  ec  ba  gode   Description 

L    Jr  r  '  of  a  virtuous 

beawes  and  bet  clene  wif  scuna^  3itsunge  and  cheste  ne  stura'S.    woman. 

ac  heo  gestiPS  gronian  and  forsilrS  galnesse  and  gredinesse  for- 

ho3a¥>.  heo  hi  wermvS  wi$5   drunkenesse  and  idele  weord  *ne    *[p0i.  42a.] 

luuaS.    Iwisliche  jja  clennesse  iwelt  alle  unjjeawes  and  halt  gode 

beawes  be  gode  likia^  and  monnan.     [p]e  sixte  unbeau  is  bet  e.  of  the  lord 

be^e  to  lauerde  hv6  iset.  bet  he  for  modleste  ne  mei  his  monnan   out  true 

don  stere  ac  biS  swa  mibtles  on  his  modes  streche.  bet  he  his 

men  eisian  ne  der  ne  to  nane  wisdome  heom  nule  wissian.  Summe 

lauerdes  inehlecheS  gode  burh  heore  lauer[d]scipe  swa  Moyses  be   Moses  a  type 

hereto3a  dude   be  to   ban   almihti3an  gode  spec,  and   summe  „,£,, 

lauerdes  on  heore  onwalde  god  gremia^.  swa  saul  be  king  dude 

be  forsech  godes  beste.     De  lauerd  seal  beon  IrSe  ban  godan  and  Description 

'  &  r        &  of  a  good 

eisful  ban  dusian  bet  he  heore  dusi  alegge.  and  he  seal  beon  ruler- 
weordfeste.  and  wise  lare  lusten.  Hine  scule  ba  gode  men  lufie 
for  his  liSnesse.  and  ba  dusian  him  scnlen  efre  adredan.  elles  ne 
br5  his  rixlunge  ne  fest  ne  lonsum.  he  seal  beon  swa  iweorbt  bet 
him  mon  mote  witi  speken  and  his  neode  menan.  and  swa  hwet 
swa  be  lauerd  speke  to  his  men  sterliche  f  do  hit  for  rihtwisnesse 


righteousness  and  for  God's  awe,  and  not  for  (his  own)  anger.  It 
is  written  in  books  that  he  that  allows  evil  is  as  guilty  as  he  who 
commits  it,  if  he  may  amend  it  and  takes  no  heed  of  the  amendment. 
He  shall  with  righteousness  bow  to  God,  for  he  can  have  no  power 
aright  without  God's  help,  as  saith  God.  The  lord  shall  take  heed 
that  he  have  God's  help,  and  he  shall  nowhere  be  distrustful  of  God's 
help.  If  God  be  his  helper,  nowhere  shall  his  power  be  despised, 
because  there  is  no  power  except  from  God.  Qui  suscitat  de  pulvere 
egenum,  et  de  stercore  erigit  pauper  em,  that  is,  God  raiseth  from  the 
mire  whom  he  will,  though  he  were  erewhile  poor,  and  maketh  him  a 
lord.  And  again  the  prophet  speaks  of  God,  Deponit  potentes  de 
sede  et  exaltat  humiles,  that  is,  The  Lord  casteth  down  the  proud  from 
their  seats  and  exalteth  the  meek.  And  again  the  Scripture  saith, 
Deus  superbis  resistit,  humilibus  dat  gj-atiam,  that  is,  God  resisteth 
the  proud  and  giveth  strength  to  the  humble,  that  all  the  earth  may 
be  obedient  to  him  and  honour  his  name.  The  seventh  vice  is,  that 
the  Christian  man  is  contentious  (quarrelsome).  Of  Christ's  name 
is  the  Christian  called,  that  is,  the  Christian  man  who  is  baptized  in 
Christ  :  then  if  he  be  contentious,  assuredly  he  is  not  a  true  Chris- 
tian. Verily  there  is  no  man  a  true  Christian,  unless  he  imitate 
Christ.  Christ  would  not  scold  nor  chide,  as  his  Father's  voice  spake 
of  him,  "  Here  is  my  child  who  is  very  dear  to  me,  and  I  have  set  my 
spirit  over  him ;  he  chideth  not  with  contention,  he  stirreth  not  up 
strife,  neither  in  the  street  heareth  any  man  his  voice."  The  Lord 
saith  also  in  his  Gospel  that  they  are  God's  children  who  are  peaceable 
and  raise  not  up  strife  :  and  even  as  the  peaceable  are  assuredly 
children  of  God,  so  also  are  the  quarrelsome  the  children  of  the  devil. 
We  all  address  God,  and  say  Pater  noster,  that  is,  Our  Father  which 
art  in  heaven,  but  we  may  not  have  the  heavenly  inheritance  except 
we  be  devoid  of  all  strife.  The  eighth  abuse  is,  that  the  poor  man 
should  be  proud.  Many  a  man  hath  not  wealth  and  yet  hath  pride,  and 
is  poor  before  the  world  and  accursed  before  God,  when  he  raiseth  his 
thought  with  pride  against  God,  and  will  not  observe  humility  in  his 
poverty.  Christ  saith  in  his  gospel  of  the  spiritually  poor,  Beati  pauperes 
spiritu,  quoniam  ipsorum  est  regnum  cmlorum,  that  is,  Blessed  are  the 
poor  who  are  poor  in  spirit,  for  theirs  is  the  joy  of  heaven's  kingdom. 


and  for  godes  e^e  and  noht  for  wre^e.  hit  is  awriten  on  boken. 

bet  be  br5  al  swa  sculdig  be  bet  uuel  ibeuaS '.  swa  be  be  hit  de$.  He  a  guilty 

sif  he  hit  betan  mei  i  and  umbe  be  botaTnel  hotaS.  he  seal  hine  evil  to  pass 

'  I  L      j         j  unreproved. 

mid  rih[t] wisnesse  ibu3an  to  gode.  for  he  ne  mei  habben  nane 

mihte  *to  rihte  butan  godes  fulste  swa  god  cweS.     De  lauerd  *[Foi.  426.] 

■seal  bihol^ian  bet  he  habbe  godes  fultum  and  he  ne  seal  nohwer 

ortrowian  bi  godes  fultnro,     Gif  god  brS  his  ifulsta  f  ne  br5  his 

mehte  nohwer  for-se^en.  for  bon  be  nan  mihte  nis  bute  of  gode. 

Qui  suscitat  de  puluere  egenum.  &  de  stercore  erigit  pauperem.  God  abases 

the  proud  and 

bet  is.  God  ahef  of  mexe  bene  mon  be  he  wule  bau  he  were  er  exalts  the 
wreche  and  maca'S  hine  to  lauerde  and  eft  be  witega  serS  bi 
gode.  Deponit  potentes  de  sede  <£*  exaltat  humiles.  bet  is.  Drihten 
aworpe^  ba  modian  of  heore  heh  setle  and  on-hefS  ba  mildan 
and  eft  bet  writ  cwe^.  Z>eus  stiperbis  resist  it :  humilibus  dat 
gr&tiam.  bet  is.  Drihten  widset  ban  prudan  and  ^eue6  ban  ed- 
meodan  streinbe  bet  al  middel  eard  beo  him  ibuhsum  f  and  his 
nome  herise.  pe1  seofeSe  un-beaw  is  bet  be  cristene  mon  beo  sacful.  1-  Of  the 


of  cristes  noman.  is  cristiani's  icwe^en.  bet  is  be  cristene  mon  be  is  c  '"istian. 
on  criste  ifulel^ad.  benne  3if  he  br5  sacful  f  so81iche  ne  bi$  he  noht  a  later  I]a'na° 
wel  enstene.  So^liche  nis  nan  mon  wel  cristene '.  butan  be  be 
criste  euenleche^.  Crist  nalde  flitan  ne  chidan.  Bwa  swa  his  feder 
stefne  cwe^  bi  him.  Her  is  min  child  be  me  is  swi^e  leof  and  ic 
sette  minne  gast  ouer  him.  He  ne  flit  mid  cheste.  ne  he  sake  ne 
sturaS.  ne  on  strete  ne  ihereS  nan  mon  his  stefne.    Drihten  sei$  ec  The  peace- 

.  makers  are 

on  his  godspelle  bet  ba  beo^  godes  bern  be  beo^  isibsmmne  ac  sake  God's  chfl- 

ne  sturiaS.  and  swa  swa  [ba]  isibsumma  *beo:S  so^liche  godes  bern  I  *  [Foi.  430.] 

swa  beo*)  ec  ba  sacfulle  so^liche  deofles  bern.     Alle  we  cleopiaS  to 

gode '.  and  cwe$a&  pater  noster.  bet  is.  bu  ure  feder  be  ert  on  heuene 

ac  we  ne  ma3en  habben  bene  heouenlichen  ebel  (  butan  we  beon 

clene  from  alle  sake.      [p]e  ehtuSe  unbeau  is  bet  be  wrecche  mon  s.  of  the  poor 

beo  modi.     Mom  mon  nat^  ehta.  and  beh  haueS  modmesse  and  proud. 

is  erm  for  worlde.  and  uniseli  for  gode.  benne  he  arereS  his  mod 

mid  modinesse  o^ein  god.  and  nule  on  his  erm^e  f  edmodnesse 

halden.     Crist  cwe$  on  his  godspelle  bi  ban  gastliche  wrecchan. 

Beati  pav.peres  sp\\\tu '.  §uoniara  ipsomm  est  regnum  celorum.  Blessed  are 

,  ..        ,  the  poor  in 

pet  is.  ead^e  beoS  ba  wrecchan  be  on  gaste  beo^  wrecchan  f  for  spirit. 



They  are  poor  in  spirit  who  for  God's  love  are   meek   and   humble ; 
for  humbleness   of  mind   may  obtain   God's   kingdom   sooner   than  the 
poverty  which    cometh   of   misfortune.      Assuredly    the   rich   that   live 
righteously  may  be  reckoned  amongst  God's  poor  if  they  have  meekness 
and  forsake  superfluity  (extravagance),  as  King  David  saith  of  himself, 
Ego  egenus  et  pauper  sum,  Deus  adjuva  me — I  am  needy  and  poor,  but, 
O  God,  aid  me.     The  proud  poor  for  the  pride  of  his  mind  is  rightly 
reckoned   (in  books)    amongst  the  rich  ;  and  the  humble  rich,  though 
he  have  wealth,  may  be  amongst  God's  poor,  if  he  pleaseth  God.     The 
ninth  abuse  is  that  the  king  is  unrighteous.     The  king  is  chosen  for  that 
which    his    name    declareth.       King   is    called    rex,    that    is,    governor 
(director),  for  he  shall  direct  his  people  with  wisdom,  and   put   down 
wrong,  and  exalt  belief  (faith).      Then  is  it  a  grievous  thing  if  he  be 
unrighteous,  for  he  may  direct  none  aright  if  he  himself  is  unrighteous. 
The  righteousness  of  the  king  exalteth  his  throne,  and  his  soothfastness 
(truth)   establisheth  the  government  of  the  people;  that  is  the  king's 
righteousness,   that   he  oppress  not  wrongfully  the   poor   nor  rich,  but 
judge  every  man    equitably.       He   shall    protect  widows    and   orphans, 
and  suppress  stealing,  and  forebid  whoredom,  and  banish  thieves  from 
his  kingdom  ;   and  withal,  he  shall  put  down  witchcraft,  and  he  shall 
not   tolerate    soothsaying.      The  wise  men    shall  advise   him   and  he 
shall  never  be  passionate.     He  shall  ever  protect  God's  minsters,  and 
feed  the  poor,  and  boldly  fight  against  an  invading  host,  and  preserve 
his  kingdom.     He  shall  appoint  him  trustworthy  men  for  sheriffs,  and  for 
the  fear  of  God  lead  a  good  life,  and  be  unmoved  in  tribulation  and  meek 
in  peace  (prosperity),  and  shall  not  suffer  his  offspring  to  be  unrighteous. 
He  shall  pray  at  the  appointed  times,  and  ere   meal  times  shall  not 
touch  meat,  for  that  it   is    written,    "  Woe  to  the  people  where   the 
king    is    a   child,    and  where    the    leaders    eat    in   the    early  morning 
unlawfully  !"      If  the  king  will  with  carefulness  observe   these   afore- 
said  precepts,  then   shall  his   kingdom  be  prosperous  in  this  life,  and 
after   this    life  he    shall    go   to    the    eternal   life    for    his    piety.       And 
if  he  disregard   these  precepts    and   this  lore   (instruction),  then    shall 
his  land  be   ever  and  anon  impoverished  either  by  war  or  by  famine, 
or    by   disease   or    by    tempests,    or   by    wild    beasts.      Let    the   king 


heore  is  lieouenriche  niurlrSe.     Da  becrS  wrecchan  on  gaste  be  of  the  poor 

in  spirit. 

for  godes  luue  beod  milcle  and  admode.  for  bon  be  bes  modes 
edmodnesse  mei  bi3etan  godes  riche  re^er  }>en  be  haueleste  be  of 
henSe  cume?.  Gewisliche  ba  richan  be  rihtliche  libba^  ma3en 
beon  bitwixen  godes  wreccha?i  jif  beo  edmodnesse  habbe^  and 
ouerflowendnesse  forleta^  swa  swa  be  king  dauid  cwe^  bi  him 
seoluen.  Ego  egenus  &  pauper  sum  ?  deus  adiuua  me.  bet  is.  Ic 
em  barua  and  wrecche.  ac  e;od  fulst  bu  me.     De  moclie  wreccha  The  proud 

'  poor  is  ricli 

for   bis  modes   upahefednesse  is  to   richan   itald   rihtliche   on  before  God. 

boken  and  be  edmeda  riche  J>ah  he  ehte  habbe  mei  beon  godes 

wrecche.  2if  he  gode  icwemeS.     [pie  nilne^e  unbeau  is  bet  be  9.  of  the  king 

.  .  .     w,)0  ^ un* 

king  beo  unrih[t]\vis.     De  king  brS  icoren  to  ban  be  him  cnS  his  righteous. 

noma.     *  King  is  ihaten  rex  f  bet  is  wisegend  for  he  seal  wissian    *  [Foi.  43&.] 

mid  wisdome  his  folke  and  unriht  aleggen  and   bene  ileaue  of  the  word 

areren.  benne  bi$  hit  ermlic.  ^if  he  brS  nnrihtwis.  for  he  ne  mei 

nenne  irihtlechan  '.  yd  he  bi^  him  seolf  unrihtwis.     Des  kingges 

rihtwisnesse  arere^  his  kine  setle  and  his  sodfestnesse  ista}>ele$ 

bes  folkes  stere.    Det  is  kinges  rihtwisnesse  bet  he  mid  \v0h3e  ne 

of-sitte  ne  ermne  ne  eadine.  ac  elche  men  deme  riht.     He  seal  The  duties  of 

a  good  king. 

bhverian  widewan  and  steopbern  and  stale  aleggen  and  heordom 
for-beodan.  anil  jjeouas  addriuan.  of  his  erde  mid  alle  and  he 
seal  wicche  creft  aleggan  and  \vi3elunge  ne  geman  wise  men  him 
scule  readan  and  he  ne  seal  beo  nefre  wemod  godes  minist[re]  *   *  The  con. 

p  #L     J        traction  is 

he  seal  mundian  efre.  and  fedan  wrecchan.  and  festliche  winnan   scarcely 

legible  ;  ? 

wr5  onsisend-ne  here,  and  halclan  his  ebel.    He  seal  so^feste  men  r^d 

*  '  rnmstre. 

setten  him  to  irefen.  and  for  godes  eie  libban  his  lif  rihtliche 

and  beon  on  erfe^nesse  anred  and  edmod  on  stilnesse.  and  his 

of[s]pringe  ne  i|>auie  bet  hi  beon  unrihtwise.  he  seal  hine  ibidan 

on  a-sette  tidan 2.  and  er  meltimaw  metes  ne  arinan.  for  hit  is  a-    2  MS.  ridan. 

writen  bet  wa  bere  beode  ber  be  king  brS  child,  and  ber  ba  aldor-   woe  to  the 

r  rrrro  .  .        people  when 

men  etaS  on  erne  rna^en  ula3eliche3.     Gif  be  king  wule  mid  tlie  ^"s is  a 
carfulnesse  haldan  bas  bebodan '.  benne  brS  liis  riche  isundful  x- 16-> 

1  '  3-<  unla3e- 

on  Hue.  and  titer  bisse  liue  he  seal  faran  to  ban  eche  Hue  for  his  pd»e. 
treowscipe.    And  3if  he  forsihS  })as  isetnesse*  and  }>as  lare  '.  bene    *[Foi.  44a.] 
brS  his  ercl  ihened  oft  and  ilome  erSer  3c  on  hei^unge.  3c  on  ShaVbefanhat 

,  ,  •     •  i  Mil  the  country  of 

hungre.  3e  on  cwalme.  3c  on  umwidere.  30  on  wnde  deoran.   a  bad  king. 


take  heed  how  it  is  written  in  books,  if  he  holdeth  not  righteous- 
ness, that  even  as  he  is  exalted  on  his  throne  before  other  men,  so 
shall  he  be  hurled  down  to  the  lowest  torment  under  the  unrighteous 
devil,  whom  he  previously  obeyed  and  pleased.  The  tenth  abuse  is 
that  a  bishop  is  negligent.  Episcopos  is  a  Greek  name,  which 
is  in  Latin  speculator,  and  in  English  watchman,  for  he  is  ordained 
to  the  end  that  he  may  overlook  the  lewd  with  his  superintendence 
(care),  as  God  himself  saith  to  Ezekiel  the  prophet,  Speculatorem  dedi 
te  domui  Israel ;  that  is,  I  have  made  thee  to  be  a  watchman  unto  the 
house  of  my  people  Israel,  that  thou  shouldst  hear  my  word  and  shew 
them  the  speech  of  my  mouth,  and  if  thou  wilt  not  tell  the  un- 
righteous of  his  unrighteousness,  then  the  unrighteous  shall  die  in  his 
unrighteousness,  and  in  indignation  I  shall  require  of  thee  his  blood  ; 
and  if  thou  warnest  the  unrighteous  man  and  he  will  not  turn  from  his 
sins  through  thee,  he  dieth  in  his  unrighteousness,  and  thy  soul  shall 
be  quit.  Thus  speaketh  our  Lord  to  bishops.  Now  if  the  bishop 
be  negligent  when  he  is  God's  messenger  and  ordained  as  instructor 
to  the  lay-folk,  then  shall  many  souls  perish,  and  he  himself  forth- 
with for  his  negligence.  But  the  people  are  blessed  through  a  wise 
bishop,  who  declareth  to  them  God's  law  and  tends  them  under  God, 
as  a  good  shepherd,  so  that  they  may  be  saved  and  that  he  may  receive  the 
reward.  The  eleventh  abuse  is  that  the  people  be  without  instruction. 
Many  follies  there  are  where  no  discipline  is,  and  where  the  foolish 
man  is  bold  and  where  error  reigns  supreme.  There  shall  it  be  hard 
for  any  wise  man  to  dwell,  and  therefore  saith  the  Psalmist,  speaking 
in  these  words,  Apprehendite  disciplinam  nequando  irascatur  Dominus 
et  pereatis  de  via  justa ;  that  is,  in  English,  Receive  correction  lest 
God  be  angry  with  you,  and  ye  then  perish  from  the  right  way. 
Also  the  apostle  Paul  saith  in  his  Epistle,  Continue  in  discipline,  for 
ye  shall  be  as  fornicators  if  ye  live  without  correction.  Again,  the 
prophet  Isaiah  concerning  the  same  says,  Quiescite  agere  perverse,  discite 
bene  facere  ;  that  is,  Cease  unrighteous  deeds,  and  learn  to  do  good  ;  and 
David  saith  also,  Declina  a  malo  et  fac  bonum  ;  that  is,  Turn  from  evil 
and  do  good.  If  thou  be  evil,  turn  thee  from  evil,  lest  thou  perish  at  the 
last  incorrigible.  The  twelfth  abuse  is  that  the  people  be  without  law. 
"We  may  not  observe  Moses'  law  in  the  olden  manner  after  our  Lord's 


Wite  ec  be  king  hu  hit  is  icwe^en  on  boken.  jif  he  rihtwisnesse 

ne  halt.  bet  swa  swa  he  is  on  heuene 1  on  his  kine  setle  to-foran     l  read  on- 


o^er  menne?*  f  swa  he  brS  eft  inibered  on  ban  neobemeste  pinan 

under  ban  unrihtwise  deoule  be  he  er  iherd  and  icwemde.     [pie   10.  of  a  neg- 
ligent bishop. 

teou^e  unbeau  is  bet  biscop  beo  ;jemeles.     Episco/ms  is  gerkisc   Bishop  is  a 

.  .  Greek  word — 

noma  bet  is  on  boc  leden  speculator,  and  is  on  enghsc  scawere.   its  meaning. 
for  he  is  iset  to  bon  bet  he  seal  ouerscawian  mid  his  jeme  ba 
lewedan.  swa  god  seolf  cwe^  to  ezechiele  ban  witegan.  Specxxla- 
torem  dedi  te  domui  israel.  bet  is.  Ic  be  sef  to  scawere  mine  folke  The  Lord's 

'  words  to 

israeles  hirede.  bet  bu  ihere  mine  word  and  of  mine  muSe  mine  bishops. 

speche  heom  cuSe.  and  ^if  bu  ban  unrihtwisan  nult  his  unriht- 

wisnesse  seggan  f   benne  swelt  be  unrihtwise  on  his  unrihtwis- 

nesse.  and  ic  of-ga  et  be  mid  groman  his  blod  and  •$&  bu  wernast 

bane  unrihtwise  vaon  and  he  nule  icherran  from  his  sunnaw  burh 

be  f  he  swelt  on  his  unrihtwisnesse  and  bine  saule  br$  alesed. 

Dus  speked  ure  drihten  to  biscopaw.      Nu   ;if  be  biscop  brS   a  negligent 

bishop  causes 

semeles  benne  he  godes  budel  is  and  to  larbeawe  iset  ban  leawede   many  souls  to 

'  .  .  perish. 

folke  f  benne  losia^  fele  saulen  and  he  seolf  forS  mid  for  his 
jemeleste.  ac  bet  folc  br§  iseli  burh  snotmie  biscop  be  heom  serS 
godes  lare.  and  halt  heom  under  gode  swa  god  heoste2  bet  heo    2»-«id 


beon  ihaldene  and  he  habbe3  be  mede.     [p]e  endleofte  unbeau  is    *  originally 


folc  beo  butan  steore.  fela  stuntnesse  beoS  f    ber  *  nan  steore  n.  of  the 
ne  brS.  and  ber  be  dusie  mon  brS  briste.  and  ber  be  dwolunge  out  instruc- 

.  .  .  7  tion. 

nxa^  f   bere  brS  uuel  to  wunienne  em  wise  men.  and  lor  bon    *  [Koi.  44&.i 

cwe¥>  be  salmwurhta  mid  bise4  wurden  cleopiende.   Apprehendite    *  ms.  wise. 

disciplinam  neqxx&ndo  irascatur  dominus  <k  pereatis  de  tiia  iusta. 

bet  is  on  englisc.    Vnderfo^  steore  bi  les  ^e  god  iwurSe  wra^  wrS 

eou  and  se  benne  losian  of  ban  rihtan  weie.    Ec  be  apostel  paulus  The  words  of 

the  apostle 

cwe%  on  his  pistel  Duiu55-wunia:S  on  steore  and  je  beo^  swilche  p»«i. 

5  ?  Durh. 

forlijeres.  ;if  $e  libbaS  butan  steore.  Eft  be  witega  ysaias  bi  ban 
ilean  cweS.  Quiescite  agere  peruerse.  discite  bene  facere.  bet  is 
iswike1^  unrihtwisra  dedan  '.  and  leornia^  god  to  wurchenne.  and 
dauid  cwe^  ec.  Declina  a  malo  <k  /ac  bonuva.  bet  is.  Bull  from 
uuele  and  do  god.  Gif  bu  uuel  were  f  iwend  be  from  uuele.  bi 
les  be  ^u  steorles  losie  on  ende.     [pel  twelfta  uivSeau  is.  bet  folc   12-  of  the 

'  L       J  '  people  with- 

beo  butan  la^e.  we  ne  moten  halden  nu  Moises  laje  on  ba  aide   <w*i»*- 

118  THE    FIFTH    SUNDAY    IX    LENT. 

coming,  but  we  shall  fulfil  to  the  best  of  our  ability  the  Saviour's  behests, 
and  they  are  for  a  law  to  us,  for  we  are  ever  without  God  if  we 
observe  not  God's  behests.  Many  ways  there  are,  as  the  Book  of  Wisdom 
declares,  which  men  think  right,  but  they  nevertheless  at  last  leadeth 
to  death  those  that  foolishly  follow  them.  He  who  forsaketh  God's 
law,  which  is  our  way,  he  shall  in  various  ways  fall  into  many  errors. 
Christ  himself  is  the  way,  as  he  said  of  himself,  Ego  sum  via,  Veritas 
et  vita ;  that  is,  I  am  the  way,  and  the  truth,  and  the  eternal  life ; 
no  man  may  come  to  my  heavenly  Father  but  through  me.  But  we  are 
through  Christ  brought  to  heaven  if  we  keep  his  ordinances.  Those  who 
live  without  God's  law  and  God's  ordinances,  they  are  ever  dwelling 
without  God.  The  Lord  himself  promised  this  to  all  those  that  observe 
his  behests,  Ecce  ego  vobiscum  sum  omnibus  diebus  usque  ad  consum- 
mationem  seculi ;  that  is,  I  myself  am  with  you  all  days  unto  the  end 
of  this  world.  May  the  Saviour  direct  us  ever  to  his  will,  so  that 
our  souls  may  return  again  to  him  after  our  life  (here)  to  the  eternal 
life,  and  that  he  may  receive  our  souls  which  previously  he  sent  into 
the  body.  Quod  ipse  prestare  dignetur  qui  vivit  et  regnat  Deus  per 
omnia  secula  seculorum.     Amen. 



TT'actus  est  Films  Dei  omnibus  sibi  obtemperantibus  causa  salutis 
eternce,  appellatus  a  Deo  pontifex  juxta  ordinem  Melchisedech. 
Our  Lord's  holy  passion,  that  is,  his  holy  suffering  which  he  for 
mankind  underwent,  is  now  come  in,  and  the  holy  writ  admonishes 
and  bids  us  that  we  be  mindful  of  the  torment  that  our  Lord  endured  for 
us  at  this  time  ;  and  therefore  we  must  ever  honour  him  with  all  our 
hearts  and  with  all  our  minds,  and  chiefly  at  this  holy  season  which 
is  now  come  to  us ;  and  we  must  thank  him  for  the  great  compassion 


wisan  efter  ure  helendes  to-cume.  ac  we  sculen  jefullan  swa  we 
best  mujen  bes  helendes  biboda.  and  ba  beoS  us  for  \a$e  for  we 
beo%>  efre  butan  gode  f  sif  we  godes  bibodan  ne  balded.     Monie  Worldly  «is- 

°  "  °  dom  leadeth 

bewas  l  beo£  swa  swa  be  wisdom  cleopa^.  be  monnew  bunched  t0  death- 
rihte.  ac  hi  bah  ledaS  to  de^e  on  ende  ba  be  heom  duseliche 
fo^ia^.     De  be  godes  laje  forlet  be  is  ure  wei '.   he  seal  misliche 
faraw  on  monie  gedwilban.     Crist  seolf  is  be  weie  I  swa  he  seide   Christ  is  ti.e 

i  .  ,  .        T1  .  .  .       T  ..  wy,  the 

bi  him  Ego  sum  uia  uemtas  &  uita.  \et  is.  Ic  em  be  wei  and  ba   truth,  and  the 

so^festnesse  and  \et  eche  lif  ne  mei  nan  man  bicuman  to  mine 

heouewliche  federe  butan   burh  me.   ac  we  beoS  burh  crist  to 

heouene  ibroht '.  y.f  we  his  bigenge  halda^.    *  Da  be  butan  godes   *  [Foi.  45a.] 

la^e  and  godes  isetnesse  libbe^  f  ba  beo£  butan  gode  efre  wuni- 

ende.     Drihten  seolf  bihat  bis  alle  bon  be  halde^i  his  biboden.    God's  pro- 
mises to  those 
Ecce  ego  uobiscum  sum  omnibus  diebus  usque  ad  consummacio-   who  keeP  1|U 


nem  seculi.  \>et  is.  ic  seolf  beo  mid  eow  alle  dajen  abet  endunge 

bissere  weorlde.     De  helen[de]  us  iwissie  to  his  willan  efre  bet 

ure  saule  moten  eft-simian  to  him  efter  ure  Hue  to  ban  eche  Hue. 

\et  he  ure  saule  underfo  be  he  er  asende  to  ban  lichoman.    Quod2     2  MS.  quoS. 

ipse  prestare  dignetur  qui  ?tiuit  <k  regnat  c/eus  per  omnia  secula 

seculoruxa.     Amen. 



~  T^lactus  est  filius  dei  omnibus  sibi  obtemperantibus  causa  The  text. 
L        J   salutis  eterne  i  apellatus  a  deo  pontifex  iuxsta  ordinem 

Vre  drihtnes  halie  passiun.  ]>et  is  his  halie  browunge  be  he  The  comme- 

....  moration  of 

for  moncunne  underfeng.  is  nu  icumew  in.  and  be  halie  writ  us  our  Lord's 


muneja^  and  hat.  \>et  we  beon  imundie  of  bere  pine  be  ure 
drihten  bolede  for  us  on  bisse  timan.  and  for-bi  we  sculen  hine 
efre  mid  alle  ure  heorte.  and  mid  alle  ure  mode  herian  and  Christ  is  to  be 

praised  speci- 

swibest  on  bissere  halie  tide  be  is  nu  icumen  to  us.  and  we  a11* at  *•» 

120  THE   FIFTH    SUNDAY    IN    LENT. 

which  he  manifested  towards  us,  when  he  spared  not  Jesus  Christ  his 
own  Son,  but  gave  him  to  death  for  mankind,  as  we  sing  in  books, 
Proprio  Filio  suo  non  pepercit  Deus,  sed  pro  nobis  omnibus  tradidit 
ilium;  that  is,  God  spared  not  his  own  Son,  but  gave  him  to  death 
for  us  all.  Again,  the  Apostle  saith  in  his  Epistle,  Christus  /actus  est 
pro  nobis  obediens  Patri,  usque  ad  mortem,  mortem  autem  crucis — Christ, 
God's  Son,  was  obedient  to  the  heavenly  Father  to  the  death,  and 
even  to  such  a  death  as  ye  may  see  on  the  rood-token  before  you. 
With  iron  nails  he  was  fastened  on  the  cross,  and  with  the  spear's 
point  pierced  to  the  heart,  and  with  a  crown  of  thorns  his  head  was 
crowned,  so  that  the  red  blood  flowed  out  on  every  side j  and  the  folk 
that  thus  treated  him  kneeled  before  him  in  mockery,  and  greeted 
him,  and  in  scorn  called  him  king.  Some  there  were  that  bound 
his  eyes,  and  with  their  hands  smote  him  smartly  on  the  face,  and 
bade  him  tell  who  it  was  that  smote  him.  This  torture  and  many 
others  our  Lord  suffered  from  the  heathen  folk  at  this  time,  as  the 
prophet  had  foretold  when  he  said  of  him,  0  vos  omnes  qui  transitis 
2)er  viam,  attendite  et  videte  si  est  dolor  similis  dolori  ?neo ;  that  is, 
All  ye  that  pass  by  the  way,  abide  and  understand  and  look  (see)  whether 
any  man's  sorrow  be  like  my  sorrow.  Among  all  the  sufferings  that 
he  suffered  for  us,  he  opened  never  once  his  mouth  wickedly  against 
any  of  them,  as  the  Scripture  said  of  him  long  before,  Dominus  tanquam 
ovis  ad  victimam  ductus  est,  et  non  aperuit  os  smtm— Our  Lord  was 
led  to  the  slaughter  as  one  doth  a  sheep,  and  he  never  then  opened 
his  mouth.  He  willingly  suffered  for  us  and  took  our  sins  ;  for  if 
it  were  not  his  will  (so  to  do)  no  death  nor  suffering  could  hurt  him, 
as  the  book  saith,  Oblatus  est  quia  ipse  voluit,  et  peccata  ipse  portavit ; 
that  is,  our  Lord  was  offered  because  that  he  desired  it,  and  bore 
our  sins  ;  and  nevertheless  he  did  not  compel  the  heathen  folk  to  put  him 
to  death,  but  the  devil  instigated  them  to  the  work,  and  God  per- 
mitted that  (it)  for  the  redemption  of  all  faithful  men  ;  and  the  devil 
blinded  their  hearts  so  that  they  could  not  know  our  Lord  who  was 
amongst  them.     Quia  si  principes  mundi  hujus  Christum  cognovissent 


sculan  bonkian  him  bere  muchele  mildheortnesse  be  he  dude  on 
us  ba  he  na  sparede  na  ikesu  crist  his  a3ene  sune  ac  salde  hine 
to  de^e  for  moucunne  al  swa  we  singed  on  boken.  proprio  filio   God  spared 

not  his  own 

suo  non  pepercit  deus.     Sed  pro  nobis  omnibus  tr&didit  ilium,   son. 

Det  is.  God  ne  sparede  na  his  a3ene  berne '.   ac  3ef  hine  to  cwale 

for  us  alle.  eft  be  apostel  serS  on  his  pistel.   Cristus  /actus  est 

pro  nobis  obediens  patri  usque  ad  mortem  mortem  autem  crucis. 

Crist  godes  sune  wes  ibuhsum  )>an  heuenliche  federe  to  ba  de^e.   of  Christ's 

obedience  and 

and  bet  to  swulche  *de:Se  swa  %e  nia3en  iseon  on  bere  rode  tacne  death. 

*  [Fol.  456  ] 

to-foren  eou.     Mid  irenen  neilen  he  wes  on  bere  rode  ifestned. 

and  mid  speres  orde  to  bere  heorte  istungen.  and  mid  bornene 

crune  his  heaued  wes  icruned.  swa  bet  bet  rede  blod  seh  ut  on 

iwulche  half,  and  bet  folc  be  hine  bus  makede  knewede  to-forew. 

him  on  bismer  and  hine  greite  and  cleopede  king  on  bismer.   of  ins  tor- 
ments on  the 
Suy/mie  ber  weren  pet  his  e3an  bundaw  and  hine  on  J>et  neb  mid   cross. 

heore  hondan  stercliche  beoten  and  hehten  hine  aredan '.  hwa 

hit  were  bet  hine  smite.     Das  pine  and  monie  o^re  ure  drihten. 

bolede  of  ^an  he^ene  folke  in  bisse  timan.  al  swa  be  prophete 

heffede  iboded  ba  he  seide  hi  him.   0  uos  o?nnes  qui  tr&nsitis  £>er 

uiarti  f  attendite  &  uidete  si  est  dolor  similis  dolori  nxeo.  bet  is 

Ge  alle  be  fera^  bene  wei '.   abida^  and  undei'stonda^  a/nd  lokiaS 

hew^er  enies  nxmnes  sar  beo  iliche  mine  sare.     Imong  alle  bere   of  his  for- 


pine  be  he  for  us  bolede  f  ne  undude  he  nefre  ene  his  mu?  mid 
uuele  to-3eines  nan  of  heom  al  sw"a  bet  writ  seide  bi  him  muchel 
to-foran.  Dominus  tanqu&m  ouis  ad  uictimam  ductus  est  i   &  The  words  of 


non  ajjeruit  os  suum.     Vre  drihten  wes  iled  to  sle3e  al  swa  me 

dede  a  seep  a/nd  he  nefre  ba  ne  undude  his  muS.     His  al^enes 

bonkes  he  browede  for  us  and  binom  ure  sunnan.  for  ^if  hit  his 

willa  nere  f  ne  mahte  him  nan  de^  ne  nan  pine  denan1  f  al  swa    i?/orderian. 

be  boc  serS.  Oblatus  est  quia  ipse  uoluit  f  &  peccata  ipse  por- 

tauit.  bet  is  ure  drihten  wes  iofired  for-bi  pe  he  hit  walde  and 

aber  ure  sunnan.  and  bah  ne  nedde  he  na  bet  he^ene  folc  to  his 

cwale  ac  be  deofel  heom   tuhte  to  ban  werke  and  god  ibeafede  The  devil 

egged  on  the 

bet  to  *  alesendnesse  alles  ileffulles  moncunnes.   and  be  deofel  Jews  to  put 

'  '  Christ  to 

ablende  heore  heortan  bet  heo  ne  cunnan  icnawen  ure  helend  be  death- 
wes  imong    heom.   Quia  si  pri?icipes  mundi   huius    Christum 


nunquam  ilium  crucifixissent ;  that  is  to  say,  If  the  head-men  (princes) 
of  this  world  had  known  Christ,  they  would  never  have  fastened  him 
to  the  cross  for  our  salvation.  Christ's  righteousness  (justice)  is  so 
great  that  he  would  not  have  taken  mankind  by  force  out  of  the  devil's 
power,  unless  he  (the  devil)  had  been  guilty ;  but  he  grievously  sinned 
when  he  incited  and  beguiled  the  folk  to  put  to  death  Christ  the  Son  of 
Almighty  God ;  and  then  through  his  precious  death  we  were  delivered 
from  eternal  death,  if  we  destroy  not  now  ourselves  through  sins.  Then 
it  happened  to  the  devil  as  it  doth  to  the  maw  of  the  fish  that  sees 
the  bait  but  not  the  hook  which  sticketh  in  the  bait ;  then  is  he 
greedy  for  the  bait,  and  swallows  the  hook  along  with  the  bait.  So 
was  it  with  the  devil.  He  saw  the  manhood  in  Christ,  and  not  the 
divine  nature  ;  wherefore  he  enticed  the  heathen  folk  to  his  (Christ's) 
death,  and  then  felt  the  hook,  which  was  Christ's  divinity.  Then  Christ 
proceeded  to  hell  and  bound  the  old  devil,  and  took  from  him  Adam 
the  first  created  man,  and  his  wife  Eve,  and  all  those  who  of  their 
kin  in  this  life  pleased  God.  He  took  not  all  those  who  were  therein, 
but  only  one  portion,  as  one  taketh  a  bite  out  of  an  apple,  for  it 
was  written  through  the  prophet,  0  mors,  ero  mors  tua,  morsus  tuus 
ero  in  ferae ;  that  is,  Thou  death,  I  will  be  thy  death,  and  thou  hell, 
I  will  be  thy  sting.  And  then  the  devil  felt  the  hook  which  he  had 
before  greedily  swallowed  ;  for  our  Lord  arose  from  death  on  the  Sunday, 
which  we  call  Easter  Day,  which  will  be  a  fortnight  to-day,  and 
delivered  us,  if  we  will,  from  the  everlasting  death  which  is  in  hell,  into 
which  we  had  fallen  through  the  guilt  of  our  forefathers.  But  we  shall 
now  do  as  the  man  that  is,  after  Christ  himself,  called  Christian.  The 
wit  and  the  wisdom  which  our  Lord  hath  sent  us,  let  us  spend  it  in 
God's  will  and  in  God's  works,  and  for  our  own  advantage  let  us 
praise  our  Lord  who  delivered  us  and  made  us  free,  who  previously 
were  slaves  ;  and  made  us,  who  ere  were  thralls,  his  own  sons.  Let 
us  love  him  with  all  our  hearts,  with  all  our  souls,  with  all  our 
minds,  and  with  all  our  strength,  as  the  apostle  St.  John  admonishes 
us,  Diligamus  Deum  quia  ipse  prior  dilexit  nos  ;  that  is,  Let  us  love 
our  Lord,  for  he  loved  us  before  we  loved  him.  Great  love  he  showed 
for  us  when  he  redeemed  us  ;  he  had  no  need  of  us,  but  we  had 
great  need  of  him.     Moreover  we  ought  to   do  more.     We  must  love 


cognouissent  nimcpiam  ilium  cmcifixissent.  Det  is  to  seggane. 
Gif  ba  hefclmeii  of  bissere  worlde  hefden  icnawen  crist  f  nefden 
heo  nefre  ifestned  hiiie  on  rode  for  ure  hele.  Cristes  rihtwis- 
nesse  is  swa  muchel  bet  lie  nolde  niman  mowcun  nedunga  of  ^an 
deofle  butan  he  hit  formilte.  ac  he  hit  forgulte  eteliche  ba  be  he  How  the  devil 

1        '  sinned  against 

tuhte  and  spuhte  bet  folc  to  cristes  cwalef   bes  almihtie  godes   dn*t. 

sune.  and  ba  burh  his  deorewurSe  de^e  Ave  werew  alesede  from 

ban  eche  dea^e.  3*f  we  us   seolue  nu  ne  fordirS  burh  sunnan. 

Da  itimede  ban  deofle  alswa  de^  malne  fisce  be  isrS  bet  es.  and  The  devil  like 

'  }  '  '  a  fish  that 

ne  isihj  na  bene  lioc  be  stica^  on  ban  ese.  benne  brS  he  gredi  bes  swallows  the 
eses  and  forswo^e^  bene  hoc  forS  mid  ban  ese.     Swa  wes  bon  hook- 
deofle.     He  iseh  ba  monnisnesse  on  criste  and  nauht  ba  god-  He  saw 

'  *  Christ's  man- 

cuwnesse.     Da  tuhte  he  ^et  he^ene  folc  to  his  slese  and  ifelde  ''?od:  Vut  ,10t 

J  Ins  divine 

ba  bene  hoc  bet  wes  cristes  godcumnesse1.  be  ferde  to  helle  and  nature- 
iwra^  bene  aide  deouel  and  nom  of  him  ada??i  bene  frumscepene 
mon.  and  his  wif  euan  and  alle  ba  be  of  heore  cunne  on  bis  liue 
gode  icwemden.  Ne  nom  he  na  alle  ba  be  ber  inne  weren 
ah  ane  dale  alswa  me  bit  of  ane  epple  f  for  hit  wes  awriten 
burh  ban  prophefe.  0  mors  ero  mors  tua  morsus  tuus  ero  tn- 
ferne.  bet  is.  Du  dea^  ic  wulle  beon  bin  de^  '.  and  bu  helle  ic 
wulle  beon  bin  bite,  and  ba  ifelde  be  deofel  bene  hoc.  be  he  er 
gredliche    forswealh    for  ure   drihten  *aras  of  dea^e  on   bene    *[Foi.  466.] 

.  .  .  .  On  Easter 

sunnen  dei  be  we  hateti  easter  dei.  be  nu  brS  to  dei  on  fowertene  Day  Christ 

redeemed  us. 

niht.  and  alesde  us  511  we  wulle^  of  ban  eche  dea^e  be  is  on 
helle  be  we  weren  in  bifolen  burh  ure  eldra  gult.  ah  we  sculen 
don  nu  al  swa  be  mon  be  brS  efter  criste  selue  cristene  mon 
inemned  bet  wit  and  bene  wisdom  be  ure  drihten  us  sende 
aspenen  we  hit  on  godes  willan  and  on  godes  wercan.  and  us 
seluan  to  helpe  herien  we  ure  drihten  be  us  alesde  and  makede 
us  freo  of  beowan  and  of  brelan  his  al^ene  bern.     Luuian  we   Let  us  praise 

.  .  .  .  him  with  all 

nine  mid  aire  heorte.  mid  aire  saulen.  mid  alle  mode,  mid  alle   our  heart, 

soul,  mind, 

meine  alswa  be  apostel  Sancte  lohannes  us  muna^.  Diligamus  and  Bright. 
deum  quia  ipse  prior  dilexit  nos.     Det  is  luuian  we  ure  drihten. 
for  bon  be  he  luuede  us  er  we  hine.     Muchele  luue  he  us  cudde  ba 
he  us  alesde.     Nefde  he  nane  neode  to  us  ac  we  hefden  muchele 
neode  to  him.    Git  we  sculen  mare,  we  sculan  luuian  ure  nehstan 


our  neighbour — that  is,  all  Christian  folk — as  ourselves,  for  we  are 
all  brethren.  We  all  have  one  father  in  heaven,  and  we  all  address 
him  and  say,  Pater  noster  qui  es  in  ccelis — Our  Father  which  art  in 
heaven.  None  of  us  may  say  "  my  Father,"  nor  "  thy  Father,"  but 
"  our  Father  that  art  in  heaven."  As  boldly  may  the  poorest  man  call 
God  his  father,  as  the  richest  man  of  the  land,  wherefore  no  man 
ought  to  bear  malice  nor  hatred  towards  any  Christian  man,  as  St.  John 
saith  in  his  Epistle,  Qui  odit  fratrem  suum  manet  in  niorte — The  man 
who  hateth  his  brother  abideth  in  death.  And  again,  the  same  apostle 
saith,  Qui  dicit  se  diligere  dominum  et  fratrem  suum  odit,  mendax 
est — The  man  who  saith  that  he  loveth  God,  and  hateth  his  brother, 
is  a  liar ;  for  if  a  man  loveth  not  his  brother  whom  he  seeth,  how 
can  he  love  well  his  Lord  whom  he  seeth  not  1  Among  the  great  lessons 
which  our  Lord  taught  his  apostles,  he  taught  them  even  this  before 
other  things,  and  said,  Hoc  est  preceptum  meum  ut  diligatis  invicem 
sicut  dilexi  vos — This  is  my  command  and  behest,  that  ye  love  one 
another  as  I  have  loved  you.  And  therefore  shall  every  man  love 
another,  Non  verbo  neque  lingua  sed  opere  et  veritate ;  that  is,  Not 
alone  with  words,  nor  with  the  tongue,  but  even  in  deed  and  in 
truth.  And  may  our  Lord  and  Redeemer  grant  us  all  that  we  in 
this  life  so  observe  his  behests  and  commands,  that  we  may  have 
for  our  reward  the  bliss  of  heaven's  kingdom.  Auxiliante  domino 
nostro  Jesu  Christo,  qui  vivit  et  regnat  per  omnia  secula  seculorum. 



f^thristus  passus  est  pro  nobis,  vobis  relinquens  exemplum,  ut  sequimini 
vestigia  ejus,  &e.  All  that  we  read  and  sing  at  this  time  in  holy 
church,  it  all  appertains  to  God's  love  and  to  God's  praise.  The 
songs  which  we  now  sing  are  blissful,  for  they  are  made  of  the  heavenly 
bliss  which  was  opened  to  us  at  this  time  when  our  Lord  arose  from 



bet  is  al  cristene  folc  alswa  us  seoluan.  for  alle  we  becrS  ibro^ran.    Love  thy 

neighbour  as 

Alle  we  habbe^  enne  feder  on  heouene  and  alle  we  cleopia^  to   thyself. 

him  and  segga^.  Pater  woster  qui  es  in  celis.     Vre  feder  be  ert 

in  heouene.     Ne  serS  ure  nan  min1  feder  ne  bin  feder  ah  ure     '  n  is  partly 


feder  be  ert  in  heouene  alswa  baldeliche  mei  be  wrechesta  mon 
clepian  drihtan  him  to  federe  swa  be  richeste  mon  of  ban  londe 
for-bi  ah  nan  mon  to  beoran  nrS  ne  onde  to  nane  cristene 
mownef  al  swa  Sancte  iohan  serS  in  his  pistelle.  Qui  odit  fratrem  He  who  hates 

his  brother 

suuvo.  manet  in  morte.     De  mon  be  heta^  his  broker  he  wuna^   loves  not  God. 

in   dea^e  and  ef(t)   be  ilea  apostel  serS.  Qui  dicit  se  diligere 

dommiun  &  fratrem.  suum  odit  f  mendax  est.     De  mon  ^e  ser$ 

bet  he  luua^  *god.  and  hate^  his  broker  he  is  lil^are.  for  be    *[Foi.  47a.] 

mow  be  ne  luua^  na  his  brooer  be  he  isi£>.  hu  mei  he  luuian  wel 

ure  drihten  be  he  naut  ne  isilrS '.     Imong  ban  muchela  wisdoma 

be  ure  drihten  lerde  his  apo^les  he  tahte  heom.  bis  swulche  to- 

foran  o^ran  bingan  f   and  cwe^.  Hoc  est  preceptum  meum  ut   Christ  bade 

.us  love  one 

diligatis  inuicem  sicut  dilexi  uos.     Dis  is  min  bibode  anil  min   another, 

heste.  bet  ye  luuian  eou  bitwixan  alswa  ic  luuede  eou.  and  for-bi 

seal  iwile  mow.  o^erne  luuian.  Non  uerbo  7ieque  lingua  sed  opere 

&  ueritate.  bet  is  naut  one  mid  worde  ne  mid  tun^e  i  ac  ec  mid  in  deed  and  in 

1  °  truth. 

worke  and  mid  so^festnesse.  and  ure  drihten  and  ure  alesend 
iunne  us  alien  bet  Ave  swa  on  bisse  Hue  ma3en  his  hest  and  his 
biboden  halden  f  bet  we  nioten  habben  to  mede  heouenariches 
blisse.  Auxiliante  domino  nos^ro  ihesu  Christo  qui  uiuit  & 
regnat  per  omwia  secula  seculorum.  amew. 



Christies  passus  est  pro  nobis  uobis  relinquens  exemplum.   ut  The  text, 
......  .,  ,    IPet.  ii.21. 

sequimmi  uestigia  eius  &  cetera.  Al  bet  me  ret  and 
singed  on  bisse  timan  in  halie  chirche.  al  hit  bilimpe^  to  godes 
luue  '.   and  to  godes  herunge.     Da  songes  ba  we  nu  singed  beo^   Songs  of 

.  .  praise  to  be 

bhsfulle  for  heo  bo^  makede  of  bere  heouenliche  blisse  be  us  wes   sung  at  this 



the  dead,  and  delivered  us  from  eternal  death,  and  will  bring  us  (here- 
after) to  everlasting  life.  Great  love  our  Lord  shewed  us  when  he, 
who  is  and  ever  was,  without  beginning,  true  God,  became  for  our 
help  true  man.  In  similitudinem  hominum  /actus  et  habitu  inventus 
ut  homo;  that  is,  He  was  made  in  the  likeness  of  man,  and  enclosed 
in  flesh  as  man ;  and  much  more  love  he  shewed  us  when  he  redeemed 
us,  for  it  is  written,  Nihil  nobis  nasci  profuit,  nisi  redimi  profuisset ; 
that  is,  It  profited  us  nothing  that  we  were  born,  unless  he  redeemed 
us.  With  (a)  very  great  price  we  were  redeemed,  as  St.  Peter  hath 
said,  thus  saying,  Non  ex  corruptibili  auro  vel  argento  redempti  estis 
de  vestra  vana  conversatione,  sed  precioso  sanguine  agni  immaculati 
et  incontaminati  Jesu  Christi  Filii  Dei ;  that  is  to  say,  Ye  are  not 
redeemed  from  the  devil's  power  with  gold  nor  with  silver,  but  with 
the  precious  blood  of  the  pure  and  unspotted  Lamb,  that  is  God's 
Son.  He  is  the  true  Lamb,  as  St.  John  the  Baptist  hath  said,  Qui 
tollit  peccata  mundi — who  taketh  away  the  sins  of  middle  earth.  His 
precious  blood  was  shed  in  a  place  called  Calvarie  locus,  as  the  evan- 
gelist telleth  us.  There  it  was  shed  in  remissionem  peccatorum  nos- 
trorum  ;  that  is,  for  forgiveness  of  our  sins.  With  his  blood  we  should 
daily  besprinkle  (spiritually)  the  posts  and  the  lintel  of  our  houses, 
that  is  of  our  hearts  ;  that  is  to  say,  that  we  shall  cross  our  foreheads 
and  the  seven  gates  of  the  body  with  the  sign  of  the  holy  cross,  that 
our  enemy — Qui  tanquam  leo  rugiens  circuit  querens  quern  devoret ; 
that  is,  That  the  devil  who  goeth  about  as  a  hungry  lion  seeking 
whom  he  may  destroy,  that  he  may  never  come  within  us.  What 
are  the  seven  gates  1  They  are  our  eyes,  our  nose,  our  mouth,  and 
our  ears.  Upon  them,  as  we  before  said,  we  shall  mark  the  sign  of 
the  cross,  in  qua  triumphavit  rex  angelorum — that  is,  of  the  cross 
by  which  the  King  of  angels  overcame  the  devil ;  for  that  is  the  seal 
which  the  devil  cannot  break,  that  is  the  lock  which  the  devil  cannot 
unlock,  that  is  the  bolt  which  the  devil  cannot  break.  Of  this  token  a 
Avise  man  said,  Ita'c  est  scala  peccatorum  per  quam  Christus  rex  cajlorum 


iopenad  on  bisse  timan  be  ure  drihten  aras  of  dea^e  and  alesde 

us  of  ban  eche  de£e  and  wule  us  bringan  to  eche  Hue.     Muchele   Of  Christ's 

'  great  love  to- 

luue  ure  drihten  us  cudde  ba   be  he  be  is  and  eure  wes  butan   wards  us. 

biginnunge  soS  god  bicom  for  ure  helpe   so^  mon.  In  simili- 

tiiiliaem  hominuva.  /actus  <£-•  luibitu  inuentus  ut  homo.  bet  is  he 

wes  imacad  to  nionne  ilicnesse  and  iwunden  mid  fiesce  al  swa 

mon  and  muchele  *mare  luue  he  scawede  lis  ba  be  he  us  alesde     *[Foi.  476.] 

for  hit  is  awriten.  Nichil  nobis  nasci  profuitf  nisi  redimi  pro- 

fuisset.     Det  is.  Ne  fremede  us  na  bing  bet  he1  were  iborenf     '?we. 

buten  he  us  alesde.     Mid  swi¥e  muchele  wurSe  we  weren  alesde 

al  swa.  Sancte  peter  us  seide  and  c\ve&.  Non  ex  corvptihili  auro  The  words  of 

1  %  St.  Peter. 

uel  argento  redempti  estis  de  uestra  nana  conuersatioyie  '.  sed  pre- 
cioso  sanguine  agni  inmaculati  &•  incontaminati  ihesu  Christi 
filii  dei.  Det  is  to  seggen.  Ge  ne  beo^  ne  alesde  of  deofles 
anwalde  mid  golde  ne  mid  scoluref  ac  beo^  mid  ban  deorewurbe 
bleode  of  ban  cleDan  and  of  ban  unwemmedan  lombe  ftet  is 
erodes  sune.     He  is  bet  so^e  lomb  alswa  ^ancte  lohan  be  b&ptist   Christthe 

'  r  L  true  lamb. 

cwe^.  Qui  tollit  pecc&ta  mundi.  be  biniine^  middanerdes  simne. 
his  deorewurbe  blod  wes  asced  on  stude  be  is  ihaten.  caluarie 
locus,  al  swa  be  godspellere  us  sefti.  Der  hit  wes  agoten  In 
remissionem  pecc&torum  nostrorum.  Det  is  alesendnesse  of  ure 
sunnan.     Mid  his  blode  we  sculen  deihwanliche2  ba  postles  and    2?deihwam- 

'      *■  hche. 

bet  ouerslaht  of  ure  huse  bet  is  of  ure  heortan  gastliche  bispren- 

gan.  bet  is  to  understondan  bet  we  sculen  ure  forheafod  and  whereto 

make  the  sign 

ba  .vii.  3eade  urea  lichomes  mid  bere  halie  rode  tacne  seinian   of  the  cross. 
bet  ure  wrSerwinna.   Qui  tanquaan  leo  rugiens  circuit  querens 
quero.  deuoret.  bet  is  bet  be  deofel  be  ge^  abutan  alswa  be  gredie 
leo  sechiwde  hwew  he  rna3e  fordon  bet  he  neure  ne  ma^e  cuman 
wrS-innan  us.  hwet  beo^   bas  .vii.  3eate  f     Det  beoS  ure  e3an   The  seven 

gates  of  the 

and  ure  neose  and  ure  mu?  and  ure  earan.  vppon  heom  alswa  body. 

we  er  seiden  we  sculen  markian  bet  tacne  of  bere  halie  rode.  In 

qua  triumphauit  rex  angelorum.  bet  is  of  bere  rode  of  *hwem   The  virtues  of 

the  holy  rood. 

englan  king  ouercom  bene  deofel.  for  bet  i»seil  be  be  deofel  ne  mei     *[Foi.  48a.] 
nefre  to  breocan.   bet  is  bet  [loc]  be^e  deofel  ne  con  unlucan.  bet 
is  bet  scutles  be^e  deofel  ne  mei  nefre  to-cysan.     Bi  bisse  tacne 
seide  sum  wis  mo?*.  Hec  est  scalapeccatorumper  quam  Christus  rex 


ad  se  traxit  omnia — This  is  the  ladder  of  sinful  men  through  which 
our  Lord  draweth  to  himself  all  mankind.  Through  this  token  king 
Constantine  overcame  all  the  folk  that  fought  against  him.  Through 
this  token  Moses  made  the  water  of  Egypt  to  be  pleasant  and  sweet 
to  all  the  people  of  Israel,  which  was  sour  and  bitter  to  all  the  men 
of  the  country.  Again,  through  this  token  Moses  brought  water  out 
of  the  hard  flint  and  gave  the  folk  to  drink  upon  the  hill  of  Sinai. 
Otherwise  might  our  Lord  have  redeemed  us,  if  it  were  his  will  (so 
to  do),  but  it  seemed  good  to  him  that  we  who  through  the  tree  had 
been  doomed  to  hell  for  our  sins,  should  afterwards  through  the  tree 
of  the  cross  be  redeemed.  Of  this  redemption  and  of  the  conflict  which 
our  Lord  had  with  the  devil,  David  the  prophet  spake  when  he  was 
on  the  earth,  Liberavit  pauperem  a  potente  et  pauperem  cui  non  erat 
adjutor ;  that  is,  in  English,  The  Lord  delivered  the  poor  from  the 
mighty,  and  the  poor  who  was  altogether  helpless.  The  poor  that  he 
spake  of  was  our  father  Adam,  who  became  poor  and  helpless  as  soon 
as' he  broke  God's  commands  and  God's  behests.  Our  Lord  who  created 
him  did  not  make  him  poor,  as  it  is  written,  that  our  Lord  crowned 
him  with  bliss  and  with  honour,  and  set  him  over  his  handiwork  ; 
and  again  it  is  written  of  him  in  the  same  psalm,  Omnia  subjecisti 
sub  pedibas  ejus ;  that  is,  All  earthly  things  our  Lord  put  under  his 
feet,  all  beasts  and  all  cattle  that  were  on  the  earth,  all  the  fowls 
that  flew  in  the  air,  and  all  the  fishes  that  swam  in  the  sea.  They 
were  all  obedient  to  Adam,  and  not  only  under  his  hand  but  under 
his  feet.  But  as  soon  as  he  forsook  his  Creator,  through  his  wife's 
counsel,  they  lost  the  delightful  abode  which  was  assigned  them,  that 
was  earthly  Paradise.  Then  anon  they  were  expelled,  as  the  book  saith, 
Expulsi  sunt  nee  potuerunt  stare — They  were  driven  out  of  Paradise, 
and  might  no  longer  abide  there.  And  where  went  they  then  1  Truly 
into  this  world — uhi  omnis  homo  cum  dolore  nascitur  et  cum  dolore 
moritur — Into  this  world  they  went  where  each  man  is  born  in  great 
sorrow,  and  endeth  his  life  in  great  grief.  Here  they  lived  all  their 
lifetime  in  anxiety  and  in  affliction,  and  in  great  toil ;  and  after  this 
life  their  souls  went  to  hell,  and  there  remained  three  thousand  years 


celorum  ad  se  tr&xit  omnia.     Dis  is  sunfulla  monna  leddre  burh   The  cross  is 

the  ladder  uf 

bwam1  lire  drihtan  teh  to  him  al  raoncun.  burh  J>is  tacne  be  king  sinful  men. 

constantirtus  ouer  com  at  bet  iolc  be  ieiht  to^eines  him.     Durh 

bisse  tacne  makede  Moyses  bet  ^et  weter  of  egipte  wes  lr<?c  and 

swete  ban  folce  of  isroel.  be  wes  sur  and  hitere  alle  bon  monnen 

of  ban  londe.     Eft  burh  Jjisse  tacne  Moyses  werp  ut  bet  welle 

weter  of  pan  herda  flinte  and  3ef  ban  folke  drinkcn  uppan  ban 

hulle  synai.      On  o^er  wise  ure  drihten  us  melite  alesan  3if  his 

wille  were,  ac  him  buhte  bicumelic  bet  we  be  weren  }mrh  be  treo   Through  the 

forgult  in  to  helle  f  weren.  eft  burh  bet  treo  of  bere  rode  alesede.    perished,  and 

ii  i  through  the 

Of  bissere  alesednesse  and  of  ban  icowape  be  ure  drihten  hefde   tre,e  we  "ere 

'  r  i        r  redeemed. 

wrS  bene  feond  '.  dauid   be  prophete  seide  bo  he  wes  on  eorSe. 

Libercmit  pa/uperem  a  potente  &  pa/uperem  cui  non  erat  adiutor. 

Det  is  on  euglisc.   Drihten  alesde  bene  wrechan  of  ban  mehti^an 

and  ben  werchan  be  wes  al  helples.     Des  wrecclie  be  lie  of  spec 

wes  ure  feeler  adam.  be  bicom  wreche  and  helples  swa  sone  swa 

he  to-brec  godes  bibode  and  godes  heste.  vre  drihten  be  bine   God  did  not 

make  Adam 
iscop  ne  macode  hine  na  wrecche.  alsvva  hit  is  awriten.  bet  ure   p°01'. 

drihten  hine  crunede  mid  blisse  and  mid  wuriSscipe.  and  sette 

hine  ouer  his  hondiwerc.  and  eft  hit  is  awriten  bi  him  on  ban 

ilean  psalme.  Omnia   *subiecisti  sub  pedibus  eius.      Det  is  al     *  [Foi.486.] 

eor5lic  bing  ure  drihten  dude  under  his  fotan.     Alle  ba  deor   but  put  ail 

things  under 
and  alle  be  nutenu  be  on  eorSe  weren.  and  alle  be  fi^elas  be   hisfeet. 

flu3en  bi  ban  lufte.  and  alle  be  fiscas  be  swummen  in  bei"e  se '. 

alle  heo  weren  adame  ibuhsume  and  naut  ane  under  his  bond  f 

ac  under  bis  fet.     Ac  swa  sone  swa  he  forseh  his  scuppend  burh 

his  wifes  red  f  heo  forluren  ba  ba  murie  wunuwge  be  heom  bitaht 

wes  '.  bet  wes  eorSliche  para  [dl  is.     Da  anan  heo  weren  iscouen  '.    They  became 

i  i  l    j  poor  when 

alswa  be  hoc  serS.  Expulsi  sunt  nee  potuerunt  stare,  heo  weren   Uiev  were 

'  ±  ±  banished  from 

ipult  ut  of  paradise '.  and  ne  mehten  ber  naleng  etstonden.  and  Paradlse- 
hwer  bicomen  heo  ba '.  So^liche  on  bissere  worulde.  vbi  omnis 
homo  cum  dolore  nascitur  &  cum  dolore  moritur.  on  bissere 
weorlde  heo  bicomen  ber  iwilch  mo)t  bi^  iboren  mid  muchele 
sara.  and  mid  muchele  soi^e  his  lif  ienda&  her  heo  leueden 
al  heore  lifdages  on  kare  and  on  pine  and  on  unimete  iswinche. 
and  efter  bisse  liue  heore  saulen  ferden  to  helle  and  ber  wuneden. 



and  thereto  four  hundred  years  ;  and  all  the  men  descended  from 
them,  good  and  evil,  as  soon  as  their  souls  left  their  bodies  they 
went  to  hell.  There  might  none  resist,  neither  prophet,  nor  patriarch, 
nor  even  St.  John  the  Baptist,  who  bore  witness  of  our  Lord  and 
said,  Between  man  and  woman  was  never  a  greater  man  than  he,  but 
nevertheless  his  soul  was  ever  in  hell  until  the  strong  lion  (came),  that 
was  the  Son  of  the  living  God — et  contrivit  portas  ereas,  et  vectes  fereos 
confregit ;  that  is,  he  thrust  aside  the  gates  of  steel  and  broke  in  pieces 
the  iron  bars  of  hell,  and  took  out  all  those  who  in  this  life  observed 
his  behests.  Et  eduxit  eos  cle  tenebris  et  umbra  mortis — He  led  them 
out  of  darkness  and  from  the  shadow  of  death  into  heaven ;  ad  quod 
et  nos  perducat  Christus  films  Dei  vivi,  qui  vivit  et  regnat  per  omnia 
seeula  secidorum.     Amen. 



f~\ui  parce  seminat,  parce  et  metet.  Our  lord  Saint  Paul,  the  greatest 
teacher  after  our  Lord  himself,  speaketh  in  the  holy  epistle, 
which  is  read  to-day  in  holy  church,  and  exhorts  both  clerks  and  laity 
to  God's  words  and  to  good  deeds,  and  thus  saith,  Spiritualiter  quidem 
monens  hos,  ut  ait  Gregorius,  ad  sanctos  predicationis  ojficium.  Generaliter 
vero  hos  et  illos  ad  salutarem  obedientiam  mandatorum.  Consecrated 
men  he  admonishes  to  teach  well  lewd  men  (the  laity),  and  both  con- 
secrated and  the  lewd  to  lead  a  fair  and  pure  life  in  this  world  ; 
and  saith  that  every  man  shall  receive  recompence,  thus  saying,  Qui 
parce  seminat  et  cetera.  The  man  that  soweth  little  shall  reap  little,  and 
he  that  soweth  in  joy  shall  reap  in  joy,  that  is  to  say,  the  man  who 
well  doeth  he  shall  receive  abundantly.  Sacra  Scriptura  nomine  seminis 
appettat  tria,  scilicet,  hominis  progenituram,  Dei  verbum,  opus  bonum. 
Holy  Scripture  commonly  nameth  three  things  as  seed — one  is  man's 
progeny,  the  second  is  God's  word,  and  the  third  is  good  deeds.     Our 

SERMO  IN  EPIST.  2  AD  CORINTH.  IX.  6.  131 

iiii.  busend  aeran  and  berto  iiii.  hundred  2eran  and  alle  ba  men  be   Adam  and 

s  J  I  J  >  i        Kve  were  in 

comen  of  heom  gode  and  uuele  swa  sone  swa  heore  saulen  and  ^'^""^ 

heore  licoma  to-delden  heo  ferden  to  helle.     Ne  mihte  ber  nan   ^.shundred 

wrSstonden.  ne  prophete.  ne  patriarche.  ne  hure.  Sancte  iohannes 

baptise,  be  ure  drihten  ber  iwitnesse  and  seide.  Bitwuxe  were 

and  wife  nes  nefre  mare  mon  benne  he.  ac  bah  hwe¥re  his  saule 

wes  in  helle.  a  $et  ba  streonge  leo  bet  Aves  bes  lk^endes  godes 

sune.  Et  contriuit  portas  ereas.  &  uectes  fereos  conf regit.    Det  is 

he  to-bruste  ba  stelene  gate,  and  to  brec  ba  irene  barren  of  helle. 

and  nom  ut  alle  ba  ilcan  be  on  bisse  *Kue  his  bibode  heolden.     *  [Foi.49a.] 

Et  eduxit  eos  de  tenebris  &  umbra  mortis.     He  ledde  heom  of  Christ 

brought  them 

beostran  and  of  scadewe.  and  of  dea^e  into  heouena  riche.  ad  out- 
quod  et  nos  perdncat  Christus^tus  dei  uiui.  qui  uiuit  et  regnat 
per  omnia  secula  seculormn.  Amen. 


[SERMO  IN  EPIST.  2  AD  CORINTH,  ix.  6.] 

[~  (~\~\vi  puree  seminat  f  parce  &  metet.    vre  lauerd  seinte  paul   The  text. 

L  ^d  he3es[t]  larSewen.  efter  ure  helende  seolfe  f  spece^  on  be 
halie  pistle  be  me  ret  to  dei  ine  halie  chirche  and  munege^  erSer 
ihadede  and  ileawede  to  godes  worde  and  to  weklede  and  bus 
serS.  Spiritualiter  quid  em  monens  hos  ut  ait  gregorius  ad  sancte 
predicationis  officium.  Generaliter  uero  hos  &  illos  ad  salutarem 
obedienciam  mandatorum.     Ihadede  men  he  muneee^  wel   to   The  clergy 

and  laity  are 

lerene  ilewede  men.     Ihadede  and  lewede  feier  lif  and  clene  to   admonished 

to  lerfd  a  pure 

leden  in  bisse  Hue.  and  serS  bet  euric  mon  seal  auon  mede  f  and  life- 

bus  sei&  Qui  parce  seminat  et  cetera.     De  mon  bet  lutel  sewe^   we  shall  reap 

'  '  according  to 

he  seal  lutel  ma3e.  and  be  £e  sawe^  on  blescunge  he  seal  mawen   what  we  so,v- 
of  blescunge  bet  is  to  suggen.     De  mon  be  wel  de^  f  he  wel 
ifelrS.     Sacra   scriptura  nomine  seminis  appellat  tria.  scilicet 
hominis  progenituram.   dei  uerbum.   opus  bonum.      Halie   boc   Three  things 

spoken  of  by 

nemne^  iwuneliche  ¥reo  bing  to  sede.  an  is  monnes  istreon.  bet  I'oiy  wntas 


Lord  called  man's  progeny  seed,  when  he  spake  with  the  holy  man 
Abraham  of  his  seed,  and  said  that  so  great  a  people  should  spring 
from  him,  that  no  man  should  be  able  to  number  them  any  more 
than  one  may  number  the  stars  of  heaven,  and  thus  said,  Suspiee 
caelum  et  numera  stellas  si  potes,  sic  erit  semen  tuwm.  Look,  he  said, 
up  to  heaven  and  number  the  stars  if  thou  canst ;  so  great  shall  be 
thy  offspring.  Sed  observandum  est  quod  prudens  sator  observat  et 
glebe  aptitudinem  et  temporis  opportunitatem.  It  is  to  be  noticed  that 
when  the  wise  husbandman  is  about  to  sow,  he  taketh  heed  of  two 
things.  One  is  whether  the  land  be  fit  for  the  seed.  So  also  ought 
every  Christian  man  and  woman,  when  they  go  to  sow  for  issue,  to  take 
great  care  that  they  do  it  in  a  becoming  (proper)  place  and  at  a  right 
time.  There  is  no  place  fit  for  procreation  except  those  that  procreate 
be  lawfully  married  together,  nor  is  there  ever  right  time  thereto  when 
they  ought  to  fast  or  keep  holy  day.  Again,  God's  word  is  called 
seed  in  the  beautiful  parable  which  our  Saviour  spake  with  his  own 
mouth  to  his  apostles,  and  thus  said,  Exiit  qui  seminat  et  cetera.  A 
rich  man  went  out  and  sowed,  and  some  of  the  seed  fell  upon  stones 
and  there  dried  up,  and  some  among  thorns  and  there  perished,  and 
some  by  the  way  and  were  trodden  under  and  fowls  devoured  it,  and 
some  on  good  earth  and  that  came  well  forth.  The  apostles  entreated 
him  that  he  should  say  what  the  parable  signified,  and  he  said,  Semen  est 
verbum  Dei,  sator  autem  Christus,  omnis  qui  audit  eum  manebit  ineter- 
num.  God's  word  is  the  seed  and  Christ  is  the  sower,  and  every  man 
who  heareth  joyfully  God's  word  and  leadeth  his  life  rightly  thereafter, 
he  shall  have  everlasting  life  and  bliss  without  end.  Sed  est  dili- 
g enter  attendendum  quod  hoc  semen  spargitur  turn  ore  proprio  turn  ore 
ministrorum.  But  we  must  understand  that  our  Saviour  soweth  his 
holy  word  sometimes  through  his  own  mouth  and  sometimes  through  the 
mouths  of  the  apostles,  sometimes  through  the  mouths  of  clerks  who 
know  the  lore  of  holy  books  and  who  read  and  teach  God's  law  unto 
the  hearts  of  man.  And  in  such  wise  speaks  the  heavenly  King  with 
every  Christian  man  to  whom  he  sendeth  his  holy  Scriptures.  In 
hac    etiam   satione  r    observa   agri    competentiam,    et   temporis 

SERMO  IN  EPIST.   2  AD  CORINTH.  IX.  6.  133 

oSer  is  godes  word,  and  bet  ^ridde  is  weldede.  vre  drihten  cleop-   l.  Man's 

'  progeny. 

ede   mo?ines   streon  sed  f    ba  be  he  spec  wr6  ^ene   halie   mon   2.God'sword. 

abraham  of  his  istreone  and  seide.  bet  swa  much  el  mo?icun  sculde   deed".0 

springen  of  him  Set  na  man  ne  mihte  itellen  a  mare  be  me  mei 

Seo  steorren  cf  heuene  '.  and  bus  seide.  Suspice  eel  urn.  A;  numera 

Stellas  si  potes  f  Sic  erit  semen  tuum.     Bihald  he  *  seide  up  to     *  [Foi.  496.] 

heouene  and  tel  beo  steoren  3if  bu  miht  swulc  seal  beon  bin  of- 

spring.     Sed  obseruandum  est  quod  prudens  sator  obseruat  & 

glebe  aptitudinem  &•  temporis  opportunitatem.  hit  is  to  witene  bet 

alrihtes  swa  alse  be  wise  teolie  benne  he  Avule  sawe  nimeS  2eme   Two  things  to 

'  '  be  taken  heed 

of  twam  bingen.  an  is  hweSer  bet  lond  beo  bicumelic  to  be  sede.   of  in  sowing 

Alswa  ahte  eurec  cristene  mon  ■    wepmon  and  wifmon.  beraie 

heo  fundieS  to  teoliende  '.   efter  istreone  nimen  muchele  3eme  bet 

heo  hit1  don  on  bicumeliche  stude  and  on  rihte  time.     Nis  na     >  Ms.  bit. 

stude  to  istreone  bicumelic  butan  Sa  be  istreonieS  beon  bispused 

rihtliche  to  gedere.  ne  neaure  nis  riht  time  ber  to  '.  benne  me 

seal  ueste  oSer  al  freos3e.     Eft-sone  godes  word  is  icleoped  sed  '. 

on  bere  feire  forbisne  be  ure  helend  seide  mid  his  a3ene  muSe  to 

his  apostlen  '.  and  bus  seide.  Exiit  am  semi/tat  et  cetera.     A  riche   Tlie  Parable 

1  '  *  of  the  Sower. 

mon  ferde  ut '.  and  seow  and  sum  of  be  sede  feol  an  uppe  be  stane 
and  ber  adri^ede  and  sum  among  beornew  and  ber  aswond  and  sum 
bi  be  weie  and  werS  to-treden  and  fi^eles  hit  freten.  and  sum  on 
gode  eorSe  f  and  bet  com  wel  forS.  Deo  aposdes  bine  beden  bet  he 
scalde  suggen  hwetbeo  saqe  bicweSe  and  he  seide.  Semen  est  uerbum  The  expiana- 

'  J  _  tion  of  the 

del  sator  autem  Christus  omvds  qui  audit  eum  manebit  inetevnum.   Parable. 
Godes  word  is  sed  and  crist  is  be  sawere  and  euric  mon  be  lusted 
luueliche  godes  wordes  and  lede"5  his  lif  rihtliche  ber  efter  /  he 
seal  habben  eche  lif  and  blisse  abuten  ende.     Sed  est  diligenter 
attendendum  quod  hoc  semen  spurgitur  turn,  ore  ptoprio  turn2  ore    gMS.  cnm. 
ministvorum.  ah  bet  is  to  understonde  bet  ure  helend  saweS  *  his    *  [poi.  50a.] 
halie  word  hwile  burh   his   a3ene   muSe  and  hwile   burh  Sere 
apostlene  muSe.  hwile  burh  Sere  clerkene  mu^e  be  cunnen  be 
lare  of  halie  boke  be  radeS  and  techeS  godes  la3e  in  to   bes 
morales  heorte.  and  alswuche  wise  spekeS  Se  eorSliche3  king  wiS     lici1'(f°  en" 
iwilche  c?*istene  monne  be  he  to  sendee  his  halie  iwriten.  In  hoc  to°everyaks 
ecuim  satione  diligenter  obseiiia  agri  compelentiam  f  <£'  temporis 



congruentiam.  When  the  instructor  of  the  people  is  about  to  sow 
his  seed  he  ought  to  take  great  care  that  he  sows  it  in  proper 
earth,  and  at  the  right  time,  in  the  hearts  of  the  men  who  joyfully 
listen  to  God's  words.  Some  of  these  were  previously  good,  some 
thereby  became  good,  and  this  is  befitting  earth  in  which  to  sow 
God's  seed.  But  those  who  love  (their)  sins,  and  will  not  renounce  them 
nor  be  subject  to  any  belief,  are  unbecoming  earth  for  the  seed  of 
God's  word.  Uncle  divina  scriptura.  Nolite  spargere  margaritas  ante 
porcos.  And  therefore  said  the  heavenly  teacher,  Ye  shall  not  lay  gem- 
stones  (jewels)  before  swine  for  meat.  On  every  Sunday  and  other  high 
days  is  the  time  to  sow  the  holy  seed,  that  is  God's  word,  and  that  in 
holy  church,  where  all  Christian  men  ought  to  be  gathered  together. 
Bonum  opus  nomine  seminis  dicitur,  turn  quum  nunc  seritur  in  faturo 
rnetetur,  turn  quum  more  frugum  midtiplicabitur.  Good  works  are  called 
seed  for  two  reasons  ;  one  is,  that  just  as  they  sow  seed  at  one  time 
and  gather  the  fruit  at  another  time,  so  also  man  doth  now  his  deeds 
in  this  life  and  in  the  eternal  world  he  shall  receive  the  reward 
thereof ;  the  second  is,  as  of  one  seed  come  manifold  fruits,  so  of 
a  good  deed  shall  man  receive  afterwards  manifold  and  great  rewards. 
Midta  quidem  genera  sunt  bonorum  operum,  sed  kic  de  uno  eorum 
agitur,  scilicet  de  elemosinarum  largitione,  unde  propheta/m  inducit  di- 
centem.  Dispersit,  dedit  pauperibus,  et  cetera.  Many  kinds  of  good 
deeds  are  there  ;  but  the  apostle  exhorts  us  to  one  of  them,  that  is 
almsdeed,  and  saith  that  we  ought  to  give  alms  to  destitute  men, 
but,  as  the  holy  Psalmist  David  said,  distribute  it  so  that  every 
needy  man  that  craves  it  may  receive  something  thereof.  Give  what 
behoveth  thee,  bestow  it,  and  do  not  sell  them  the  alms,  but  give.  All 
good  deeds  are  profitable  for  penance,  but  none  more  profitable  than 
almsdeed.  Quia  sicut  aqua  extinguit  ignem,  ita  elemosina  pecca- 
twm.  For  as  water  quencheth  fire,  so  almsdeeds  quench  sin.  But 
if  we  sell  the  alms  it  loseth  its  name  and  its  virtue  also.  Quatuor 
modis  venditur  elemosina,  et  tunc  inde  populi  favor  emitur,  aut  pu- 
doris  molestia  deprvmUmr,  aut  recompensatio  rei  temporalis  adquiritur, 
aut  debiti  beneficii  solutio  inpenditur.     In  four  kinds  of  way  man  selleth 

SERMO  IN  EPIST.  2  AD  CORINTH.  IX.  6.  135 

congruenciam.     Denne  be2s  folkes  larbew  his  sed  wule  sawen  he  Things  to  be 

'  regarded  by 

ahte  to  nimene  muchele  seme  bet  he  hit  sawe  on  bicumeliche  the  sower  of 

■*  '  spiritual  seed. 

eorSe  i  and  on  rihte  time.    On  ^ere  mowne  heorte  be  luuelich[e] 

lusted  godes  wordes  summe  heo  ere^on  gode  weoren  summe  heo 

^ere   burh  gode  iwurSe^.  and   bet  brS  bicumelic  eorSe  godes 

wordes  on  to  sawen.    Ah  ba  %e  su/men  luue^  and  for-leten  heom 

nulled  ne  nane  bileafe  nuder-fo  '.  heo  beo^  unbicumelic  eorSe  to 

be  sede  of  godes  weorde.  Vnde  diuina  scriptura.  Nolite  sp>sa'gere 

Margaritas  ante  j>orcos.  and  bere  for  seide  be  heouenliche  larbew. 

Ne  sculen  2e  nawiht  simstones  legmen  swinen  to  mete.     ./Euriche   Holy  seed  to 

_  T      .  1,e  sown  on 

sunen  deie.  and  o^re  he3e  da3en  is  time  to  sawene  bet  halie  sed   Sunday. 

bet  is  godes  word,  and  ^et  in  halie  chirche  ber  alle  cristene  men 

a3en  to  beon  isomned  to  gedere.     Bonuvo.  opus  nomine  seminis 

dicitwr,  turn  qxmm  nunc  scritu.r  hi  futiwro  metetur.  tuu\  gnum 

more  frugum  multiplicabitvLr.      Weldede  is  icleoped   sed  i    for   f*ood  deeds 

are  called 

twain  bingen.     An  is  $et  alrihtes  swa  alse  me  sawe^  sed  on  ane   seed- 
time and  gedere^  bet  frut  on  o^er  time  '.  al  swa  mow  de^  nu^e 
his  dede  in  bisse  Hue.  and  on  ^ere  eche  weorlde  *he  seal  hafon     *[Foi.  50&.] 
^er  of  his  mede.     Det  o^er  is.  Alswa  of  ane  sede  curne^  feole 
folde  weste.    Alswa  of  ane  e^eliche  dede  mow  seal  afon  eft  feole   of  this  seed 

enmeth  mani- 

folde  mede  and  muchele.     Multa  quidem  genera  sunt  bonorum  fold  fruits- 
operum.  sed  hie  de  uno  eorum  agitur.  scilicet  de  elemosinarum. 
largitwne.  vnde  prophetam  inducit  dicentem.     Dispersit  dedit 
/Mi/iperibus.  et   cetera,   feole    cunne   beo^   of  weldede.     Ah   be 
apostel  us  munege^  here  to  one  of  heom  bet  is  elmasdele  and   ofaimsdeed. 
serS  bet  me  heo  seal  3efen  hafelesen  monne  monne1.     Ah  alse  ^e     '  sic. 
halie  salmwurhte  dauid.  seide  delen  heo  bet  euric  neodi  ^e  heo 
bisece^  sum  bing  ^er  of  afo.     Gif  ban  biln^e^  ^e  he"o  dele^  and 
ne>>g2  sullen  heom  ^eo  elmesse  ah  3efen.      Alle  weldede  beoS     2sic 
freomfulle  to  sun-bote3.  ah  nan  mare  freowiful  denne  elmes  idal.     3  Ms- sum- 


Quia  sicut  aqua  extinguit  ignem  ita  elemosina  peccatum.  for 
alswa  weter  acwewche^  fur  '.  alswa  elmesdede  acwenche^  sunne. 
Ah  3if  me  sulle^  beo  elmesse  heo  feorleose^  hire  nome  and  hire   i>o  not  sen 

thy  alms. 

mihte  alswa.     Quatuor  modis  uenditur  elemosina.  &  tunc  inde 

popwli  fauor  euerlitur*.  aut  pudoris  molestia  dejmmilur.  aut  re-     *  ?  emitur. 

compensatio  rei  temporalis  adqxxiritur.  aut  debiti  benejicii  solucio 


his  alms.  One  is  when  he  begetteth  praise  therewith.  Et  hoc  animi 
morbo  laborat  fere  omnis  homo.  And  this  vice  hath  mostly  all  men 
who  give  their  alms  both  for  love  (sake)  of  recompense  and  also  for  to 
have  praise,  and  to  be  honoured  far  and  near  where  they  are  known. 
In  the  second  mode  man  selleth  his  alms  when  he  giveth  it  to  such 
men  whom  for  shame  he  cannot  refuse  because  neighbours  or  else 
friends,  and  therewith  rids  him  of  shams  which  he  should  have  if  he 
gave  it  not.  In  the  third  mode  he  selleth  his  alms  when  he  gives 
it  to  such  a  man  who  doth  for  him,  or  hath  done  or  shall  do,  good 
service  and  chares  (good  turns),  and  think eth  with  his  alms  to  requite  him 
las  trouble.  Then  is  this  man's  good-will  (services)  bought  with  the  alms. 
In  the  fourth  mode  a  man  selleth  his  alms  when  he  giveth  it  to  such 
men  as  he  ought  rightly  to  help,  for  sustenance,  for  clothing,  according 
to  his  behoof,  as  doth  many  a  man  who  giveth  his  alms  to  father  or 
mother,  brother  or  sister,  or  others  so  akin,  that  he  may  not  rightly  with- 
hold it.  All  the  alms  which  a  man  doth  specially  to  please  our  Lord, 
all  that  quencheth  sin  and  merits  (earns)  recompense  from  our  Saviour 
himself,  and  all  good  deeds  which  a  man  doth  in  other  ways,  and  are 
also  done  for  the  love  of  recompense,  he  nevertheless  selleth  them  and 
receiveth  here  the  reward  thereof,  as  our  Lord  saith  in  the  Gospel,  Amen 
dico  vobis,  receperwnt  mercedem  mam.  Verily  I  say  unto  you,  that  those 
who  do  good  for  to  have  thereof  again  in  this  life,  shall  have  no  reward 
in  the  everlasting  world  ;  but  all  that  a  man  doth  specially  for  God's  love 
he  shall  receive  the  reward  thereof,  and  be  then  rewarded  even  as 
it  shall  now  be  merited  here  ;  for  our  Lord  saith  in  the  holy  gospel, 
Eadem  mensura  qua  mensi  fueritis  remetietur  vobis.  According  to  the 
same  measure  that  ye  mete  now,  your  good  deeds  shall  afterwards  be 
meted  to  your  meed  (advantage),  and  a  hundredfold  more.  As  Ave  pre- 
viously said,  Qui  farce  seminat  et  cetera.  Every  man  shall  afterwards  reap 
according  to  what  he  now  sows,  and  he  who  soweth  now  in  joy  shall 
afterwards  reap  in  joy ;  that  is,  every  man  who  leadeth  a  fair  and 
pure  life,  and  according  to  all  his  behoof  distributes  his  alms,  merits 
thereby  that  all  men  bless  him  and  pray  for  him ;  and  our  Lord  God 
Almighty    for   their   prayers    will   give   him    his    blessing,   that   is.   the 

SERMO  IN  EPIST.   2  AD  CORINTH.  IX.  6.  137 

inpenditur.     An  fower  cunne  wise  mon  sulle^  his  elmesse.     An   in  four  ways 

J  may  alms  be 

is  benne  he  bi3eteS  hereword  £ere  mide.     Et  hoc  animi  morbo  sold- 

1.  "When  it  is 

laborat  fere  omnis  homo,  and  besne  lent??-  habbe^  mest  bwet  alle   given  for  the 

'  sake  of  a 

men.  ^e  3efe:S  heore  elmesse  erSer  for  godes  luue  and  ec  for  here-  return. 

word  to  habbene  and  beon  iwurSegede  fir  *  and  neor  ^er  be  heo  *  [Foi.  5ia.] 

ienawene  beo$.     An  o^re  wise  mon  sulde1  his  elmesse  benne  he  s^g,^- 

heo  3efe:6  swulche  mowne  Se  he  for  scome  wernen  ne  mei  for  2.  For  shame. 
ne3eburredde  o^er  elles  freonde  and  bere  mide  bine  alese^  of 

scome  '.   be  he  habben  scnlde.  sif  he  heo  ne  }ef.     On  ¥ridde  wise  3.  For  good 

'  J  services. 

mon  sulKe  his  elmesse  %enne  he  heo  3efe:S  sulche  mo?me  be  him 
de^.  o^er  haue1?  idon.  o^er  don  seal  wiken  and  cherres  and 
^enche¥>  mid  his  elmesse  foi^elden  him  ^eo  hwile.  ^enne  bi^  bes 
mownes  wile  ibeht  mid  bere  elmisse.     On  feor^e  wise  mon  sulle^   4.  When  it  is 

given  to  those 

his  elmesse.  benne  he  heo  ;efe$  swulche  mo?zne  be  he  ahte  mid   whom  they 

>  '  ou<?ht  to 

rihte  helpe  to  fodne^e  and  to  scrude  hi  his  bi-ha3e.   alse  deS  support. 
monimon  ^e  3efe:S  his  elmesse  feader  o%er  moder  broker  o^er 
suster  o^er  cfSre  swa  isibbe  %e  he  ne  mei  mid  rihte  wi^teon.    Al 
^e  almisse  be  mon  de$  sunderlipe  fur  to  tiuemen  ure  drihten  !    Aims  given 

r  l  l  rightly 

alle  beo  cwenche^  sunnen  and  erni^  sunbote  at  ure  helende  quench  sin. 
seolfe.  a  ml  alle  goddede  be  mo«  de^  on  odre  wise  and  beoS  ec 
idone  for  godes  luue.  Neo^eles  he  beom  sulle^  and  underuelrSe 
here  ¥er  of  his  mede  alswa  ure  drihten  serS  in  be  godspelle. 
amen  dico  uobis  .'  receperunt  mercedem  snam.  to  so^e  ic  eow 
sugge  \et  ba  ^e  do%  god  for  to  habben  Ser  of  &ytn  in  bisse  Hue  ; 
nabbeS  heo  newne  bone  on  eche  weorlde.  Ah  al  \et  mo«  deS 
srmderlipe  *for  godes  luuen  '.  he  seal  auon  %er  of  his  mede.  and  *  [Foi.  516.] 
beon  benne  ifunde  alse  hit  br8  nu^e  iei'ned  here,  for  ure  drihten 
hit  sei%  in  be  halie  godspelle.  Eadem  mensura  qua  mensi  fueritis 
remecietur  uobis.  BrSon  ilke  imet  ^e  3e  mete£  nu^e  '.  eower 
weldede  seal  eft  beon  imeten  eower  mede.  and  bi  hunderfalde   ihey  shall  be 

rewarded  a 

mare  f  alswa  we  er  seiden.   Qui  parce  seminal  &  cetera.     ^Euric  hundredfold, 
mon  seal  eft  mowen  bi  bon  be  he  nu  saweS.  and  be  be2  sawe^  nu     » sic. 
on  blescunge.  he  seal  eft  mowen  of  blescunge.     Det  is  seuric 
mon  be  lede^  feir  lif  and  clene.  and  bi  al  his  biba^e  deleS  his 
elmesse  and  bere  mide  ierned  ]>et  alle  men  hine  blesceS.  and  for 
him  biddeS.  and  ure  lauerd  god  almihten  for  heore  bene  yeueK 

138  the  lord's  day. 

eternal   kingdom   that  he  hath  prepared   for  all  men  who  do  his  will 

here  in  this  life.     Ad  qua/m  gloriam  nos  perducere  dignetur  dominus 

noster  Jesus  Christus,  qui  vivit  et  regnat  per  omnia  secula  seculorum. 



Tiecerenda  est  nobis  hcec  dies  sancta  quce  dicitur  dominica,  et  ideo 
dicitur  dominica  quoniam  hcec  dies  sola  dies  Domini  est.  Greatly 
ought  we  to  honour  this  hoi)'  day  that  is  called  Sunday,  for  it  is 
God's  own  day.  All  other  days  of  the  week  are  subservient  to 
this  day.  This  day  is  the  holy  day,  the  blessed  day,  the  blissful 
day,  the  pleasant  day,  the  day  seven  times  brighter  than  the  sun, 
the  first  day  that  ever  yet  was  seen  on  earth,  in  qua  visa  est  lux. 
On  Sunday  was  seen  the  first  light  on  earth,  for  our  Lord  said  this 
day,  Fiat  lux  et  facta  est  lux.  Let  there  be  light,  and  there  was 
light.  Ex  hoc  enim  die  reliquce  dies  sumpserunt  exordium.  Of 
this  day  took  all  others  their  beginning.  Dies  in  qua  convenit  £>Ze&s 
ad  ecclesiam,  ad  predicandurn  et  ad  celebrandum.  On  Sunday  every 
Christian  man  ought  especially  to  come  to  church  :  the  learned  to  teach 
the  folk  to  obey  God's  behests,  and  the  lewd  to  hear  God's  behests 
and  to  pray  unto  God.  Dies  in  qua  Icetantur  agmina  cceli  et  terras. 
On  Sunday  rejoice  together  the  hosts  of  heaven  and  of  earth,  as  the 
Holy  Ghost  saith  through  the  mouth  of  the  prophet  David :  Hcec 
est  dies  quam  fecit  Dominus,  exultemur  et  letemur  in  ea.  This  is 
the  day  that  God  hath  made,  let  us  be  joyful  and  glad  on  this 
day.  In  hac  die  multa  et  magna  mirabilia  fecit  Dominus  pro  salute 
nostra.  Many  and  great  wonders  did  our  Lord  for  our  salvation 
on  this  day.  In  die  dominica  creati  sunt  angeli  ah  ore  Dei.  On 
Sunday  were  the  angels  made  by  the  mouth  of  God.  In  die 
dominica  resedit  arclta  post  diluvium.     On   Sunday  Noah  found   land 


him  his  blescmiwe.     Det  is  ^eo  echeliche  riche   bet  he  haue<5   The  eternal 

°  '  kingdom  the 

harwed  to  alle  £on  mownen  be  his  iwille  wurche^  her  on  [bisse]    reward  of 

>  Lr         j    almsgiving. 

Hue.  Ad  quam  gloriam  nos  perducere  dignetur  donunus  roster 
iVtesus  christus  qui  tduit  et  vegnat  per  omnia  secula  seculoiiim. 




euerenda  est  nobis  hec  dies  sancta  que  dicitur  dominica.  <£•   Sunday  is 

God's  own 

ileo  dicitur  dominica  ^uonia??*  hec  dies  sola  dies  domini  day- 
est.  Muchel  man  ach  to  wurben  bis  halie  dei  bat  is  sunnen  dei 
icleoped.  for  hit  is  godes  a3en  dei.  Alle  o^er  da3es  of  be  wike 
beo^  to  breldome  to  bis  dei.  *bis  dei  is  bet  halie  dei  bet  blescede  *[Foi.  52a.] 
dei  be  blisfulle  dei  be  murie  dei.  be  dei  seouensibe  brictere  bene 
be  sunne.  be  fo[r]meste  dei  bet  eauer  3icte  was  ise3en  buuen  eorSe. 
In  qua,  uisa  est  lux.     Sunnen  dei  was  iseaan  bet  formeste  liht   On  tins  day 

light  was  first 

buuen  eorSe  for  ure  drihten  seide  bis  dei.  Fiat  lux  d'  facta  est  seen- 
lux.  beo  liht  and  hit  wes  liht.     Ex  lute  enim.  die  f  relique  dies 
sumpserunt  exordium.       Of   bisse   dei   nomew  alle  ofter  heore 
biginni[n]ge.     Dies  in  qns,  conuenit  2^bs  ad  ecclesiam  ad  ^>re- 
dicanditva  &  ad  celebrandum.     Surmedei  ah  efri  c?'istenne  .Mem.    On  Sunday 

every  man 

nomeliche  to  chirehe  cume  be  ahte  for  to  techen  be  folke  godes   sh0,ll(1  s° t0 

'  church. 

hesne  to  done,  be  lewede  godes  hesne  for  to  heren.  and  hom  to 
gode  bidden.  Dies  in  qua,  letantur  agmina  celi  &  texre.  Suwne 
dei  blisse^  to-gederes  houeneware  and  horSe  ware,  alse  be  halie 
gast  sei^  burh  daui^es  mu?  be  prophete.  Hec  est  dies  qu&m 
fecit  dom'mus  exultemur  <£■  fctemur  in  ea.  bis  is  be  dei  bet  god 
makede.  beo  we  blrSe  and  glade  on  bis  dei.  In  hac  die  multa 
&  magna  mirabilia  fecit  dominus  7>»ro  salute  nostra.  Monie 
wundre  and  muchele  dude  ure  drihten.  for  ure  hele  on  bisse  dei. 
In  die  dominica  creati  sunt  angeli  ab  ore  dei.  suwnendei  f  weren  °n  thi9  da-v 

angels  were 

engles  makede  of  godes  muSe.     In  die  dominica  resedit  archa  created. 
post  diluuium.  su/mendei  fond  noe  lond  efter  \>et  ure  drihten 

140  THE  LORD'S  DAY. 

after  that  our  Lord  had  drowned  the  people.  In  die  dominica  pluit 
Dominus  manna  Jiliis  Israel.  On  Sunday  God  sent  manna  from 
heaven  to  the  people  of  Israel.  In  die  dominica  percussum  est  mare 
rubrum  in  virtute  Dei,  per  ma,num  Moysi,  el  transierunt  filii  Israel 
siccis  pedibus  per  mare  rubrum.  On  Sunday  Moses  smote  the  Eed 
Sea,  and  the  sea  divided  and  the  Israelitish  people  went  over  ;  et 
stetit  illis  murus  in  dextera  atque  in  sinistra,  and  there  stood  (the  sea)  on 
the  right  side  and  on  the  left  as  a  castle  wall.  Et  iterum  percussit 
Mouses  mare  et  reversum  est  in  locum  suum,  et  mersus  est  Pharao 
cum  curribus  et  equitibus  ejus.  And  afterwards  Moses  smote  the  sea 
and  it  went  together,  and  drowned  Pharaoh  and  all  his  host  with 
him,  so  that  there  was  not  even  one  left  undrowned.  In  die  do- 
minica percussit  Moyses  petram  in  heremo  et  Jluxerunt  quatuor 
flumina,  quce  divisa  sunt  in  duodecim  partes  ut  traxerint  sitim 
populo.  On  Sunday  smote  Moses  the  stone  in  the  wilderness  when 
the  people  without  drink  had  nearly  perished,  as  our  Lord  bad  him, 
and  the  stone  split  and  four  wells  of  water  sprang  out  thereof,  and 
the  four  were  divided  into  twelve,  so  that  the  twelve  tribes  should 
therewith  quench  (cool)  their  thirst.  In  die  dominica  natus  est 
Ckristus  ex  Maria  virgine  pro  salute  nostra.  On  Sunday  was  our 
Lord  born  of  the  holy  maiden  Mary  for  our  salvation.  In  die 
dominica  baptizatus  est  Dominus  noster  in  Jordane.  On  Sunday 
was  our  Lord  baptized  in  the  river  Jordan.  Et  Spiritus  Sanctus  venit 
super  eum  in  specie  columbm.  And  the  Holy  Ghost  came  upon  our 
Lord  in  the  form  of  a  dove,  and  he  heard  his  Father's  voice  from 
heaven,  which  said,  Hie  est  filius  meus  dilectus  in  quo  mihi  bene 
complacitum,  This  is  my  beloved  Son,  in  whom  I  am  well  pleased.  In 
die  dominica  resurrexit  Ckristus  a  mortuis.  On  Sunday  arose  our 
Lord  from  death  to  life,  and  made  arise  with  him  all  those  who 
had  previously  obeyed  him.  In  die  dominica,  post  dies  octo,  venit  ad 
discipulos  per  clausas  januas  et  stetit  in  medio  eorum  dicens,  Pax  ^■>obis. 
And  on  the  twelfth  day  after  that  he  had  arisen  he  came  among 
his  disciples  when  the  gates  were  locked,  that  was  on  Sunday,  and 
said  to  them,  Peace  be  with  you.  On  Sunday  our  Lord  made 
peace  between  heaven  and  earth,  between  angels  and  men,  between 
God   and   men,  between   body  and   soul,  between  the  old  law  and  the 


hefde  bet  folc  adreint.     In  die  dominica  phdt  dominus  manna  °n  Sunday 

'  manna  was 

fiHis  Israel,  sunnedei  prod  sende  manna  from  houene  bam1  is-  sent  from 

•f  °  '  heaven. 

raelisce  folc.     In  die  dominica  *percussum  est  mare  rubrum  in  l  ms.  bet. 
uirtute  del  per  manum  moysi  &  transierunt  jilii  israei  siccis 

gedibus  per  mare  rubrum.     Sunnedei  smat2  Moyses  be  i*ede  se'e'.  *ms.  siriat. 

and  be  see  to-eode  and  bet  iraelisce  folc  wende  ouer.     Et  stetit  °« this  day 

'  '  Moses  divided 

ill  is  mums  in  dextera  atque  in  sinistra,  and  ]>er  stod  a  ricbt  tlie  Red  sea. 
halue  and  a  luft  f  alse  an  castel  wal.  &  itemm  percussit  Moyses 
mare  &  reuersum  est  in  locum,  suum  &  wiersus  est  pharao  cum 
curribus  <£•  equitibus  ems.  and  eft  sone  Moyses  smat3  be  see.  and  3M8.  siriat. 
heo  wende  to  gederea.  and  adreinte  pharao.  and  al  his  ferede 
mid  him.  swa  bet  nes  J>ere  nefre  an  bileued  un-dreint.  In  die 
dominica  percuss  it  moyses  petram  in  heremo  &  fluxerxmt  qvistuor 
Jlumina  que  diuisa  sunt  in  duodecim  partes  ut  traxerint  sitim 
popxdo.     Sunnedei  smat4  Moyses  bene  stan  ine  be  wastine  f  ba     * JIS  siriat. 

l-i  "n  Sunday 

bet  folc  wes  welnech  for-faren  drmkeles  alse  ure  dnhten  him  net.    Moaessmote 

the  rock  in 

and  be  stan  to-chan  i  and  fouwer  walmes  of  watere  spmngen  ut   Horeb. 
J>er  of.  and  ba  fouwer  weren  ideled  a  twelue.  for  J>a  twelf  kun- 
reden  sculden  J>er  mide  heore  Jmrst  kelen.     In  die  dominica 
natus  est  Christus  ex  Maria  uirgine  pro  salute  nostra.     Sminen-   On  Sunday 

our  Lord  was 

dei  wes  ure  drihten  ihoren  of  be  halie  Maiden  Marie  for  ure   bom. 
hele.    In  die  dominica  baptizatus  est  dominus  noster  in  iordane. 
Sunnenclei  wes  ure  drihten  ifulchted  ine  flum  iordan.  <b  spiritus   On  Sunday 

he  was  bap- 

sanctus  uenit  super  eum  in  specie  columbe.  and  be  halie  gast  com  tized. 

uppen  ure  drihten  in  ane  culfre  liche.  and  iherde  liis  fadre  stefne 

of  heouene  and  seide.    Hie  est  Jilius  *meus  dilectus.    in  quo    *[Foi53a.] 

michi  bene  comj^lacitum.  J>is  is  min  loue  sune  bet  me  wel  like£. 

In  die  dominica  resurexit  Christus  a  mortuis.     Sunnedei  aras   on  this  day 

he  arose  from 

ure  drihten  from  de^e  to  Hue.  and  makede  arisen  mid  him  alle  the  du;ul- 
J>a  bet  him  efden  er  ihersumed.  In  die  dominica  post  dies  octo 
uenit  ad  dicipulos  per  clausas  ianuas.  <£■  stetit  in  medio  eorum 
dicens.  pax  nobis,  and  on  be  twelftu3e)>e  dei  efter  }>et  he  wes 
arisen,  he  com  among  his  disciples  per  be  %eten  weren  ilokene. 
bet  wes  a  sunnedei.  and  seide  to  heom  setnesse  beo  mid  eou. 
Sunnedei  makede  ure  drihten  pes  bitweone  heouene  and  eorSe. 
bi-tweone    envies    and    monne.    bi-tweone    erode    and   momie. 

142  THE  lord's  day. 

new,  between  Heathens  and  Christians.  Ipse  enim  est  qui  facit  utra- 
que  unum.  He  it  is  who  eauseth  two  to  be  one.  In  die  dominica 
misit  Dominis  spiritum  super  Apostolos.  On  Sunday  our  Lord  sent 
the  Holy  Ghost  on  his  Apostles  in  the  form  of  fire.  In  die  domi- 
nica  venturus  est  in  majestate,  sua  cum  Sanctis  angelis  et  archangelis, 
in  judicium  vivorum  et  mortuorum.  On  Sunday  our  Lord  will 
come  in  his  great  strength  with  all  the  host  of  heaven  for  to 
judge  both  the  good  and  the  evil,  and  all  men  shall  be  gathered 
before  him,  and  the  earth  also  shall  quake  at  the  sight  of  him,  as 
doth  the  sea  in  a  storm.  Tunc  montes  liquescent  sicut  cera  e  facie 
ignis.  Then  each  hill  shall  burn  and  all  folk,  as  the  prophet 
saith,  Ignis  ante  ipsum  precedet  et  injlammabit  in  circuitu  inimicos 
ejus.  The  fire  shall  go  before  him  and  consume  his  enemies  about 
him.  Et  iterum  Dominus  noster  cum  virtute  veniet  <kc.  Our  Lord 
shall  come  in  power,  in  the  form  of  fire,  and  will  consume  all 
his  foes  and  them  who  are  wont  to  do  evil.  Tunc  cantabunt 
angeli  magna  tuba  et  mortui  resurgent.  Then  shall  the  angels  blow 
with  their  trumpets  in  the  four  quarters  of  the  world,  and  all 
the  dead  shall  arise,  and  stars  shall  darken,  and  the  sun  shall  lose 
her  light,  and  the  stars  shall  fall  from  heaven.  Et  tunc  judicabit 
judicia  novissima,  et  reddet  unicuique  juxta  opiera  sua.  Then  will 
God  judge  his  last  doom,  and  will  give  each  man  his  reward  after 
his  works.  The  sinful  who  break  the  spousehood  (marriage),  the 
closefisted  men,  those  that  gave  little  to  the  poor,  thieves,  those  that 
speak  fair  before  and  false  behind,  the  envious,  the  proud,  the 
drunken,  the  quarrelsome,  the  foresworn,  the  heathen,  the  heretics — 
Ejicientur  cum  Jletu  et  lamentatione  in  poenam  sempiternam,  sine  ablu- 
tione  et  misericordia — shall  be  cast  into  everlasting  torment  without  re- 
demption and  without  mercy.  But  the  righteous  men,  the  true  men,  the 
monks,  the  maidens,  the  wedded  wives,  the  good  men,  the  gentle  men, 
the  merciful  men,  the  liberal,  the  meek,  the  entertainers  (of  strangers), 
the  patient,  the  almsgivers,  those  who  refrain  from  fleshly  lusts — voca- 
bicntur  in  dextra  Dei  Patris  omnipotentis — shall  be  called  to  sit  on 
the  right  hand   of  the  Father.     There   shall   be   worldly  weal  without 



bi-tweone  licome  and  saule.  bi-tweone  be  aide  la}e  and  be 
neowe.  bi-tweone  he^ene  and  cristene.  Ipse  enim  est  qui  fac'xt 
utr&que  ttnum.  be  is  ]>et  make^  twa  to  an.  In  die  dominica 
misit  •  dominus  smritum  super  apostolos.     Smmedei  sende  ure   On  Sunday 

our  Lord  sent 

dribten  bene  balie  £ast  bis  apostlen  in  fnres  licbe.  In  die  do-   *?  Ho,y 

'  ox  Ghost  upon 

minica  uenturus  est  in  mai estate  stia  cum  Sanctis  angelis  <k   the  apostles. 
arcanqel'ia  in  indicium  MJMorum  &  mortnorum.     Smmedei  wile   On  Sunday  he 

°  will  come  to 

ure  drihten  cumen  ine  bis  mucbele  stren^e  mid  alle  heouenware  Judse  tlie 


for  to  deme  babe  be  gode  and  be  uuele.  and  alle  Men  sculen  beon 

igedered  bi-foren  him.  and  ech  eorbe  seal  hwakien  on  bis  ecsene1.     'sic. 

alse  deo^  be  see  in  storme.  tunc  montes  liquescent  sicut  cera  a  facie 

ignis,  benne  ucb  dune  seal  berne.  and  al  folc  alse  be  p[ro]phe£e 

serS.   Ignis  ante  ipmrn  precedet  <[•   'niflnmuiabit  in  circuitu  in- 

imicos  eius.  bet  fur  seal  gan  biforen  and  *forbernen  abuten  bim     *[Foi.  536.] 

fon.  et  iterum.  Dominus  noster  cum  uirtute  ueniet.  &  cetera.    Vre 

drihten  wile  cumen  dredliche  in  fures  liche  and  wile  for-berne   He  will  come 

in  the  form  of 

alle  bis  fon.  and  beom  \et  beo^  iwunede  uuel  to  done.     Tunc  fire. 

cantabunt  angeli  magna  tuba  &  mortui  resurgent,   benne  sculen 

engles  mid  heme  blauwen  on  fower  balue  be  world,  and  alle  dede   ah  the  dead 

shall  rise, 

arisen  and  steori'en  sculen  beostren.  and  be  suune  hire  liht  for- 
leose.  and  steorren  sculen  from  heoueue  falle.  Et  tunc  iudi- 
cabit  indicia  nouissima.  <t  reddet  unicuique  iuxta  opera  sua. 
benne  wille  god  deme  bis  leste  dom.  and  wile  lelden  ecbe  men   an<1  receive 

'  J  their  reward 

his  mede  efter  bis  werke.  be  suwfulle  .Men.  bet  spusbad  breke^.   according  to 

'  '  x  their  works. 

ba  feste  .Men2,    ba  bet  mei   lutel   to   wrecbe.   be  boues.   be  \et    2?Mou. 
Sfteke^  faire  bi-foren  and  false  bi-binden.  be  nvSfulle.  be  prude.    The  wicked 

shall  be  cast 

be  fordruwkene.  be  cbidinde.  be  forsworene3.  be  he^ene.  be  erites.  into  hell. 

eicientur  cum  Jletu  &  lamentatione  in  j)enam  sempiternam  sine  sporene. 
ablutione  &  misericordia.   sculen  beon  iwarpen    ine  ecbe  pine, 

wib-utcn  alesinge  and  wftS-uten  milce.     Acb  be  richtwise  men.  The  righteous 

shall  sit  on 

be  treowe  men.  be  muuekes.  be  meidene.  be  weddede  wiues.  be   God's  right 
f  r  r  r  y      hand 

gode  .Men.  be  softe  .Men.  and  be  Men.  ful  of  milce.  and  be  large. 
Men.  and  be  milde  .Men.  be  berbe[r]gers.  be  bolemode.  be  elmes- 
fulle.  ba  be  heom  wrS-teo^  of  flesliche  lustes.  uocabuntur  in 
dextrdk  dei  pairis  omnipotentis.  sculen  beon  icleoped  on  be  fader 
ribt   balue.    ber   seal   beon    worldwunne  f    wrS-uten    *pouerte.    *[Foi.  54a.] 

144  SERMON  ON  MARK  VIII.  34. 

poverty,  fullness  without  hunger,  health  without  infirmity,  rest  with- 
out toil,  bliss  without  sorrow,  youth  without  old  age,  sight  without 
sleepiness,  song  without  cessation,  smelling  with  sweetness,  and  service 
without  weariness.  Defectio  omnis  mail,  habundancia  omnis  boni. 
Lack  of  all  evils,  abundance  of  every  thing  that  is  good.     Amen. 


SERMON   ON   MARK  vin.  34. 

Qui  vult  venire  post  me,  abneget  semet  ipsum  et  tollat  crucem  suam 
et  sequatur  me.  Woe  to  the  man  that  is  unfortunate,  for  more 
(woe)  shall  one  threaten  him  with,  and  it  may  and  will  cling  to  him. 
But  happy  is  he  that  is  bidden  from  little  to  great  weal,  and  it  is 
also  much  better  for  him  that  is  invited  to  come  from  great  affliction 
to  great  weal. 

We  are  all  in  manifold  adversities  in  this  wretched  life,  what  with 
our  ancestors'  works,  and  what  with  our  own  guilts  (offences) ;  but 
God  Almighty  comforteth  us  with  his  mild  words,  and  teacheth  us 
by  what  way  we  may  come  to  him,  and  saith,  Qui  vult  venire  post  me, 
<L'c.  Whoso  will  come  after  me,  let  him  deny  himself  and  bear  his 
cross,  and  follow  me.  These  words  he  said  sometime  before  he  departed 
this  life.  He  admonished  all  to  endless  bliss  those  who  were  come,  or 
subsequently  have  come,  or  are  to  come.  But  it  seemeth  a  foolish  thing 
to  them  to  forsake  what  they  greatly  love.  Alii  quidem  amant  peccata 
sua,  alii  parentes,  alii  possessiones,  alii  voluptates  et  vicia.  Some 
men  love  their  sins,  some  their  kin,  some  worldly  wealth,  some  lecherous 
practices  and  wicked  devices.  Those  who  love  their  sins  he  admonishes 
thus  and  saith,  Penitentiam  agite  appwpinquabit  enim  regnum  ccelorum. 
Repent  and  forsake  your  sins,  for  doomsday  is  nigh  at  hand.  Those 
who  love  their  kin  he  admonishes  and  saith,  Omnis  qui  reliquerit 
patrem  aut  matrem,  fratrem  aid  sororem,  aut  ceteros  amicos  propter 
noma/   mewm,  centuplum,  et  vitam  eternam  jwssulebit.     All  those  who 

SERMO    IN    MAItCUM    VIII.  34.  145 

fullef    wi^S-uten    hungre.   helef   wi^-uterc  unhele.  restef    wrB- 

uten    swinge1,    blisse '.     wi¥-uten    sarinesse.    Ivyd'Se  i    wrS-uten    »?swincunge. 

ekle.    Lokinge  I    wK-  uteri    winkunge.    song  f    wrS-uten   lisse. 

smelliwge  f    mid    swetnesse.    and    dunge2f    wrS-uten    p?-ikunge.     2?$enunge. 

defectio  omnis  mali.     Hahundancia  omuls  boni.    wonc  of  alio 

uuele  ;  wolcf  cmd  alle  gode3.     Amen.  of  aile  god°e.e 


[SERMO  IN  MARCUM  vm.  3k] 

\~  f\~]vi  wtU  uenire  post  me.    abneget  semet  ipmm  <£■•   tollat  The  text. 

L  ^^J    crucem  suam  <t-  sequatnr  me.  wa  is  fyan*  Mon.  \et  \va  is  4  ms.  Yet. 

cud  me  him  mare  bihat.  and  mei  owe?  wile  hit  him  ileste.     Ach 

him  is  wel  \>et  is  ila^ed  from  lutel  weole  to  muchele.   and  him  is 

ee  muchele  bet '.  \>et  is  ilafted  from  muchele  wowe  f  to  muchele 

wele.     Alle  we  beo^  in   monifahl  wawe  ine  j>isse  wreche  Hue.  We  are  in 

let  ic  ill      »nsi'  11  f<  >1  <1 

hwat  for  ure  eldere  werkes.  hwat  for  ure  asene  gultes.  ach  god   adversities  in 

tills  world. 

almihtin  us  freure^  mid  his  milde  word  and  tcche^  us  l)i  hwiche 
weie  we  ma^en  to  him  cume  and  sev&.  Qui  uult  uenire  post  me 
et  retera.     Hwa  se  wile  cume  efter  me  f  for-sake  him  seolf.  and   Christ  com. 

mauds  us  to 

here  his  rode,  and  folege  me.     Dos  word  he  seide  et  sumtime  to-   forsake  our- 

selves  and  to 

}eines  \>et  he  walde  Jus  lif  forleten.  he  munegede  alle  )?a  \>et  }>o  follow  hil"- 
weren  o&er  seoJrSen   habbe^  ikumen.  o^er  to  kumene  beo^  to 
endeles  blisse.  ach  heom  bing^  uuel  to  forleten  \et  heo  muchel 
luue^.  Alii  quidem.  amaut  peccata  sua.  alii  pa/rentes,  alii  pos- 
sessiones.  alii  uoluptatates5  &■  uicia.     Summe  men  luuie^S  heore     5sic. 

ii  ii  ,i       What  men 

sunnen.  summe  heore  kun.  summe  world  wunne.  summe .   gal-  ,nost  iove  in 

iche*  lectres  and  luSere  lastes  }>a  \>et  luuiefc  heore  sunnef   he  *  i  vol  ai«/ : 
mune3e:S  Jms  and  serS.  penitenciam,  agite  appropinquobit  enim 

regnum  celorum.     Cume^  to  sunbote  and  forlete^  eower  sunne.  They  are 

for  domes  dei  nehlechet  \>a  ]>et  luue^  heore  kun  '.    he  munejeft  to  forsake 

.._...  ,  their  sins, 

ami  sero.  Omm s  qui  rehqiierit  jxdreva.  aid  matrem.  Jralvem  aut 
sororem.  aut  ceteros  aminos  propter  nomen  meum  f  centuplum.  & 
uitani  eternam  possidehit.     Alle  }>a  \irt  forlete%5  fader  o¥er  moder. 


146  SERMON    ON    MARK    VIII.  34. 

leave  father  or  mother,  sister  or  brother,  or  other  friends  for  my 
name,  they  shall  receive  a  hundredfold  reward,  and  life  without  end. 
Those  who  love  worldly  bliss  he  admonishes,  and  saith,  Qui  non  re- 
nunciaverit  omnibus  quae,  possidet  non  potest  meus  esse  discipulus — No 
man  may  follow  me  except  he  leave  all  that  he  possesseth.  Duobus 
modis  renunciatur  2)ossessis,  desinendo  habere  et  desinendo  arnare — In  two 
ways  a  man  may  forsake  worldly  wealth ;  one  is  that  he  should  bestow 
it  upon  those  who  have  none,  another  is  that  he  should  think  so  little 
thereof,  as  not  to  love  it.  It  is  not  a  great  sin  if  a  man  have  wealth, 
but  it  is  a  great  sin  if  a  man  love  his  riches ;  for  he  may  not  love  God 
and  also  his  wealth.  Those  who  love  lascivious  sins  he  thus  admonishes, 
and  saith,  Qui  vult  venire,  <kc. — Whoso  desires  to  come  after  me,  let 
him  deny  himself,  and  bear  his  cross,  and  follow  me.  But  as  it  is 
hard  to  understand  in  what  manner  a  man  may  deny  himself,  take 
heed  thereto,  and  by  God's  permission  I  will  tell  you  (how).  Duo 
sunt  in  homine,  cdiud  per  naturam  condittim,  aliud  per  culpam 
illatum — Two  things  are  in  man,  the  one  is  brought  by  nature,  and 
that  is  the  fair  nature  that  is  formed  between  soul  and  body ;  the  other 
is  the  foul  guest  (stranger)  which  the  devil  hath  brought  therein. 
Wherefore  no  man  may  come  to  God  unless  he  forsake  the  foul  sojourner 
which  the  devil  hath  brought  in  him  on  account  of  sin,  and  also 
preserve  that  fair  nature  of  soul  and  body  that  God  hath  put  into 
him,  and  continue  in  the  purity  that  he  hath  acquired  at  his  baptism. 
Tres  cruces  sunt  de  quibus  hie  agitur,  duce  corporis,  una  mentis — Three 
crosses  there  are  about  which  I  shall  speak,  two  bodily,  and  one  spiritual. 
Crux  corporis  est  quando  corpus  distensum  membratim  punitur — The 
corporal  cross  is  when  the  body  suffereth  pain  in  this  life  upon  the 
cross,  and  is  thereon  spread  out,  as  our  Saviour  was  when  put  on 
the  holy  cross  for  our  sins,  though  he  himself  had  none,  and  when 
he  had  upon  his  head  a  crown  of  thorns,  and  when  his  sides  were 
opened  with  the  point  of  the  spear,  and  when  his  feet  were  pierced 
through  with  the  iron  nails.  But  man  may  come  to  God  though  his 
body  endure  not  so  great  torture.  But  he  admonishes  us  to  bear 
another  cross,  that  is  named  carnis  maceratio— leanness  of  flesh.  Man 
causeth  his  flesh  to  become  lean  when  he  giveth  himself  little  to  eat  and 

SERMO    IN    MARCUM    VIII.  34.  147 

suster  o^er  broker.  ofter  o^re  freond.  for  mine  nome  •  heo  sculen  and  to  leave 

their  kin  and 

underfon  hundfalde  mede.  and  lif  buten  ende.  bet  luue^  world   friends  and 

follow  Christ. 

wuune  f  he  niui^e^  and  serS.  Qui  won  reminciauerit  omnibus 
que  possidet  non  potest  mens  esse  dicvpulus.  Ne  mei  11a  .Mom. 
me  fo^en  f  bute  he  forlete  al  bet  he  iwald  ach.  Duobus  modis 
renunciatur  p>ossesis  desinendo  habere  &•  desinendo  a/ma/re.  On 
twa  wise  .Mow.  mei  forlete  world  winne.  an  is  bet  he  hit  do  for   in  what  way 


him  f  bet  he  hit  nabbe.  an  o^er  is  bet  he  telle  swa  lutel  tale  ber   wealth  may 

'  be  forsaken. 

of '.   bet  he  hit  nawicht  ne  luuie.  hit  nis  nawieht  simne  niuchel '. 

if  .Mow.  cchte  habbe.  ach  hit  is  muche  sunne '.    if  ,Mo?j.  echte 

luuicS.  for  he  ne  mei  nawiht  luuie  god  i  and  ec  his  ehte.  ba  bet 

luueS  galiche  lectres  '.  he  mune3e^  bus  and  serS.  Qui  uidt  uenire 

et  cetera,  hwa  se  wule  cume  efte?*  me '  forsake  him  solf.  and  bere 

his  rode,  and  fole3e  me.     Ach  hit  is  uuel  to  understonden  on 

hwulche  wise  .Mow.  mei  him  solf  forsake  *nime^  3eme  ber  to '.     ♦  LFoi.55r(.] 

and  ic  hit  weo1  wile  sugge  b[i]  godes  leue.  Duo  sunt  in  homine.     1  ?eow. 

aliud  per  naturam  conditum.  aliud  j)er  cidpam  illatum.     Twa   Two  things  in 

man— the  one 

bin"  beo^  ine  be  .Mow.  bet  an  is  bet  brochte  icunde.  and  bet  fairc   divine,  the 

\      °  '  '  '  >  other  devilish. 

icunde  bet  is  igedered  bi-twene  saule  and  licame.  bet  o^er  is  be 

fule  on-kume  ba  be  douel  haue^  beron  ibroht.   berfore  ne  mei  na 

.Mow.  to  gode  cume  i  bute  he  forlete  be  fule  011-cume  be  ^e  douel 

haued  on  him  ibroht  of  sunne.  and  hct  haldc  bet  faire  ikunde. 

bet  god  haueft  on  him  idow  of  saule  and  of  likame.   and  wunie 

ine  bet  clenesse '.   bet  he  haue^  et2  his  fulluhte  ifet.  tres  cruces    2  ms.  ec. 

sunt  de  quibus  hie  agitur.  due  corporis  una  mentis,  breo  roden   of  three 


beoft  ba  ich  umbe  speche.  twa  licamliche  '.  and  an  gastliche. 
Crux  corporis  est.'  qu&ndo  corpus  distensum  menbvziim  punitur. 
be  likameliche  rode  is  '.  hwenne   be  likame  bole^  pine  ine  J)is   of  the  bodily 

.  .  cross. 

hue  ine  rode  and  brS  ]>er  on  to-spred  '.  alse  ure  helewde  wes  ine 
j>e  halie  rode  for  ure  gultes.  bet  nefde  him  solf  nane.  pa  be  he 
hefde  uppen  his  hefde  }>ornene  helm,  cmd  weren  his  side  mid 
speres  orde  iopened.  and  his  fet  mid  irnene  neiles  burhstungen. 
ach  .Mow.  mei  to  gode  cume  bach  his  likame  swiche  pine  ne  Jiole. 
Ac  he  munege^  us  an  o%er  rode  to  berenef  bet  is  inemned. 
Carnis  maceratio.  fleises  lensinft'.    Mow.  lense^  his  fleis  f  hwewne   Leanness  of 

0  flesh. 

he  him  3efe:S  lutel  to  etene.  and  lesse  to  driwke.  *and  ofte  for    »[fui.  556.] 

148  SERMON    OX    MAEK    VIII.  34. 

less  to  drink,  and  often  for  his  sins  scourgeth  himself  with  small  switches. 
Et  hcec  est  scala  peccatormn — And  this  is  the  ladder  of  all  sinful  men 
by  which  they  shall  ascend  into  heaven.  Crux  mentis  est  cordis  con- 
tritio  et  proxumi  compassio  -  The  spiritual  cross  is  named  sorrow  of  heart 
on  account  of  a  man's  own  sins  and  pity  for  his  fellow-Christian's  woes. 
Heart-sorrow  hath  the  man  when  he  remembers  that  he  has  sinned, 
and  bemourns  his  affliction,  and  comes  to  shi-ift,  and  repents  of  his 
sins,  according  to  his  priest's  instructions.  Pity  for  his  fellow-Christian's 
woes  hath  the  man  that  sees  his  neighbour  fall  into  sin  or  attacked  with 
sickness,  and  unable  Avithout  assistance  to  get  quit  thereof.  If  he  may 
not  with  worldly  goods  relieve  his  necessities  it  sorely  grieves  him,  and 
he  bemourneth  bitterly  his  fellow-Christian's  woes.  Again,  when  a  man 
remembers  that  he  hath  been  sinful,  and  committed  very  many  sins, 
his  heart  then  aches  as  his  head  would  if  he  had  thereon  a  helmet  of 
thorns.  Again,  when  the  man  remembers  that  he  hath,  in  lustful  deeds, 
provoked  God  very  much  to  wrath,  and  hath  not  taken  heed  whether 
she  with  whom  he  had  to  do  was  married  or  not,  but  only  that  his 
foul  lusts  were  slaked  ;  when  the  man  remembers  that  he  hath  too 
seldom  gone  to  church,  and  often  with  his  hands  done  what  he  should 
not  have  done  ;  then  will  his  heart  ache,  as  his  feet  and  his  hands 
would  if  they  were  pierced  through  with  iron  nails.  And  if  we 
ourselves  thus  willingly  torture,  then  may  we  be  God's  disciples — then 
may  we  follow  him  and  abide  with  him.  Entreat  our  Lord  that  ye 
may  come  after  him,  and  renounce  the  foul  guest  of  sin  that  the 
devil  hath  brought  into  you,  and  retain  the  bright  nature  of  soul 
and  body  that  God  hath  brought  into  you,  and  the  purity  of  your 
baptism  that  ye  have  received  at  the  font ;  and  that  ye  may  bear 
the  cross  which  God  admonishes  you  to  bear,  and  follow  him,  and  dwell 
with  him  (for  ever).     Quod  nobis  prestare  dignetur  qui  vivit,  &c.     Amen. 

SERMO    IX    MAKCTM    VIII.  34.  149 

his  sunne  swinged  him  mift1  smele  twige.  Et  liec  est  sccda  pecca-     '  ms.  nuS. 
forum,  and  bis  is  alle  sunfulle  monne  leddre  bet  heo  sculcn  in  to   The  ladder  of 

sinful  men. 

heouene  sti3en.  Crux  mentis  est  cordis  eontritio  &  proxumi  coni- 

vassio.  be  gastliche  rode  is  inenined  i  heorte  sar  for  be  monnes   The  spiritual 

'       °  '  cross  is  called 

ajene  sunne.  and  row^e  for  his   emcristenes  wawe.  horte  sar   heart-sorrow. 

hauefc  be. Mow.  [hwenne]  him  bibengb  bet  he  isuneged  haue^.  and  bet 

sare  bi-mwme$  and  to  scrifte  kimet.  and  bi  his  prostes  wissunge 

his  sunne  beteS.    Keube  for  his  emcristenes  wawe  haue¥  be  .Mora. 

bet  isich  his  emcristene  in  sunne  bi-falle.  o^er  mid  sicnesse  bi-gan. 

and  ne  mei  buten  helpe  ber  cume.     If  he  ne  mei  mid  worldliche 

echte  his  neode  ibete  f  bet  him  sare  roweb.  and  his  emcristenes 

wawe  sare  bi-murne^.   eft  sone  hwenne  .Won.  him  bi-benche^ 

bet  he  liaue^  sunful  ibeon.  and  to  fele  sunne  idon.  benne  wule    Sorrow  for 

sins  uf  the 

his  heorte  ake  alse  his  heued  wolde  !   if  he  hefde   ber   uppon    fl«*  ; 
bornene  helm.     Eft  sone  hwenne  be  .Mow.  him  bibenchb  bet  he 
hauefc  on  galiche  dede  to  muche  god  iwrebed.  and  naue^  inume 
3eme  hwe^er  heo  bi -wedded  were  be  neref  bet  he  hefde  mid 
to  donne  f  bute  his  fule  lust  were  ikeled.  benne  be  .Mow.  him  bi-   sorrow  for 

neglect  of 

bengb  bet  he  haue^  to  selde  igan  to  chirche.  and  ilome  mid  his    <luties- 

honde  idon  bet  he  don  ne  sculde  I  benne  wule  his  heorte  ake  alse 

his  fet  and  his  honde  '.  if  heo  burh  irnene  neile  were  burh-stunge. 

and  if  we  bus  us  solue  willeliche  pine^ '.   benne  ma3e  we  beon 

godes  lornigk indites2,  bonne  *we  ma2e  him  folegre.  and  mid  him     2?  lenming. 

.  .  .  knichtes. 

l)ileue.     Biddeft  ure  drihten  bet  %e  moten  efter  him  kume  and     *[Pol.56a.] 

bene  fule  onkume  for-lete  ba  be  douel  haueS  in  ow  ibroht  of   Pray  to  he 


sunne  and  edhalde  bet  brihte  ikunde  f    bet  god  haueS  in   ow   from  the  foul 

'        °  guest  of  sin. 

ibroht  of  saule  and  of  likame.  and  be  klennesse  of  ower  fulluhte 
bet  3e  habbeS  et  be  fonstan  underfonge.  and  bet  3c  moten  be  rode 
litre,  be  god  ow  to  munegeS.  and  him  folege  and  mid  him 
bileue.  Qwod  nobis  ^restate  tfignetur  qui  m'uit  &  cetera.    Amen. 

150  BE    STRONG    IN    WAR. 



T7stote  fortes  in  hello  et  pugnate  cum  antiquo  serpente  et  accipietis 
regnum  eternum  elicit  Dominus.  This  word  that  I  now  declare 
unto  thee,  our  Lord  uttered  at  a  time  when  he  dwelt  in  the  land 
of  Jerusalem,  and  admonished  all  that  were  (there)  to  fight  bravely 
(strongly)  ;  and  because  the  fight  (conflict)  was  strong  to  master  and 
difficult  to  undertake,  he  promised  them  gi-eat  reward  provided  they 
would  undertake  this  conflict,  and  saith,  E stole  fortes,  &c. — Be  strong  in 
battle,  and  fight  with  the  old  serpent,  and  if  ye  be  stronger  than  she,  ye 
shall  have  for  your  reward  eternal  bliss.  Qwia  diversa  genera  hominum 
seqioebantur  eum,  et  ipse  dixit  sermones  suos,  turn  ad  discipidos,  turn 
ad  hos,  turn  ad  illos ;  aperiendum  est  et  quibus,  et  de  qua  fortitudine 
et  de  quo  hello,  et  de  qua  serpente  hoc  dixerit.  Many  kinds  of  men 
followed  our  Lord  in  this  life,  some  to  get  their  faith  from  him, 
others  to  get  their  daily  bread,  and  some  to  try  if  they  might  take 
him  unawares  in  sin.  Therefore  it  is  good  that  you  should  be  told 
whom  he  admonishes  to  this  warfare.  Some  men  loved  their  sins  and 
would  not  forsake  them  ;  he  admonishes  not  them  to  this  fight,  nor 
those  who  have  forsaken  their  sins  but  have  not  repented  of  them  ; 
but  he  admonishes  to  this  fight  those  who  have  repented  of  their 
sins,  or  are  possessed  with  the  spirit  of  repentance,  and  specially  the 
twelve  apostles,  and  among  them  the  lord  Nathaniel,  whose  day  it 
is  to-day.  Of  the  strength  that  God  admonishes  us  to  speaks  Liber 
Sapiential,  that  is,  the  Book  of  Wisdom,  and  saith,  Fortitudo  simjilicis  est 
via  Domini — God's  way  is  strength  to  the  simple  man.  Simple  or  double 
is  each  man  ;  that  showeth  the  lord  St.  James,  and  saith  [of  the  double 
man],  Vir  duplex  ani/mo  inconstans  est  in  omnibus  viis  suis — The  double- 
faced  man  is  unsteadfast  in  all  his  ways.  But  Job  was  a  simple  and 
righteous  man,  and  so  good  a  man  that  our  Lord  himself  praised  him,  and 
said  that  under  heaven  there  was  none  like  unto  him.  Via  Domini  qua 
venit  ad  nos  et  nos  ad  eum,  misericordia  et  Veritas — The  way  that  God 


ESTOTE    FOUTES    IN    BELLO.  151 


stole  fortes  in  hello  &  pugnate  cum  antiquo  serpente.  & 

accipietis  regnum  et&cnum  dicit  dominus.     pis  word  be   These  words 

were  spoken 

ich  nu  be  for-tech * '  seide  urc  drihten  et  sume  time  ba  be  wunedc   by  Christ  in 

'  Jerusalem. 

ine  be  londe  of  ierwsalem.  and  munegede  alle  pet  weren  to  stronge     i?f0rfS-teah. 
fechte.  and  for  bon  be  \>et  fecht  wes  strong  to  ouer-cumen.  and 
uuel  to  undertone  i  he  bi-het  bom  muche  mede  wrS  ban  pet  beo 
walde  bis  fecht  underfon  and  serS.  Estote  fortes  <k  cetera.  beoS 
stronge  on  fihte.  and  fihte^  wiS  be  aide  neddre.  and  if  5e  beoft   Fjgnt  witJ> 

o  r  -»  the  old  adder. 

strengre  be  heo  f  3e  sculcn  habben  to  me  [de]  eche  blisse  Quia 
diuersa  genera  kominum  sequebantur  eum.  &  ipse  dixit  sermones 
suos.  turn,  ad  didpulos.  turn  ad  Iws.  turn  ad  illos.  apeviendum.  est 
et  quibus.  et  de  qua  fortitudine  et  de  quo  hello,  et  de  qua  serpente 
hoc  dixerit.     Monie  kunnes  men  foleseden  ure  drihten  ine  bisse   of  the  divers 

J  kinds  of  men 

Hue  f  summe  to  fechen  heore  bileue  et  him.  sumnie  to  fechen   who  followed 

our  Lord. 

heore  deis  fode.  su?/mie  to  kunnen  if  heo  mihten  him  mid  sunne 
uwdernime  *  ber  fore  hit  is  god  pet  "Mon  ow  segge  hwiche  he    *  [Foi.  56&.] 

munegeb  to  bis  fehte.     Summe  men  luueden  heore  suraie.  and  those  whom 

nalden  heom  forleten.  he  ne  munegeb  noht  heom  to  bis  fiht.  ne  admonishes 

to  warfare. 

for  bon  ba  be  hefden    heore   suwne  forleten.  and  nawiht   ibet. 

Ah  ba  he  munegeb  to  bis  feht  i  pet  hefden  heore  sunne  ibet.  ober 

on  bote  bifongen.  and  nomeliche  be  twelf  apostles,  and  amorcg 

heom  be  lauerd.  N.  hwas  dei  hit  is  to  dei.  of  be  streinbe  pet  god 

us  to  munegeb  spech  liber  sapience.  pet  is  be  boc  of  wisdom  and 

sevS.  fortitudo  simplicis  est  uia  domini.     Godes  wei  is  streinSe 

be  anfalde  monne.     Anfald  o^er  twafald  is  ech  mon  pet  kimed2     *?knnne'8. 

be  lauerd  saint  lame,  and  serS.  Vir  duplex  animo  inconstans  est  double  is 

in  omnibus  uiis  suis.    pe  twafalde  .Mow.  is  unstabelfest  i  on  alle 

his  weies.     Ah  lob  wes  anfald  rihtwis  .Mon.  and  swa  godmon  ?    Of  the  simple 

°  man. 

bet  ure  drihten  him  solf  hiue  herede.  and  seide  pet  under  houene 
ne  nan  his  ilike.    Via  domini  qua  uenit  ad  nos  &  nos  ad  eum 

152  BE    STRONG    IN    WAR. 

came  unto  man,  and  man  cometh  unto  him,  is  called  mercy  and 
truth.  God  showed  mercy  to  man  when  he  sent  his  patriarchs  and 
prophets  to  proclaim  his  wonders.  Truth  he  showed  to  man  when 
he  himself  came,  as  he  had  promised,  and  delivered  us  out  of  ever- 
lasting woe.  Let  us  thank  him  for  it.  Mercy  a  man  shows  to  him- 
self when  he  bethinks  of  his  sins,  and  sorely  bemourns  them,  and 
prays  for  mercy.  Truth  a  man  shows  to  himself  when  he  makes 
known  his  sins  to  his  priest  just  as  he  has  committed  them.  And 
against  what  foes  we  ought  to  fight  the  apostle  thus  saith,  Non  est 
nobis  colluctatio  adversus  carnem  et  sanguinem,  sed  adversus  rectores 
tenebrarum — We  are  not  to  fight  against  flesh  and  blood,  but  against 
the  accursed  spirits  that  rule  the  darkness.  Sed  ab  hoste  invisibili 
difficile  cavetur — But  evil  (hard)  it  is  to  fight  against  this  foe  whom 
we  are  not  able  to  see,  and  the  blows  are  hard  to  ward  off,  and 
we  never  know  on  which  side  they  will  fall.  But  wherefore  does 
our  Lord  call  this  foe  an  adder  (serpent)  1  Diabolus  nominatur  h  ic 
serpens,  propter  tria.  Invidia  tabescit ;  sine  strepitu  serpet ;  quod  pun- 
git,  veneno  afficit — The  serpent  doth  three  things  bodily  that  the 
devil  doth  spiritually.  The  serpent  hath  envy  and  hatred  ;  the  ser- 
pent creeps  secretly  ;  the  serpent  poisoneth  all  those  that  she  stings. 
So  hath  the  devil  envy  and  hatred  towards  man,  and  could  endure 
that  men  were  dead,  though  he  himself  were  none  the  better  for  it. 
As  the  book  saith,  Per  invidiam  iatravit  mors  in  orbem  terrarum — 
Through  envy  and  hatred  came  death  into  the  world.  Again,  the 
serpent  creepeth  secretly  ;  so  doth  the  devil  into  the  eyes  of  men,  if 
they  are  open  to  behold  idleness  and  vanity  ;  into  the  ears,  if  they  are 
open  to  listen  to  slander,  idle  stories  and  lies,  and  other  things  that 
are  against  God's  behests  ;  into  the  nose,  when  the  nose  is  open  to  smell 
illicit  breath  (smells) ;  in  the  mouth,  when  it  is  open  to  lie,  or  sinneth 
in  excessive  eating  and  in  over-drinking  ;  into  the  privy  parts  the  devil 
creepeth  secretly,  when  they  are  ready  to  (commit)  lascivious  deeds. 
Hce  sunt  quinque  portce  mortis  per  quas  ingreditur  auctor  mortis  ut 
afferat  mortuos.  These  are  the  five  gates  through  which  the  worker 
of  death  cometh  in,  and  therein  death  also,  as  the  psalmist  saith,  Per 
mille   meandros  a  gib  it  quieta   corda — With   a   thousandfold   devices   he 

ESTOTE    FORTES    IN    BELLO.  153 

rmsericorcUa  &  ueritas.  \>e  wei  bet  god  com  in  to  monnc.  and 
mon  kume?  in  to  him  f  is  ihaten  milclheortnesse,  and  so?fest- 
nesse.     Milclheortnesse  God  kudde  monne  f  ba  be  he  sende  his  of  GoiVs 

'       '  mercy  and 

patriarken  and  propketen  '.   for  to  hodien  his  tokume.     So?fest-  truth  toman, 
nesse  he  kudde  mon  J  ba  be  he  him  solf  com  alse  he  hefde  bihaten. 
and  us  alesde  ut  of  eche  wawe.  Ibonked  wur?e  him.   Milclheort- 
nesse me  ku?  him  soluen  f  henne1  he  him  bi-beng?  \et  he  isuneg-     J  ?  hwenne. 
ed  haue?.  and  \et  sare  birnurne?.  and  milce  bit.     So?festnesse 
*me  ku?  him  solue  '.  hwenne  he  his  sunnen  unde?  to  his  proste.     *[Foi.  57a.] 
alswa  alse   he   heom  haue?  idon  and  to^eines  hwiche  fan  we 
a3en  to  fechte  be  apostel  sei?.  Non  est  nobis  colluctatio  aduersus 

camera,  et  sanquinem.  sed  rectores  tenebrarura.     We  ne  We  are  com- 
manded to 

a3en  naut  to  fihten  to^eines   fleis  and  blod  f    ah    to^eines  ba  ^ht  a«ai,lst 

awariede  gastes  \>et  welded  bosternesse.  sed  ab  hoste  inuisibili  darkness. 

dxficile  cauetur.     Ah  uuel  hit  is  to  werien  to-jeines  bene  fa  f  be 

.Mon.  ne  mei  naut  ison.  and  be  duntes  bo?  uuel  to  kepen  f  \>et 

mon  nat  nefre  on  hwilche  halue  ho  wilen  falle.     Ach  for-hwi 

nemne?  ure  drihten  bis  fa  to  neddi-e.     Diabolus  nominatur  hie  Whythedeva 

is  called  a 

serpens  '.  propter  tria.     Inuidia  f  tabescit.  sine  strepitu  i  serpit.    serpent. 

qrxod  pungit  t  ueneno  afficit.  [nedjdre  deb  breo  bing  licamliche  '. 

\>et  be  douel  de?  gastliche.     Nedre  haue?  nib  and  onde.     Nedre 

smu^e^  derneliche.  nedre  attre?  al  \et  heo  priked.     Swa  haue? 

be  douel  nih2  and  onde  to  monne.  and  bolede  3  \et  Mon  ded  were  f     2  ?  nr5. 

beh  him  solf  be  betre  nere.  alse  be  boc  sei?.  Per  invidiam  in-      ' wo  e' 

trauit  mors  in  orbem  terrarura,  bui'h  ni?  and  onde  com  de?  in   Through  envy 

death  came 

to  be  worlde.     Eft  sone  smuse?  derneliche  f  swa  de?  be  douel   i«to  the 

r  ?  \  world. 

ine  be  moranes   e3en  \    if  ho  bo?    opene  to  bihalden   idel  and   The  devil 

creeps  into 

unnet.    Ine  be  '  eren  t  if  ho  bo?  opene  to  lusten  hoker.  and  spel.    man  through 

his  five  senses. 

and  leow.  and  o?er  bing  be£  bo?  to^eines  godes  heste.     Ine  be 

nose  f  hwenne  be  nose  bi?  open  to  smelle  unlofne  bre?.     Ine  be 

mu?e.  hwenne  be  *  mu?  is  open  for  to  li3en.  o?er  sune3e?  on     *  [Foi.  67b.] 

muchele  ete  and  on  ouer  drinke.     Et  be  schape  be  douel  smu3e? 

in  derneliche  \  hwenne  hit  bi?  3aru  to  galiche  deden.     Hee  sunt 

quinque  porte  mortis  per  quas  ingreditur  auctor  mortis  ut  ctfferat 

mortuos.    pis  beo?  be  fif  3eten  burh  hwam  kim?  in  de?es  wurhte. 

and  ber  ine  de?  alse  be  lof-songere  sei?.   Per  mille  meamdros 

154  SERMON    ON    PSALM    CXXVI.    6. 

troubles  the  thoughts  that  formerly  were  (at  peace)  together,  and 
woundeth  the  soul.  But  may  our  Lord,  that  admonishes  us  to  fight 
against  the  old  adder  (serpent),  give  us  power  and  strength  to  have 
the  same  weapons  that  the  apostle  speaks  of,  thus  saying,  Induite  vos 
armaturam  del  sumentes  loricam  fidei,  gcdeam  spei,  scutum  caritatis, 
gladium  sp>iritus,  quod  est  verbum  del — Clothe  you  with  the  weapons 
of  God,  and  take  good  belief  for  your  hauberk,  hope  for  a  helmet, 
true  love  (charity)  for  a  shield,  and  God's  word  for  a  sword.  His 
armis  munitus  vicit  David  Goliam.  With  these  weapons  was  David 
armed  when  he  overcame  Goliath  the  enemy  ;  so  desires  God  that 
we  may  herewith  overcome  the  old  serpent,  and  have  for  our  reward 
everlasting  bliss.  Quod  nobis  prestare  dignetur  qui  vivit  et  regnat 
deus,  &c.     Amen. 


SERMON   ON  PSALM   cxxvi.  6. 

-rpuntes  ibant  Jlebant,  mittentes  semina  sua,  venientes  autem  venient 
cum  exultatione,  portantes  manipulos  suos.  The  holy  prophet 
David  speaks  in  a  passage  in  the  psalter,  and  makes  us  understand 
in  what  wise  the  holy  men  honoured  our  Lord  in  this  life,  and  what 
reward  they  shall  have  for  their  fair  service,  and  thus  saith,  Euntes, 
<kc.  They  went  weeping  and  sowed,  and  shall  afterwards  come 
and  reap  in  joy.  He  speaketh  of  what  was  to  come,  as  if  it  were 
come,  for  he  knew  that  it  should  come.  Sed  quo  euntes  ?  in  mortem — 
But  whither  were  they  going  1  from  worldly  joy  unto  bodily  woe ; 
from  health  into  sickness ;  from  rest  into  toil ;  where  their  bodies 
should  be  mortified  until  they  came  to  their  lives'  end.  Quas  lacrimas 
fundentes  ?  turn  compunctionis,  turn  compassionis,  turn  peregrinationis, 
turn  contemplationis — What  tears  shed  they  1  Sometimes  they  shed  hot 
tears  for  their  own  sins  when  they  bethought  that  they  had  sinned,  and 
sorely  bemourned  it  and  prayed  for  mercy.     Tales  lacrimas  fudit  Marie 

SERMO   IN   PS.    CXXVI.   6.  155 

agitat  quiela  corda.     Mid  busend  falde  wrenche  he  to-drefeS  be 

bonk  bet  erre  weren  to-gederc.  and  wundeb  be  saule.     Ah  ure   May  God  give 

>  >  °  >     >  us  strength  to 

drihten  bet  munege^  us  to  fechten  te^eines  bet1  aide  neddre  f  3eue  £fg  j^^f 
us  mihte  and  streiuSe  to  habben  bet1  ilke  wepne  ba  be  apostel     '  ?  pe. 
spekS  of  and-  sev&.  Induite  uos  armaturam  dei  sumentes  loricam 
fidei.    Galeam  spei.  scutum  caritatis.  gladium  spiritus  '.   quod  est 
uerbum  dei.     ScrudeS  ow  mid  godes  wepne.  and  nimeS  gode   ^0s^ntual 
ileue  to  burne.     To  hope  to  helme  f  softe  luue  to  scelde.  godes 
word  to  sworde.     His  armis  munitus  uicit  dauid,  Goliam.     Mid 
bis  wepne  wes  d«md  iscrud  ba  he  goliam  be  fond  ouer-com.  swa 
wile  god  bet  we  moten  her  mide  be  aide  neddre  ouercume.  and 
habbe  to  medc  endelese  blisse.    Quod  nobis  ^rcstare  cftgnetur  qui 
uiuit  et  regnat  deus,  et  cetera.     Amen. 


[SERMO  IN   PS.  cxxvi.  6.] 


untes  ibant  et  flebant.  mittentes  semina  sua.  Venientes  a/idem   The  words  of 

"  the  Psalmist. 

uenient  cum.  exultatione  portantes  manijndos  suos.     pe 
halie  propkete  dauid  spec^  on  ane  stude  in  be  sauter.  and  deb  us 
to  understoraten  on  hwiche  wise  be  halie  .Men.  hersumden  ure 
drihten  *  ine  bisse  Hue.  and  hwiche  mede  heo  sculen  habboi  for     *  [F°i.  5Sa.] 
hore  feire  seruise  and  bus  serS.  euntes  et  cetera,  heo  oden  wepende.    Of  those  that 

'  sowed 

and  sowen  and  sculen  eft  cumen  mid  blisse  and  mawen.  he  specS   weeping. 

of  bet  wes  to  cumene  alse  hit  icumene  were,  for  he  wiste  bet  hit 

dime  sculde.     Sed  quo  euntes  '.   in  mortem.    Ach  hwider  wenden   They  went 

from  joy  into 

heo  f  from  worliche  wunne  ine  likamliche  wawe.  fram  hele '.  in   woe. 
unhele.  from  reste  in  to  swinke.  and  ber  hore  likame  pineden 
for  to  bet  heo  comen  to  his2  Hues  ende.  Quas  lacvimas  fundentes.     2  sic. 
turn,  compunctionis.  turn  compassionis.  turn  p>e?egrinationis.  turn, 
contevaplationis.  hwiche  teres  scheden  ho  c.  o£>er  hwile  heo  scheden   They  shed 

hot  tears  for 

hate  teres  for  hore  &%en  simnen  f  hweraie  ho  hom  brSohten  bet  heo   tneir  sins, 
isuneged  hefden.  and  bet  sare  bimwneden.  and  milce  beden.   Tales 

156  SERMON    ON    PSALM    CXXVI.    6. 

Magdalene  quando  lavit  pedes  Domini — Such  tears  shed  Mary  Magdalene 
when  she  washed  our  Lord's  feet,  and  she  herself  became  washed  of 
her  foul  sins.  Interdum  videntes  aliquos  affllgi  multotiens  fuderunt 
lacrimas  compassionis  —  Sometimes  the  holy  men  shed  hot  tears  for 
their  fellow-Christians'  woes,  when  they  saw  their  fellow-Christians 
suffer  affliction  or  fallen  into  sickness,  for  which  they  sincerely  pitied 
them,  and,  as  far  as  they  were  able,  relieved  their  necessities.  Tales 
lacrimas  fudit  dominus  quando  Lazarum  suscitavit — Such  tears  shed 
our  Lord  when  he  saw  the  sisters  Martha  and  Mary  Magdalene  weep 
for  their  brother's  death ;  and  our  Lord,  in  compassion  for  them, 
shed  hot  tears  from  his  holy  eyes,  and  raised  their  brother,  so  that 
they  ceased  their  weeping,  and  their  hearts  and  their  weeping  were 
turned  to  great  joy.  Plerique  et  tedio  vitai  presentis  affecti  fuderunt 
lacrimas  peregrinationis  —  Sometimes  the  holy  men  shed  hot  tears 
because  weary  of  the  world,  for  they  were  sorry  because  this  earthly 
life  lasted  too  long  for  them.  Tales  lacrimas  fudit  Job;  quando 
dicebat.  Tedet  animam  meam  vita;  mece — Such  tears  shed  Job  when 
he  uttered  these  words,  "  Woe  is  my  soul  that  my  life  lasteth  thus 
so  long ! "  And  David  the  prophet  wept  because  disgusted  with  the 
world  when  he  said,  Heu  michi,  &c.  —  Woe  is  me  now  that  my 
exile  is  here  so  long  protracted,  and  that  I  must  dwell  in  a  strange 
land.  Hoc  autem  dicebat,  quia  non  habemus  hie  manentem  civitatem  ; 
sed  in  ccelis  debet  esse  conversatio  nostra.  That  he  said,  because  we 
dwell  here  as  exiles,  but  our  abode  is  in  heaven  if  we  strive  there- 
after. Justus  autem  cum  languet  pro  desiderio  ccelestis  patrie  fundit 
lacrimas  contemplationis — The  righteous  man,  that  with  the  eyes  of 
his  heart  looks  into  heaven  and  seeth  the  great  bliss  to  which  he  is 
invited,  will  soon  long  to  go  thitherward,  and  when  he  may  not 
come  thither  as  quickly  as  he  would  he  sendeth  thither  his  hot 
tears.  Utrasque  lacrimas,  scilicet  peregrinationis  et  contemplationis 
fudit  fortasse  apostolus  quando  dicebat,  enpio  dissolui  et  esse  cum 
Christo  —  Each  of  these  tears  shed  the  apostle,  at  least,  I  ween,  when 
he  said,  "  I  would  that  I  wove  dead,  for  I  long  for  Christ."  lice 
quatuor  lacrimal  sunt  quatuor  aquce,  quilms  lavari  jubemur  per  I&aia/m 

SERMO    IN    PS.    CXXVI.    6.  157 

lacrimas  fudit  Maria  Magdalene  quxnAo  lauit  pedes  dombii. 

Bwiche  teres  scedde.  M.  Magdalene  '.  ba  heo1  wosch  ure  drihtenes     i  \>e  has  been 

°  '  dotted  out 

fet.  and  heo  werS  hire  solf  waschen  of  hire  fule  sunnen.  Interdum     before  heo. 

uidentes  aliquos  affligi  multotiens  fuderuut  lacrimas   compas- 

sionis.     OSer  hwile  be  halie  .Mew.  scedden  hare  teres  \  for  heore   They  shed 

'  tears  on 

emeristene  wawe.  hwenne  ho  isesen  hore  emc?istene  wandrede   account  of 

J  their  fellow- 

bolie.  o=Ser  in  seknesse  bifalle  and  \et  horn  sare  row$.  and  hi   ^stiai,s' 
heore  mihte  hore  node   bette.     Tales  lacrimas  fudit  dom'mus 
quando  lazarwax  suscitauit.  swiche  teres  schedde  ure  drihten  '.   ba 
he  iseh  Martha?/i  and  Mariam  Magdalene  be  sustren  wepe  for 
hore  broker  de$  awl  ure  drihten  burb  rou^e  ]>et  he  efde  of  horn  f 
schedde  of  his  halie  e3ene  hate  teres  and  hore  *  broker  arerde    *[Foi.586.i 
and  weren  stille  of  hore  wope.  and  iturnd  hore  horte  and  heore 
wope  to  muchele  blisse.     Plerique  et  tedio  uite  2^esentis  ajfecti 
fuderunt  lacrimas peregrinationis.  o^erhwile  be  halie  .Men.  sched-   £^;^ 
den  hate  teres  for  labe  of  be  worlde  f  for  horn  ofbuchte  \et  bis   ^j">' of  the 
orliche2  lif  horn  to  longe  leste.    Tales  lacrimas  fudit  lob  ■  quando    2  ?eor'Siiche. 
dicebat.     Tedet  animam  meam  uite  mee.  swiche  teres  schedde 
iob  f  ba  be  he  bos  word  seide.     Wa  is  mine  saule  '.  \et  mi  lif  bus 
longe  ilest.  and  dauid.  be  prophete  wopf  for  hrSe  of  be3  world  f     3?j>ere. 
ba  he  seide.  heu  jnichi  et  cetera.      Wume  nu  ]>et  min  utbiwiste 
is  her  swa  longe  itubed.  and  \et  ic  seal  wunien  in  unkube  londe. 
Hoc  autem  dicebat.  quia  non  habemus  hie  manentem  ciuitatem  ■ 
sed  in  celis  debet  esse  conuersatio  nostra.  \et  he  seide  for  we 
wunie^  here  alse  Heme.     Ah  ure  erde  is  in  houene  f  if  we  ber   our  abode  is 

in  heaven. 

efter  erne^.  Justus  autem.  cum  languet  jpro  desiderio  celestis 
patxie  fundit  lacrimas  contemplationis.  pe  rihtwise  .Mon.  \>et 
mid  J>e  e3ene  of  his  horte  bihalt  in  to  houene  ami  sicS  be 
muchele  blisse  pet  he  is  to  ile^ed  '.  him  wile  sone  longe  biderward 
and  hwenne  he  ne  mei  bider  cume  alse  ra^e  se  he  walde  f  he   Thepoodnian 

sends  his  tears 

send  jjider  his  hate  teres,  vtrasqae  lacrimas.  scilicet  peregrinati-   there. 

onis  #  contemplationis  fudit  fortasse  apostolus  quando  dicebat. 

cvpio  dissolui  &  esse  cum  Christo.     ErSer  of  bisse  teres  schedde 

be  apostel  leste  ich  wene.  ba  be  he  seide  ich  walde  \>et  ich  ded 

were!  for  me  longed  to  enst'j.  *hee  quatuor  lacrime  siott  .iiii.ox     *[Vo\.50a.] 

aque  quibu*  lauari  iubemw  per  isayann  dicentem.     Lauamini 

]58  A    MORAL    ODE. 

dicentevi,  Lavamini,  mundi  estote — These  four  kinds  of  tears  are 
the  four  waters  in  which  we  are  commanded  to  wash  and  become 
clean.  Lacrima  coynpunctionis  est  amara  sicut  aqua  maris  —  The 
tear  that  a  man  weepeth  for  his  own  sin  is  as  salt  water,  and 
therefore  it  is  named  sea-water.  Lacrima  compassionis  comparatur 
aquce  nivis,  quae  defluit  contra  calorem  solis  —  The  tear  that  a  man 
sheds  for  the  sins  of  his  fellow-Christian  is  called  snow-water,  for 
it  melts  from  the  tender  heart  as  doth  the  snow  against  the  sun. 
Lacrima  peregrinationis  comparatur  aquce  fontis,  quia  sicut  haic  ebullit 
de  terra,  ita  ilia  de  cordis  angustia — The  tear  that  a  man  weepeth 
for  loathing  of  this  world  is  called  well-water,  for  it  (the  tear)  welleth 
from  the  heart  as  doth  water  from  the  well.  Lacrima  contempdationis 
comparatur  aque  roris,  quia  sicut  aqua  ilia  nutu  dei  trahitur  ab  imo 
in  altum,  ita  ilia  emanat  per  alti  desiderium — The  tear  that  a  man 
weepeth  through  longing  for  heaven  is  called  dew-water,  for  as  the 
sun  draweth  up  the  dew  and  maketh  thereof  the  rains  to  come,  so 
the  Holy  Ghost  maketh  the  man  to  look  up  to  heaven,  and  when 
he  may  not  thither  come  as  quickly  as  he  would,  he  sendeth  thither 
his  hot  tears.  And  what  reward  shall  they  receive  on  account  of  this 
sending  (message)  1  Salutem  eternam,  lucem  perpetuam,  vitam  sempi- 
ternam — Everlasting  salvation,  perpetual  light,  and  eternal  life.  And 
it  is  God's  will  that  we  should  sow  these  four  kinds  of  tears  above 
the  earth,  so  that  we  may  for  our  reward  have  eternal  salvation,  per- 
petual light,  and  endless  life.    Quod  nobis  prestare  dignetur,  S(C.    Amen. 



I  am  now  older  than  I  was  in  years  and  in  lore, 
I  wield  more  than  I  did,  my  wit  ought  to  be  more. 
Well  long  have  I  been  a  child,  in  words  and  in  deeds, 
Though  I  be  old  in  years,  too  young  am  I  in  wisdom. 



muudi  estole.  bos  fure  kunnes  teres  boS  be  fuwer  wateres  '  ba  be  These  four 

'  '  tears  are  four 

beoS  ihaten  us  on  to  weschen  burh  ysaiani  be  prophete  bus  qwe-   kinds  of 

|>ende.  beoS  iwescben  f  awe?  wfujnie^  clene.     Lcccrima  eompunc- 

tionis  est  amara  sicut  aqua  maris,     pe  tere  be£  mon  wep^  for  his   1.  Salt-water. 

a3en  sunne  f  is  alse  salt  water,  and  ber  fore  bit  is  inemned  see 

water.      Lacrima  compunctionis  comparator  aque   niuisi   que 

defluit  contra  calorem  solis.     pe  ter  bet  .Mon.  scbet  for  bis  em-   2.  Snow- 

^  '  water. 

c/'istenes  sunne  '.  is  inemned  snaw  water  for  bit  melt  of  be  neche       i  ?  „esche. 

horte  swa  de$  be  snaw  to-jeines  be  suwne.     Lacrima  peregrina- 

tionis  !  comparator  aque  fontis.  quia  sicut  hee  ebullit  de  terra .' 

ita  ilia  de  cordis  cmgustia.     pe  ter  bet  .Mon.  wep^  for  la^e  of  3.  weii- 

)>isse  Hue '.  is  inemned  welle  water,  for  be  welled  of  be  borte  swa 

doS  water  of  welle.     Lacrima  contemplationis  comparator  ague 

roris.  quia  sicut  aqua  ilia  nutu  dei  traliitur  ab  imo  in  altum  i  ita 

ilia  emanat  per  alti  desiderium.     pe  ter  bet  .Mon.   werr&  for  4.  Dew-water. 

lo?iginge  to  heouene  f  is  inemned  deu  water  for  alswa  se  be  sunne 

dracb  up  }>ene  deu.  and  make^  ber  of  kume  reines '.  swa  make^ 

be  balie  gast  be  .Mon.  bi-balden  up  to  houene.  and  hwenne  be  ne 

mai  )>ider  cume  alse  rajje  se  be  walde l.  be  send  bider  bis  bate 

teres,  and  hwiche  mede  sculen  bo  fo  of  bisse  sonde  f     Salutem   Tiie  reward 

for  these 

eternam.  lucem  perpetuam.  vitam  sempiternam.  eche  hele.  *les-   tears. 

.  *  [Fol.  596.] 

tende  liht.  and  endeles  lif.  swa  wile  god  bet  we  moten  }>is  louwer 
kunnes  teres  sawen  biuuen2  orSe  bet  we  moten  to  mede  babben     2?buuen< 
eche  hele.    and   lesten[de]  liht.  and  endeles  lif.      Quod  nobis 
jt>restare  dignetur,  et  cetera.     Amen. 



/ch  em  nu  alder  bene  ich  wes  awintre  and  a  lare*.  My  wit 
increases  not 

Ich  welde  mare  bene  ich  dede  mi  wit  aide    ban  mare.  with  my 

'  years. 

Wei  longe  ich  habbe  child  ibon  a  worde  and  a4  dede  3  ■>  an. 

pah  ich  bo  a  wintre  aid  to  %ung  ich  em  on  rede. 
*  The  italics  represent  the  rubrical  letters  of  the  MS. 

*  ?  ec  n. 

100  A    MORAL   ODE. 

An  idle  life  have  I  led,  and  still  appear  to  lead  ; 

When  I  bethink  me  well  of  it,  full  sore  I  am  in  dread. 

Most  all  that  I  have  done  befalls  to  childhood  (childishness). 
8     Full  late  I  have  repented  me,  but  may  God  have  mercy  upon  me  ! 

Many  idle  words  I  have  uttered  since  I  could  speak, 

Many  childish  deeds  I  have  done,  of  which  I  now  repent. 

Most  all  that  erewhile  pleased  me,  it  now  displeaseth  me. 
12     He  who  followeth  his  will  much,  he  deceiveth  himself. 

I  might  have  done  better,  had  I  the  discretion  ; 

Now  I  would,  I  am  unable,  through  age  and  infirmity. 

Old  age  is  stolen  upon  me  before  I  became  aware  of  it, 
16     I  might  not  see  before  me  for  smoke  nor  for  mist. 

Slow  are  we  to  do  good,  and  all  too  bold  to  do  evil ; 

More  do  men  stand  in  awe  of  men  than  they  do  of  Christ. 

Those  who  do  not  well  while  they  may,  full  often  shall  they  rue  it, 
20     When  they  shall  mow  and  reap  what  they  previously  had  sown. 

Do  for  God  what  ye  may,  the  while  ye  are  alive. 

Let  no  man  trust  too  much  neither  to  child  nor  to  wife  (women)  ; 

For  he  who  forgetteth  himself  for  wife  or  for  child, 
24     He  shall  come  into  an  evil  place,  except  God  be  merciful  to  him. 

Send  some  good  thing  before  you,  the  while  ye  may,  to  heaven, 

For  better  is  one  alms  before  than  are  seven  afterwaixls. 

All  too  often  I  have  trespassed  in  works  and  in  words, 
28     All  too  much  have  I  spent,  too  little  hid  in  hoard. 

Prefer  not  to  thyself  thy  kinsman  nor  thy  kinswoman, 

For  a  fool  is  he  that  is  a  better  friend  to  others  than  to  himself ; 

Let  no  wife  trust  to  her  husband,  nor  husband  to  his  wife, 
32     Be  every  man  for  himself,  the  while  that  he  is  alive. 

Wise  is  he  who  thinks  of  himself  the  while  he  may  have  life, 

For  soon  will  he  be  forgotten  both  by  strangers  and  by  kin. 

He  who  does  not  well  while  he  may  shall  not  (be  able)  when  he 
36     Many  kinds  of  sore  trouble  have  often  the  infirm. 

No  man  shall  delay  nor  be  slow  to  do  good, 

For  many  a  man  promises  well,  but  it  forgetteth  soon. 

The  man  who  desires  to  make  sure  of  God's  bliss, 



Vnnet  lif  ich  habbe  iled.  and  3et  me  pingp  ilede. 

penne  ich  me  bi-penche  wel  ful  sare  ich  me  adrede. 

mest  al  pet  ich  habbe  idon  bi-fealt  to  child-hade. 
8     Wel  late  ich  habbe  me  bi-pocht  I  bute  God  me  nu  rede. 

Fole  idel  word  ich  habbe  iqwe^ien  soS^en  ich  speke  kuSe. 

fole  ^unge  dede  idon  '.   pe  me  of-pinchet  nuSe. 
•    Mest  al  pet  me  likede  er  nu  '.   hit  me  mislike^ 
12     pa  muchel  fulie^  his  wil  f  hine  solf  he  biswike^. 

Ich  mihte  habbe  bet  idon.  hefde  ich  pe  iselpe. 

Nu  ich  walde  ah  ich  ne  mei '.   for  elde  and  for  un-helpe. 

Elde  me  is  bistolen  on.  er  ich  hit  wiste. 
16     ne  michte  ich  seon  bi-fore  me.  for  smike  ne  for  miste. 

Ei'3e  we  beo£  to  done  god.  and  to  ufele  al  to  priste. 

Mare  eie  stonde^  men  of  monne  panne  horn  do  of  criste. 

pe  wel  ne  doS  pe  hwile  pe  ho  mu3en.  wel  oft  hit  schal  rowen  f 
20     penne  3e  mawen  sculen  and  repen  pet  ho  er  sowen. 

Do  he  to  gode  pet  he  mu3e  pe  hwile  pet  he  bo  aliue. 

ne  lipnie  na  mon  to  *  muchel  to  childe  ne  to  wiue. 

pe  him  solue  fo^et  for  wiue  ne  for  childe  f 
24     he  seal  cumen  in  uuel  stude  bute  him  God  bo  milde. 

SendeS  sum  god  bi-foren  eow.  pe  hw[i]le  pet  $e  mu3en  to 

for  betere  is  an  elmesse  biforen  f  penne  bo^  efter  souene. 

Al  to  lome  ich  habbe  igult  a  werke  and  o  worde. 
28     Al  to  muchel  ich  habbe  ispent.  to  litel  ihud  in  horde. 

Ne  beo  pe  loure  pene  pe  solf  i  ne  pin  mei.  ne  pin  ma3e. 

Soht1  is  pet  is  o^ers  monnes  frond  betre  pen  his  a3en. 

Ne  lipnie  wif  to  hire  were,  ne  were  to  his  wiue 
32     Bo  for  him  solue  ech  .Mon.  pe  hwile  pet  he  bo  aliue. 

Wis  is  pe  to  him  solue  pench  pe  hwile  pe  mot  libben. 

For  sone  wule  hine  fo^eten  pe  fremede  and  pe  sibbe. 

pe  wel  ne  deS  pe  hwile  he  mai  f  ne  seal  [he]  weune  he  walde. 
36     Monies  monnes  sare  iswinc  habbe^  oft  unholde. 

Ne  seal  na  mon  don  afirst.  ne  slawen  wel  to  done. 

for  moni  mon  bibate^  wel  pe  hit  foivjete^  sone. 

pe  .Mon.  pe  wule  siker  bon  to  habben  Godes  blisse. 


I  have  been 
too  much  of 
a  child. 

I  might  have 

done  better 

bad  I  been 


but  old  age 

now  prevents 


We  shall  reap 
what  we  sow. 

*  [Pol.  60a.] 
Trust  not  in 
wife  nor  child. 

Send  some 
good  before 
you  to 

1  sic. 

He  is  a  fool 
who  is  a 
better  friend 
to  others  than 
to  himself. 

Delay  not  to 
do  good. 

162  A    MORAL   ODE. 

40     Let  him  do  well  while  he  may,  then  shall  he  have  it  with  certainty. 

These  rich  men  ween  to  be  safe  through  wall  and  ditch. 

He  putteth  his  treasure  in  a  secui-e  place  who  sendeth  it  to  heaven, 

For  there  he  need  not  be  afraid  of  fire  nor  of  thief, 
44     For  there  may  no  one  deprive  him  of  it,  the  foe  nor  the  friend ; 

There  need  he  have  no  care  of  gifts  nor  of  rewards. 

Thither  he  sendeth  and  carries  himself  too  little  and  too  seldom. 

Thither  we  should  turn,  and  do  well  often  and  frequently, 
48     For  there  shall  no  one  rob  us  with  wrongful  (unjust)  judgments. 

Thither  should  ye  eagerly  turn,  would  ye  God  believe, 

For  there  may  no  one  rob  you  of  it,  neither  king  nor  reeve. 

All  the  best  that  we  might  have,  thither  should  we  send  it, 
52     For  there  we  might  find  it  again  and  have  it  for  ever. 

Those  who  do  here  any  good  for  to  have  God's  mercy, 

They  shall  find  it  all  there,  and  a  hundredfold  more. 

He  who  will  hold  his  wealth  wisely  while  he  may  enjoy  it, 
56     Let  him  give  it  away  for  God's  love,  then  doth  he  keep  it  well. 

Our  labour  and  our  produce  is  often  wont  to  dwindle  away, 

But  what  we  do  for  God's  love,  we  shall  find  it  all  again. 

No  evil  shall  go  unpunished,  nor  any  good  unrequited. 
60     Evil  we  do  all  too  much,  and  less  good  than  we  ought. 

He  who  doth  most  for  good  and  least  for  evil, 

Both  too  little  and  too  much  shall  both  afterwards  seem  to  him. 

There  shall  our  work  be  weighed  before  the  King  of  heaven, 
64     And  there  shall  be  given  us  the  reward  of  our  labour  according  to 
our  deserts. 

Each  man  with  what  he  has  may  purchase  the  kingdom  of  heaven, 

He  who  hath  more  and  he  who  hath  less,  both  alike  may ; 

He  even  so  with  his  penny,  as  the  other  with  his  pound. 
68     This  is  the  most  marvellous  bargain  (chaffare)  that  any  man  ever 
might  find, 

And  he  who  may  not  do  more,  he  may  do  it  with  his  good-will, 

As  well  as  he  that  hath  of  gold  many  a  heap. 

And  often  God  is  better  pleased  when  one  giveth  him  less  ; 
72     And  his  works  and  his  ways  are  mercy  and  righteousness. 

A  little  gift  is  acceptable  to  God  that  cometh  of  good-will, 



40     do  wel  him  solf  hwile  pet  he  niai '.   penne  haue^  he  his  mid 

]>es   riche  .Me/i.  wene^   bon   siker    Jmrh    walle  and   jmrh 

pe  de£  his  echte  on  sikere  stude  he  hit  sent  to  heueneriche. 

For  J>er  ne  peri  he  bon  of-dred  of  fure  ne  of  jjoue 
44     \>er  ne  *}>erf  he  him  binimen  pe  la^e  ne  pe  loue. 

j>er  ne  j>erf  he  habben  kare  of  3efe  ne  of  3elde. 

J>ider  he  sent,  and  solf  bere^  to  lutel  and  to  selde. 

pider  we  sculen  drayen  and  don  wel  ofte  and  ilome. 
48     for  J>er  ne  seal  me  us  naut  binimen  mid  wrangwise  dome. 

juder  ye  sculen  3orne  dra3en.  walde  3e  god  ileue. 

for  ne  mei  per1  hit  ou  binimen  king  ne  reue. 

Al  pet  beste  pet  we  hefden  jjider  we  hit  solde  senden 
52     for  J>er  we  hit  michte  finden  eft.  and  habben  buten  ende. 

J)o  pe  er  do&  eni  God  for  habben  godes  are. 

al  he  hit  seal  finden  eft  j>er  and  hundred  fald  mare. 

pe  j>et  echte  wile  habben  wel  hwile  pe  he  mu3e  es  welden. 
56     Giue  hies  for  godes  luue  f  jjenne  dej>  lies  wel  ihalden. 

Vre  swine  and  ure  t'dpe  is  ofte  ivxmed  to  svnnden. 

Ach  pet  pe  we  do^  for  godes  luue  i  eft  we  sculen  al  finden. 

Ne  seal  nan  ufel  bon  unbocht.  ne  nan  god  unforjolden. 
60     Vfel  we  do%  al  to  muchel.  and  god  lesse  penne  we  sculden. 

po  pe  mest  do^  nu  to  gode.  and  pe  lest  to  la^e. 

ErSer  to  lutel  and  to  muchel  seal  jmnchen  eft  horn  baj?e. 

per  me  seal  ure  werkes  weien  bi-foran  pe  heuen  king. 
64     and  3euen  us  ure  swinkes  Ian  efter  ure  erninge. 

Ech  mon  mid  pet  lie  Iiauet  mei  buggen  houene  riche. 

pe  mare  haueb  and  pe  pe  lesse  '.  baj>e  hi  *  mu3en  iliche. 

Alse  mid  his  penie  alse  o^er  mrS  his  punde. 
68     pet  is  pe  wunderlukeste  chep  f  pet  eni  mon  efre  funde. 

And  pe  ^e  mare  ne  mai  don  f  do  hit  mid  his  gode  jxmke. 

Alse  wel  se  pe  pe  haue^S  golde  fele  manke. 

And  oft  god  kon  mare  }>onc  pen  pe  him  yeue6  lesse. 
72     And  his  werkes  and  his  we3es  his  milce.  and  rihtwisnesse. 

lutel  lac  is  gode  lof '  pet  kume^  of  gode  wille. 

Heaven  is  the 
safest  place 
for  our  trea- 
*  [Fol.  60b.] 

»  MS.  \>ct. 

We  should 
send  there  the 
best  that  we 

that  is,  we 
sliimM  distri- 
bute our  alms 
for  the  love  of 

Each  man 
may  purchase 
*[Fol.  61n  ] 
the  poor  with 
his  penny  and 
the  rich  with 
his  pound. 

A  little  offer- 
ing is  accept- 
able to  God. 

164  A    MORAL   ODE. 

And  worthless  is  great  gifts  when  the  heart  is  evil. 
Heaven  and  earth  he  surveys  ;  his  eyes  are  so  bright, 

76     Sun  and  moon  and  heaven-fire  (lightning)  are  dark  compared  to 
his  light. 
Nothing  is  hidden  from  him,  so  great  is  his  might, 
Let  it  be  done  ever  so  secretly,  or  in  so  dark  a  night, 
He  knoweth  what  we  think  and  what  do  all  living  creatures. 

80     There  is  no  lord  like  Christ,  nor  king  like  our  Lord. 

Heaven  and  earth,  and  all  that  is,  are  enclosed  in  his  hand  ; 
He  doth  whatever  his  will  is,  in  water  and  on  land  ; 
He  made  fishes  in  the  sea,  and  fowls  in  the  air ; 

84     He  protects  and  (rules)  wieldeth  all  things,  and  created  all  creatures  ; 
He  is  beginning  without  beginning,  and  end  without  end  ; 
He  alone  is  always  in  each  place,  turn  wherever  thou  may  ; 
He  is  above  us  and  beneath,  before  and  behind. 

88     He  who  God's  will  doth,  everywhere  may  he  find  him ; 
Each  whisper  he  hears,  and  he  knows  all  deeds, 
He  perceives  each  man's  thoughts.     What  shall  avail  us 
We  who  break  God's  behests  and  sinneth  so  often  ? 

92     What  shall  we  say  or  do  at  the  great  doom, 
We  who  loved  unright,  and  an  evil  life  led  1 
What  shall  we  say  or  do,  when  the  angels  shall  be  in  dread  1 
What   shall  we  bear  before  us,  with  what  shall  we  make  peace- 

96     We  that  never  did  good,  to  (please)  the  heavenly  Judge  1 

There  shall  be  so  many  devils  who  will  accuse  us ;  [saw, 

And  they  have  not  forgotten  anything  of  all  that  they  previously 
All  that  we  did  -wrong  here  they  will  make  it  known  there. 

100     They  have  all  in  their  writing  that  we  did  amiss  here, 
Except  we  repented  of  it,  the  while  we  were  here. 
Though  we  knew  not  nor  saw  them,  they  were  our  fellows  (com- 
What  shall  whoremongers  do,  the  traitors,  and  the  perjured  1 

104     Why  are  so  many  folk  called  and  so  few  chosen  1 

Why  were  they  conceived — wherefore  were  they  born — 

That  shall  be  doomed  to  death  and  evermore  forlorn  (damned)  ? 







And  ec-lete1  muchel  ^eue  of  ]>an  J>e  herte  is  ille. 

Houene  and  horjje  he  ouer  sich.  his  e3en  bcrS  swa  brichte 

Suwne  and  nione  and  houen  fur  boS  Jjestre  a3ein  his  lihte. 

Nis  him  noht  forholen  nihucl.  swa  muchele  bo^  his  mihte. 

nis  hit  ne  swa  derne  [idouj  lie  [a]  swa  J>ostre  nihte. 

he  wat  wet  ^enke^  and  hwet  dcyS  alle  qwike  wihte. 

Nis  na  lauerd  sioich  se  is  exist,  ne  king  swuch  ure  drihten. 

houene  and  orSe  and  al  \et  is  biloken  is  in  his  honde. 

he  de^  al  \et  his  wil  is  f  a  wettre  and  alonde. 

He  niakede  fisses  in  )>e  se  and  fu3eles  in  )>e  lifte. 

he  wit  and  waldeS  alle  J)ing  and  scop  alle  scefte. 

he  is  hord  buten  horde  and  ende  buten  ende. 

he  ane  is  eure  an  ilche  stude  wende  J>er  Jm  wende. 

he  is  buuen  us  and  binojjen.  biforen  and  bihinden. 

)>e  \>e  de^  godes  wille  uwer  he  mei  him  finden. 

Uelche  nine  he  iher^S  and  wat  [he]  alle  deden. 

he   burj)-siche)j  uches  monnes  j>onc.  wi  hwat  seal  us   to 

We  \et  broke^  godes  hese  and  gulte^  swa  ilome. 
hwet  scule  we  seggen  ofter  don  et  ]>e  muchele  dome 
pa  }>e  luueden  unriht  and  ufel  lif  *leden. 
Wet  sculen  ho  seggen  o^er  don  l.  ]>en  J>e  engles  bon  of-dred. 
hwet    sculen   we    beren   biforen    us    mid    horn    scule   we 

96     J)0  }>e  neure  god  ne  dude  \>e  houenliche  deme[n]. 

)>er  sculen  bon  doule  swa  fole  \>et  wulle^  us  forwreien. 
And  nabbed  hi  naming  fo^eten  of  al  \et  ho  [ere]  ise3en. 
Al  \>et  we  misduden  her  '.  ho  hit  wulle^  ku^e  Jjere. 
Al  ho  habbe^  in  hore  write  J>et  we  misduden  here. 
[Buten  we  habben  it  ibet  J>e  wile  we  her  were] 
pach  we  nusten  ne  nise3en.  ho  weren  ure  ifere. 
Hwet   sculen   ordlinghes2   don  J>a  swicen  and   ta  for- 

hwi  bo^  fole  iclepede.  and  swa  lut  icorene 
wi  hwi  weren  ho  bi3eten  to  hwon  weren  ho  iborene. 
\et  sculew  bon  to  dej>e  idemet.  and  eure  ma  forlorene. 




1  ?  et-lete. 

Nothing  is 
hidden  from 

All  is  under 
his  hand. 

He  alone  is 

He  hears, 
sees,  and 
knows  all 

*  [Fol.  616.] 

At  Doomsday 
the  devils  will 
be  our 

2  ?  orlinges. 

166  A    MORAL    ODE. 

Each  man  shall  accuse  and  condemn  himself, 
108     His  own  works  and  his  thoughts  for  a  witness  he  shall  summon. 

No  man  may  so  Avell  judge  him,  nor  so  rightly, 

For  none  knoweth  him  so  well,  except  God  alone. 

Each  man  knoweth  himself  best,  his  works  and  his  will. 
112     He  who  knows  least  often  says  the  most ;  he  who  knows  all,  is 
often  silent. 

There  is  no  witness  so  great  as  a  man's  own  heart. 

Whoso  saith  that  he  is  whole,  he  himself  knows  best  his  smart. 

Each  man  shall  doom  himself  to  death  or  to  life  ; 
116     The  witness  of  his  own  work  shall  drive  (urge)  him  thereto. 

All  that  each  man  hath  done  since  he  came  to  manhood 

As  if  he  saw  it  written  in  a  book,  so  shall  it  seem  to  him  then. 

But  the  Lord  judgeth  no  man  by  the  beginning  of  his  life, 
120     But  all  his  life  shall  be  such  as  is  his  ending  (death) ; 

If  that  his  end  is  evil  the  whole  is  evil,  and  all  is  good  if  his  end 
is  good.  [given  us, 

God  grant  that  our  end  may  be  good,  and  preserve  what  he  has 

The  man  that  will  not  do  any  good,  nor  ever  lead  a  good  life, 
124     Ere  death  and  judgment  come  to  his  door  he  may  be  sore  afraid 

That  he  cannot  then  pray  for  mercy  (for  it  often  happens  so)  ; 

Therefore  he  is  wise  that  watches  and  prays  and  repents  before 
the  Doom. 

When  death  is  at  the  door,  too  late  he  cries  for  mercy; 
128     Too  late  he  hateth  evil  work  who  is  unable  to  do  it  any  more. 

We  ought  well  to  believe  that,  for  our  Lord  himself  hath  said  it, 

At  what  time  soever  a  man  repenteth  of  his  misdeeds, 

Sooner  or  later,  mercy  he  shall  find  ; 
132     But  he  that  hath  not  repented,  very  much  has  he  to  repent  of. 

Many  a  man  saith,  who  thinketh  of  the  torment  that  shall  have 
an  end, 

May  I  not  pray  better  to  be  delivered  from  bonds  at  Doomsday  1 

Little  he  knoweth  what  is  suffering,  and  little  does  he  know 
136     What  heat  is  there  where  the  soul  abideth,  how  bitter  the  wind 
there  bloweth  ; 

Had  he  been  there  one  day,  or  two  bare  hours, 

POEMA    MORALE.  167 

Ech  .Mon.  seal  bim  solue  ber  biclepie  and  bidemew.  Each  man 

>  L  shall  be  his 

108     his  aien  wercb  and  his  bone  te  witnesse  be  seal  demen1.        own  judge. 

'  '  .  ■  temen. 

ne  mei  him  na  Mon  alsa  wel  demen  ne  alswa  rihte 
for  nan  ne  knauS  bim  ase  3ere  \  buten  ane  drihte. 
Ech  .Mon.  wat  him  solue  best '.  his  werkes.  and  his  wille. 
112     pe  $e  lest  wat  biserS  ofte  mest  I  be  hit  al  wat  is  stille. 

nis  nan  witnesse  alse  muchel  se  monnes  asen  horte.  A  man's  own 

heart  is  his 

Wa  se  serS  bet  he  bo  hal.  him  solf  wat  best  bis  smirte.  greatest 

>  witness. 

Ech  .Mora,  seal  hin2  solf  demen  to  deSSe  o^er  to  liue.  2ms.  hm. 

116     ba  witnesse  of  his  a3en  werch  f  hine  ber  to  seal  driue. 
Al  )>et  ech  .Mon.  haueS  idon  so&Sen  he  com  to  morale 
sculde  he  *  hit  sechen  o  boke  iwriten  he  seal  ibenchen    *  [Foi.  62a.] 

All  men's  sins 
benne.  are  written  in 

......  a  book. 

Ah  drihten  ne  demeS  nenne  .Mow.  efter  his  biginnigge. 
120     ah  al  his  lif  seal  bon  suilch  bo^  his  endinge. 

$ef  bet  his  [ende  is]  uuel  al  hit  is  uuel  and  [al]  God  3efe 
god  his  ende. 

God  3eue  bet  ure  ende  bo  god.  and  wite  bet  he  us  lende. 

be  .Mon.  bet  uuel3  don  na  god.  ne  neure  god  lif  leden.  3  ?  nuie. 

124     er  deft  and  dom   come   to   his   dure  he  mei  him  sare  waibesore"1 

.       .  afraid  when 

adreclen.  death  shall 

....  come  to  his 

bet  he  ne  mu3e  benne  biden  are.  lor  bet  ltit  llome.  door. 

for-)ji  he  is  wis  be  biet  and  bit  and  bet  bi-fore  dome. 
Wenne  der6  is  attere  dure  wel  late  he  biddej)  are. 
128     Wel  late  he  latheo"  uuel  were  i  be  ne  mei  hit  don  ne 
bet  achten  we  to  leuen  wel.  for  ure  drihten  solf  hit  seide. 
A  hwilke  time  se  eure  .Mon.  of  binchb  his  mis-dede.  we  may  ail 

obtain  mercy, 

0)>er  raber  o¥er  later  f  milce  he  seal  imeten.  if  we  seek  it. 

132     Ac  we4  )>et  ber  naf[e$]  nocht  ibetf  wel  muchel  he  haueS  "^be- 
to  beten. 

Moni  mon  seit  hwa  rech%  of  pine  be  seal  habben  ende. 

Ne  bidde  ich  na  bet  bo  alesed  a  domes  dei  of  bende. 

Lutel  he  wat  wet  is  pine,  and  lutel  he  hit  scawe^ 6  s  ?  jenaweft. 

136     hwice  hete  is  ber  ba  saule  wuneS  hu  biter  wind  ber  blawe^.  ^"iv  oTthe 

hefde  he  bon  ber  enne  dei  o^er  twa  bare  tide  f  pains  ° 

168  A    MORAL    ODE. 

He  would  not  for  all  middle  earth  abide  there  the  third. 

Those  that  have  come  thence  have  said  this — they  knew   it  most 
140     Wo  worth  seven  years'  sorrow  for  a  week's  bliss  ! 

And  our  bliss  here,  which  hath  an  end,  for  endless  torment  ! 

Better  it  is  to  drink  muddy  water  than  poison  mingled  with  wine. 

Swine's  flesh  is  very  sweet,  so  is  that  of  the  wild  deer, 
144     But  all  too  dear  he  buyeth  it  who  giveth  his  neck  for  it. 

Full  belly  may  speak  lightly  of  hunger  and  of  fasts, 

So  may  he  of  torment  who  knoweth  not  how  it  shall  for  ever  last ; 

Had  he  experienced  it  for  a  while  he  would  tell  another  tale, 
148     Worthless  were  his  wife  and  child,  his  sister,  father  and  brother ; 

Altogether  would  he  differently  do  and  differently  think, 

If  he  thought  on  hell-fire,  which  cannot  be  quenched  ; 

Ever  would  he  abide  here  in  sorrow  and  anxiety, 
152     Provided  he  might  befly  and  avoid  hell-torments. 

Worthless  to  him  should  be  all  worldly  joy  and  earthly  bliss, 

For  to  come  to  that  great  bliss  (of  heaven)  is  mirth  indeed. 

I  will  now  return  to  the  Doom,  of  which  I  previously  told  you. 
156     In  that  day  and  at  that  Doom  may  Christ  help  and  succour  us  ! 

For  there  we  may  be  soon  frightened  and  greatly  be  in  dread  ; 

There  he  shall  see  before  him  all  his  words,  and  also  his  deeds  ; 

All  shall  there  be  made  known  what  men  here  lied  and  stole, 
160     All  shall  be  there   discovered  what  men   did  here   secretly  and 

We  shall  know  then  the  life  of  all  men  as  our  own. 

There  shall  the  rich  and  the  low  (poor)  be  equals, 

There  need  no  man  be  ashamed  nor  be  in  fear, 
164     If  he  here  is  sorry  for  his  sins  and  repenteth  of  his  misdeeds, 

For  to  him  that  shall  be  saved  there  is  neither  shame  nor  wrath  ; 

But  the  others  have  shame  and  wrath,  and  often  many  sorrows. 

The  Doom  shall  soon  be  finished  ;  it  will  not  last  long. 
168     No  man  shall  remind  him  (God)  there  of  violence  nor  of  wrong. 

Those  shall  have  hard  (severe)  doom  who   here  were  hard  (un- 
And  those  who  treated  poor  men  cruelly,  and  evil  laws  areared, 











nolde  he  for  al  middenerd  \>e  jjerdde  J?er  abiden. 

)>et  habbe^  iseid  J>[et]  comen  Jxmen  ]?a  hit  wisten  mid 

wa  wuro"  sorje  seue3er.  for  souenihte  blisse. 
In1  hure  blisse  \>e  *]>e  ende  7iaue6.  for  endelese  pine, 
betere  is  wori  water  drunch  i  }>en  atter  rneind  mid  wine. 
Swines  brede  is  swiSe  swete.  swa  is  of  wilde  dore. 
alto  dore  he  is  abuh  f  ]>e  3ef5  )>er  fore  his  swore. 
Ful  wombe  mei  lihtliche  spekeu  of  hunger,  and  of  festen  '. 
swa  mei  of  pine  \>e  ne  cnauS  [hu]  }>e  seal  a  ilesten. 
HefS  he  ifonded   sumine   stunde '.    he   wolde   al   seggen 

Et-lete  him  were  wif.  child,  suster.  feder  and  broker. 
Al  he  walde  and  oSerluker  don  and  dSerluker  \>enchen 
Wenne  he  bi-pohte  on  helle  fur  J>e  nawiht  ne  mei  quenchen. 
Eure  he  walde  her  inne  wawe  and  ine  wene  wunien  '. 
WrS  \et  )>e  mihte  helle  pine  bi-flien  and  bi-sunien 
Et  lete  him  were  al  world  wele  and  orSliche  blisse. 
for  to  \>et  muchele  blisse  cumen  is  murj>e  mid  iwisse. 
Iwule  mi  cumen  eft  to  \e  dome  \et  ich  er  ow  of  sede 
A  )>a  dei  and  at  ta  dome  us  helpe  crist  and  rede, 
per  we  niU3en  bon  epe  offerd  and  herde  us  adredew. 
per  he  seal  al  son  him  biforen  his  word  and  ec  his  deden. 
Al  seal  per  bon  penne  cud  per  me?i  li^en  her  ent  stelen. 
Al  seal  per  bon  paraie  unwron  '.  \>et  men  wn^en  her  and 

We  sculen  aire  monne  lif  iknauwen  [per]  alse  ure  ahen. 
per  sculen  euenmgges  bon  pe  riche  and  pe  \a,%e. 
Ne  seal  na  mon  smakie 2  per  ne  perf  he  him  adreden. 
Gif  him  her  of-pincp  *  his  gult  and  bet  his  misdede. 
For  him  ne  scauiep  ne  ne  grome<5  pe  sculen  bon  ibo^en. 
Ach  \o\re  habbep  scome  and  grome  and  oft  fele  soi^e. 
pe  dova.  seal  sone  bon  idon  ne  lest  he  nawiht  lowge. 
ne  seal  him  na  mon  mene  per  of  strengpe  ne  of  wronge. 
pe  sculen  habbe  herdne  dom  pa  her  weren  herde. 
pa  pe  uuele  holden  wreche  men  ami  uuele  la3e  redde. 

?  And. 
*  [Fol.  626.] 

Deer  and 
swine's  flesh 
is  dearly 
bought  with 
one's  neck. 

All  worldly 
woes  are 
nothing  com- 
pared to  the 
pains  of  hell. 

Of  Doomsday. 

All  our  sins 
shall  be  made 
known  at 

2  for  skamie. 
*  [Fol.  63a.] 

The  wicked 
shall  have  a 

170  A    MORAL    ODE. 

Also  according  to  what  he  hath  done  shall  each  one  be  judged, 
172     Blithe  may  he  be  then  who  hath  pleased  God. 

All  those  who  have  sprung  of  Adam  and  Eve 

They  all  shall  come  thither,  in  truth  we  so  believe. 

Those  who  have  done  to  the  best  of  their  ability 
176     Shall  go  to  the  kingdom  of  heaven  along  with  our  Lord  ; 

Those  who  have  done  the  devil's  work,  and  therein  be  found  (at 
their  death), 

They  shall  go  forth  with  him  (the  devil)  into  hell's  abyss, 

There  they  shall  ever  dwell,  without  mercy  or  end  (of  their  tor- 
180     Our  Lord  will  never  break  hell-gates  to  deliver  them  from  bonds. 

It  is  no  wonder  if  they  are  sorrowful  and  wretched  ; 

Christ  shall  never  again  suffer  death  to  deliver  them  from  death. 

Once  our  Lord  broke  into  hell  and  brought  out  his  friends  ; 
184     He  himself  suffered  death  for  them  ;  very  dearly  he  ransomed  them. 

Kinsman  would  not  do  it  for  kinsman,  nor  sister  for  brother, 

Nor  the  son  for  his  father,  nor  any  man  for  another. 

The  Lord  of  us  all,  for  his  thralls,  was  tortured  on  the  cross; 
188     Our  bonds  he  loosed,  and  bought  us  with  his  blood. 

We  give  for  his  love  scarcely  a  single  morsel  of  our  bread. 

We  think  not  that  he  shall  judge  the  quick  and  the  dead. 

Great  love  he  showed  to  us,  would  we  understand  it. 
192     Because  our  elders  misdid  we  now  suffer  for  it. 

Death  came  into  this  earth  through  the  devil's  hand, 

And  strife  and  sorrow,  and  toil  on  water  and  on  land. 

For  our  first  father's  guilt  we  all  suffer, 
196     And  all  his  offspring  after  him  are  fallen  into  harm, 

Thirst,  hunger,  cold  and  heat,  old  age  and  infirmity ; 

Through  him  death  came  into  this  earth,  and  other  miseries, 

Else  were  no  man  dead  or  sick,  nor  any  one  miserable, 
200     But  might  live  evermore  in  bliss  and  health. 

Little  it  seemeth  to  many  a  man,  but  great  was  the  sin 

For  which  all  suffer  death  who  come  of  their  kin. 

For  their  sin,  and  also  our  own,  we  may  sorely  grieve ; 
204     Through  sin  we  all  live  in  sorrow  and  in  toil, 











Ec  efter  \et  he  efS  idon  s[c]al  per  ]?enne  [beon]  idemet. 

[Blijje  mai  he  ]>anne  buen  ]>e  god  haued  iquemed] 

Alle  pa  pi  sprunge  bop  of  adam  and  of  eue. 

Alle  hi  sculen  cunien  }>ider  for  so^e  we  hit  ileueo". 

|>a  pe  habbe^  wel  idon  efter  bore  rnibte. 

to  houene  riche  hi  sculen  faren  forS  mid  ure  drihte. 

pa  pe  habbe^  doules  were  idon.  and  ]>er  inne  bo  ifunde. 

bi  sculen  faren  forS  mid  him  in  to  belle  grunde. 

per  hi  sculen  wunien  a  buten  are  and  ende. 

Ne  breke]?  ne  ure  drihte  belle  gate  for  lesen  hi  of  bende. 

iVis  na  sullic  pech  horn  bo  wa  and  horn  bo  uneade. 

Ne  seal  neure  eft  crist  }>olie  dej)  for  lesen  bom  of  dea}>e. 

Enes  drihten  helle  brec  his  frond  he  ut  brochte. 

him   solf  he   jjolede   de^   for   him1,    wel   dore   he   hom 

Nalde  hit  mei  do  for  mei.  ne  suster  for  broker, 
nalde  hit  sune  do  for  fader,  ne  na  mon  for  o'Ser. 
Vre  aire  lauerd  for  his  J>relles  ipined  wes  a  rode, 
vre  bendes  he  unbon[d]  and  bohte  us  mid  his  blode. 
We  3eue:S  *  une^e  for  his  luue  a  stuche  of  ure  brede. 
Ne  J>enke  we  noht  pet  he  seal  deme  J>a  qwike  and  J>a 

Muchele  luue  he  us  cudde.  walde  we  hit  understo?ide 
pet  ure  eldre  misduden  ;  we  habbe?  uuele  on  honde. 
Dej)  com  in  )>is  middenerde  p\xx\\  pes  doules  honde. 
And  sake  and  so^e  and  swine  a  watere  and  a  londe. 
vre  forme  fader  gult.  we  ab^e^  alle. 
[Al  his  ofsprunge  after  hym  in  herme  is  bifalle] 
Jjurst  and  hunger,  chele  and  bete,  helde  and  unhel^e. 
J)urh  him  deS  com  in  Jns  middenerd  and  o^er  unisePSe. 
Nere  namon  elles  ded  ne  sec  ne  nan  unsele. 
ac  mihten  libben  eure  ma  a  blisse  and  a  hele. 
lutel  hit  Jjuwche^  moni  mon.  ac  mucbel  wes  J?a  suwne. 
for  hwam  alle  polie^  de^  pe  comen  of  hore  cunne. 
Hore  sunne  and  ec  ure  a3en  sare  us  mei  of-Jnnche. 
Jmrh  su?^ne  we  libbeo"  alle  in  sorje  and  in  swinke. 

The  righteous 
shall  go  to 

The  wicked 
shall  go  into 

Christ  once 
harrowed  hell. 
1  ?  lieom. 

Christ  died 
for  us  all. 

*  [Fol.  636.] 

Adam's  guilt, 
death,  thirst, 
hunger,  &c, 
came  into  the 

Through  sin 
we  are  all  still 
in  sorrow  and 

172  A    MORAL    ODE. 

Since  God  took  so  great  a  vengeance  for  one  misdeed. 

We  who  so  much   and  so   often   sin,  we  ought  easily  to  be  in 

Adam  and  his  offspring  for  one  single  sin 
208     Was  many  hundred  winters  in  hell-fire  and  in  misery. 

Those  who  lead  their  life  with  unright  and  with  wrong, 

Except  God  have  mercy  upon  them,  shall  be  there  full  long. 

God's  wisdom  is  very  great,  and  so  is  his  might, 
212     And  his  mercy  is  not  less,  but  is  in  the  same  weight  (measure). 

More  he  may  forgive  to  one  than  all  folk  can  sin. 

The  devil  himself  might  have  had  mercy,   if  he  had  begun  to 
ask  it. 

Those  who  seek  God's  mercy  may  certainly  find  it  ; 
216     But  hell-king  is  pitiless  with  those  whom  he  may  bind. 

He  who  follows  his  will  most,  he  hath  the  worst  reward  ; 

His  bath  shall  be  welling  (boiling)  pitch,  his  bath  shall  be  burning 

Worst  he  doth  to  his  good  friends,  than  to  his  very  enemies. 
220     May  God  shield  all  good  (?  God's)  friends  ever  fi-om  such  friends. 

Never  in  hell  came  I,  nor  thither  care  to  come, 

Though  I  might  there  get  the  wealth  of  every  world, 

Yet  I  will  say  in  such  wise  as  men  have  told  us, 
224     And  as  one  may  read  it  written  in  books  ; 

I  will  say  to  those  who  know  it  not  themselves, 

To  warn  them  from  their  misery,  if  they  will  listen  to  me. 

Attend  now  to  me,  simple  men  and  poor, 
228     I  will  tell  of  hell-fire,  and  warn  you  therefrom. 

In  hell  is  hunger  and  thirst,  two  evils  together  ; 

Those  suffer  this  who  were  of  meat  miserly  here. 

There  is  whining  and  woe,  after  each  stretch  (torment)  ; 
232     They  go  from  heat  to  cold,  and  nearly  freeze  the  wretches  ; 

When  they  are  in  the  heat  the  cold  seems  bliss  to  them, 

When  they  come  again  to  the  cold  they  miss  the  heat. 

They  suffer  woe  enough,  they  have  no  bliss  ; 
236     They  know  not  with  any  certainty  which  of  the  two  is  worse. 
They  ever  walk  and  seek  rest,  but  they  cannot  find  it, 



Su^en  God  nom  swa  muchele  wrake  for  are  misdede  i 

We  pe  swa  muchel  and  swa  ofte  mis-do^,  we  mi^en  e8e 
us  adrede. 

Adam  and  his  of-spi*u«g  for  are  pare1  sunne. 
208     Wes  fele  undret  wintre  an  helle  pine  and  an  unwnnne. 

pa  pe  ledden  bore  lif  mid  unriht  and  mid  wrange. 

buten  hit  godes  milce  do  ho  sculen  bon  per  wel  longe. 

Godes  wisdom  is  wel  muchel  and  alsAva  is  his  mihte 
212     And  nis  his  milce  naut  lesse.  ac  bi  J>an  ilke  iwichte. 

Mare  he  ane  mei  foi^euen.  pen  *al  folc  gulte  cunne. 

Sulf  douel  mihte  habbere  milce.  3if  he  hit  bigunne. 

pa  pe  godes  milce  secheS  f  he  iwis  mei  ha  ifmden. 
216     Ac  helle  king  is  are-les  with  pa  pe  he  mei  binden. 

pe  pe  dep  is  wille  mest  f  he  haue^  wurst  mede. 

His  bap  seal  bon  wallinde.   his  baft  seal2  bon  bernmde 

Wurst  he  de¥>  his  gode  frond  f  penne  his  fulle  fond[e]  f 
220     God  scilde  alle  godes  frond,  a  wih  swilche  freonde. 

Neure  in  helle  hi  com.  ne  per  ne  come  reche. 

pach  ich  elches  worldes  wele.  )>er  me  mahte  feche 

\>et  his  wulle  seggen  on  pat  wise  men  us  seiden. 
224     And  aboken  hit  writen  per  [me]  mei  hit  reden. 

Ich  hit  wille  seggen  pan  pe  hit  bom  solf  nusten. 

Warni  hom  wrS  hore  unfrome.  3if  ho  me  wulleft  lusten. 

Vnderstondeft  nu  to  me  edi  men  and  arme. 
228     Ich  wulle  tellen  of  helle  pin  '.  and  wernin  ow  wrS  herme. 

In  helle  his  hunger  and  }>urst  f  twa  uuele  iuere. 

pas  [pine]  polie^  pa  weren  maket3  nipinges  here. 

per  is  waning  and  wow.  efter  eche  streche. 
232     ho  fareft  from  hete  to  hete.  and  hech  to  frure  be  wreche. 

penne  hi  brS  in  pere  hete '.  pe  chele  him  punchet  blisse. 

penne  hi  cume^  eft  to  pe  chele  f  of  hete  hi  habbeft  misse. 

hi  hem  deft  wa  inoch  nabbed  hi  nane  blisse. 
236     Nute  hi  hwe\>er  hom  dep  mursi  mid  neure  nane  wisse. 

hi   walkeft   eure   and   secheft   reste    *ac   ho   ne   mi^en 

1  ?  bare. 

God's  mercy 
is  as  great  as 
his  power. 

*  [Fol.  64a.] 

The  devil 
might  have 
had  mercy 
had  lie  sought 

2  MS.  scab. 

I  never  came 
in  hell,  yet  I 
will  tell  you 
what  I  rind 
in  books. 

In  hell  is  hun- 
ger and  thirst. 
3  ?  mite. 

The  sinners 
go  alternately 
from  the  heat 
into  the  cold. 

1  MS.  burs. 
*  [Fol.  646.] 

174  A    MORAL   ODE. 

Because  they  would  not,  while  they  could,  repent  of  their  sins  ; 

They  seek  rest  where  there  is  none,  therefore  they  cannot  find  it, 
240     But  walk  weary  up  and  down,  as  water  doth  (tossed)  with  the  wind. 

Those  are  they  who  were  in  their  thoughts  unsteadfast, 

And  who  made  vows  to  God  and  would  not  perform  them, 

Those  who  began  good  works  and  would  not  complete  them, 
244     Who  went  now  here  and  now  there,  and  knew  not  what  they  desired, 

There  is  burning  pitch  for  their  souls  to  bathe  in. 

For  those  who  led  their  life  in  war  and  in  strife, 

There  is  fire  that  is  a  hundredfold  hotter  than  ours  is  ; 
248     Salt  water  cannot  quench  it,  nor  fresh  water  from  the  stream  ; 

This  is  the  fire  that  ever  burnetii,  nought  may  quench  it. 

Therein  shall  be  those  who  delighted  to  persecute  poor  men, 

Those  who  were  treacherous  men  and  full  of  evil  devices, 
252     Those  who  loved  to  do  evil  and  delighted  to  think  of  it, 

Those  who  loved  injustice  and  stealing,  whoredom  and  drunkenness, 

And  in  the  devil's  work  blithely  toiled  ; 

Those  who  were  such  liars  that  no  one  might  believe  them, 
256     Bribe-greedy  judges  and  unjust  reeves  ; 

Those  who  loved  other  men's  wives  and  despised  their  own, 

Those  who  sinned  greatly  in  drinking  and  in  eating ; 

The  wretched  man  took  his  goods  and  laid  it  up  in  hoard, 
260     That  recked  little  of  God's  message  and  God's  word,  [needed, 

And  those  who  would  not  of  their  own  give  where  they  saw  it  was 

Nor  would  hear  God's  message  when  they  heard  it  proclaimed  ; 

Those  who  loved  other  men's  goods  more  than  they  ought, 
264     And  were  all  too  greedy  for  silver  and  gold, 

And  those  who  committed  breach  of  trust  when  they  should  have 
been  trustworthy, 

And  omitted  what  they  should  do,  and  did  what  they  would  ; 

Those  who  were  ever  after  this  world's  wealth, 
268     And  did  all  that  the  loathsome  spirit  bid  and  taught  them, 

And  all  those  who  in  anywise  here  pleased  the  devil — 

Those  are  now  with  him  in  hell,  undone  and  damned, 

Except  those  that  grieved  sorely  here  for  their  misdeeds, 
272     And  did  repent  of  their  sins  and  lead  a  better  life. 



for-pi  pe  ho  nolden  pe  hwile  \et  ho  mihten  here  sunne  beten. 

ho  secheS  reste  per  nis  nan.  for-pi  ne  mu5en  hi  es  finden. 
240     Ac  walked  weri  up  crnd  dun  '.  se  water  dep  mid  winde. 

po  bo^  pa  pe  weren  her  a  panke  unstedefeste. 

And  pa  pe  gode  biheteu  heste  and  nolden  hit  ileste. 

pa  pe  god  were  bigunnen  «?ifZ  ful  enden  hit  nolden. 
244     Nu  witen1  her.  and  nu^e  ]>er.  and  nusten  hwat  hi  wolden. 

yer  is  bernunde  pich  hore  saule  to  batten  inne. 

]>a  pe  ledden  here  lif  in  werre  and  in  winne. 

per  is  fur  \>et  is  undret  fald  hattre.  pene  bo  ure. 
248     Ne  mei  qwenchen  salt  weter  ne  uersc  of  pe  burne. 

pis  is  \et  fur  \et  efre  bernd  ne  mei  nawiht  hit  quewchen. 

per  inne  bo%  pa  pe  was  to  lof  wreche  men  to  swenchen. 

]>a  pe  weren  swikelemen  and  ful  of  uuel  wrenchen. 
252     pa  pe  mihten  uuel  don.  pe  pe  lef  hit  wes  to  penchen. 

pe  luueden  tening  and  stale,  hordom  and  drunken 

And  a  doules  werche  blipeliche  swunken. 

pa  pe  weren  swa  lese2  \et  me  ho?>&  ne  mihte  ileuen. 
256     Med-ierne  domes  men.  and  wro?igwise  reuen. 

pet  o^er  mownes  wif  lof.  his  a}en  et-lete. 

po  pe  sungede  muchel \  a  drunke  and  an  ete. 

pe  wreche  mon  binom  his  ehte.  and  leide  his  on  horde. 
260     ]>et  lutel  let  of  godes  borde.  and  godes  worde. 

And  po  pe  his  a}en  nalde  3euen  per  he  isech.  *  pe  node 

ne  nalde  iheren  godes  sonde,  penne  he  hit  herde  bode. 

pe  \>et  is  o^ers  monnes  ping,  loure  pene  hit  sculde. 
264     And  weren  to  gredi  of  solure  and  of  golde. 

And  pa  pe  untrownesse  duden  pon  pe  ho  sculden  bon 

And  leten  pet  ho  sculden  don.  and  duden  \et  ho  wolden. 

pa  pe  weren  eure  abuten  pisse  worldes  echte. 
268     And  duden  al  pe<  pe  lape  gast  hechte  to  and  tachte. 

And  alle  pe  pen  anigewise  doulen  iquemde3. 

pa  bo^  nu  mid  him  in  helle  fordon  and  fordemet4. 

[Bute  po  pe  ofpouhte  sore,  her  here  mis-deden 
272     and  gunnen  here  gultes  beten.  and  betere  lif  leden 

Tliey  find  no 
rest  there. 

In  burning 
pitch  do  their 
souls  bathe. 

Nothing  may 
quench  this 

In  this  fire 
skill  dwell 
the  persecu- 
tors of  the 
evil- doers, 
&c. ; 

2  MS.  lele. 
unjust  judges, 

misers,  &c. ; 

*  [Fol.  65a.] 

covetous  men, 

and  those  who 
pleased  the 

3  MS. 

4  ?  fordemde. 

176  A    MORAL    ODE. 

There  are  adders  and  snakes,  newts  and  ferrets, 

That  tear  and  fret  the  evil  speakers,  the  envious  and  the  proud ; 

Never  shineth  there  the  sun,  nor  the  moon  nor  the  stars. 
276     There  is  much  of  God's  heat  (anger)  and  much  of  God's  wrath, 

There  is  ever  evil  smoke,  darkness  and  awe  ; 

There  is  never  other  light  than  the  gloomy  flames. 

There  lie  loathsome  fiends  in  strong  chains, 
280     Those  that  previously  were  with  God,  in  heaven  full  high. 

There  are  horrible  fiends  and  awful  (creatures)  wights, 

These  shall  the  wretched  see  that  sinned  through  sight. 

There  is  the  loathsome  Satan,  and  Belzehub  the  old  ; 
284     Easily  may  they  be  in  dread  who  shall  behold  them. 

No  heart  may  think,  nor  can  any  tongue  tell 

How  much  torment  and  how  many  are  in  hell. 

Of  those  torments  that  are  there  I  will  not  lie  to  you. 
288     All  that  men  endure  here  is  not  without  game  and  glee, 

But  yet  it  is  not  so  with  them  that  dwell  in  those  loathsome  bonds, 

But  they  know  that  their  pain  shall  never  have  an  end. 

There  shall  be  the  heathen  men,  who  were  lawless  (without  law), 
292     Who  knew  not  of  God's  commands  nor  of  God's  behests  ; 

Wicked  Christian  men  shall  be  their  companions, 

Those  who  their  Christianity  badly  held  here. 

Yet  they  are  in  a  worse  place  in  hell's  abyss, 
296     Nor  shall  they  ever  come  out,  for  mark  nor  for  pound. 

Nor  may  prayers  nor  alms  help  them  there, 

For  there  is  in  hell  neither  mercy  nor  forgiveness. 

Let  each  man  shield  himself,  the  while  he  may,  from  this  hell's  pain, 
300     And  warn  also  his  friends  therefrom,  as  I  have  mine. 

Those  who  know  not  how  to  shield  themselves,  I  will  teach  them ; 

I  can  (know  how  to)  be,  if  I  am  allowed,  the  body's  and  soul's  leech. 

Let  us  forsake  what  God  has  forbidden  to  all  mankind, 
304     And  let  us  do  what  he  bids  us,  and  let  us  keep  ourselves  from  sin  ; 

Let  us  love  God  with  our  hearts  and  with  all  our  might, 

And  our  fellow  Christian  as  ourselves,  as  our  Lord  hath  taught  us. 

All  that  we  read  and  sing  before  God's  board  (table), 
308     It  all  hangeth  and  holdeth  by  these  two  words. 



peor  be^  naddren  and  snaken.  eueten  and  frude 

j>a  tered  and  frete^  j?e  uuele  speken.  |?e  nihtfulle  and  \>e  prate 

Neure  sunne  J>er  ne  scin&  ne  mone  ne  steorre 

276     \>er  is  muchel  godes  kete.  and  muchel  godes  3eorre 
Eure  per  is  vuel  smech.  jnisternesse  and  eie 
nis  per  neure  oper  liht.  panne  pe  swarte  leie 
per  ligget  la^liche  fend,  in  stronge  raketeie 

280     \at  bu^  pe  pe  were  mid  gode.  on  heuene  wel  heie 
per  buS  ateliche  fend,  and  eisliche  wihte 
pos  sculle  pa  wrecchen  i-son.  pe  sunege  purS  sihte 
per  ia  pe  lope  sathanas.  and  belsebuc  pe  ealde 

284     Iepe  he  muwen  ben  of-drad1.  pe  hine  sculled  bi-helde 
Ne  mai  non  heorte  it  penche.  ne  no  tunge  ne  can  telle 
hu  muckele  pine,  and  hu  vele.  senden  inne  kelle 
Of  po  pine  pe  pere  bued.  nelle  ic  hou  nout  leio3en 

288     nis  it  bute  gamen  and  gleo.  al  pat  man  mai  here  dreo3en 
Ac  3et  ne  deS  heom  nout  so  wo.  in  po  lope  biende 
bute  pat  ki  wite^  \>at  heore  pine,  ne  seal  neure  habben  ende 
per  bu%  po  hepenemen.  pe  were  lawe-lese 

292     pe  heom  nas  nout  of  godes  bode,  ne  of  godes  hese 
Vuele  cristenemen.  hi  bud  here  i-vere 
po  pe  heore  cristen-dom.  vuele  heolden  here 
3ut  hi  bud  a  wurse  stede.  on  pere  helle  grunde 

296     ne  sculle  hi  neure  comen  vp.  for  marke  ne  for  punde 
Ne  mai  keom  noper  kelpen  per.  i-bede  ne  almesse 
for  nis  noper  inne  helle.  ore  ne  fo^iuenesse 
Sculde  him  elc  man  pe  wile  he  mai.  of  pos  helle  pine 

300     And  warnie  sec  his  frend  per  wid.  so  ic  habbe  mine 
po  pe  scilden  heom  ne  cunnen.  ic  heom  wulle  teache 
ich  kan  beo  3if  i  seal,  lickame  and  soule  liacke 
Lete  we  pat  god  for-bet.  alle  mancunne 

304     and  do  we  pat  he  us  hat.  and  scilde  we  us  wid  sunne 
Luuie  we  god  mid  vre  heorte.  and  mid  al  vre  mihte 
and  vre  emcristene  alse  us  suelf.  swa  us  lerde  drihte 
Al  pat  me  rat  and  sing^.  be-fore  godes  borde 

308     al  it  hanged  and  bi-halt.  bi  pisse  twam  worde 


There  are 
adders  and 
ferrets  that 
tear  the 

There  is  much 
smoke  and 

fiends  lie 
bound  in 


i  MS. 

No  one  can 
tell  how  many 
pains  there 
are  in  hell. 

In  hell  are 

the  heathen, 


whom  neither 
mark  nor 
pound  shall 
ever  help. 

Let  each  man 
warn  his 
friends  of  this 
place  of 

Let  us  love 
God  and  man. 

178  A    MORAL    ODE. 

All  God's  laws  lie  fulfills,  the  old  and  the  new, 

Who  hath  these  two  loves,  and  will  observe  them  well. 

But  they  are  very  difficult  to  hold,  so  oft  we  all  offend, 
312     For  it  is  hard  to  stand  long,  and  easy  it  is  to  fall ; 

But  may  Christ  give  us  strength  that  we  may  stand, 

And  permit  us  to  repent  of  all  our  guilts. 

We  long  after  world's  weal,  which  may  not  last  long, 
316     And  lay  all  our  labour  on  unsteadfast  things. 

If  we  laboured  for  God's  love  half  what  we  do  for  wealth, 

We  should  not  be  so  beguiled  nor  so  evilly  ensnared  ; 

If  we  served  God  as  we  do  wretches, 
320     More  we  might  have  from  heaven,  than  of  earls  or  kings. 

They  cannot    protect   themselves    here   against   cold,   thirst,  nor 

Nor  old  age,  nor  from  death,  the  older  nor  the  younger. 

But  there  is  no  thirst,  nor  death,  nor  infirmity  nor  old  age. 
324     Of  this  kingdom  we  think  too  often,  and  of  that  too  seldom. 

We  should  all  bethink  us  often  and  very  frequently 

What  we  are,  to  what  (place)  we  shall  (go),  and  whence  we  came, 

How  little  while  we  shall  be  here,  how  long  elsewhere, 
328     What  we  may  have  here,  and  what  we  shall  find  there  ; 

If  we  wei-e  wise  men  we  should  think  of  this. 

But  let  us  be  aware  that  this  world  will  intoxicate  us, 

Most  all  men  it  gives  drink  of  a  devil's  draught ; 
332      He  shall  be  able  to  shield  himself  well  if  he  will  not  shrink. 

With  Almighty  God's  love  let  us  shield  ourselves 

From  this  wretched  world's  love,  that  it  may  not  hurt  us. 

With  fasts  and  alms  and  prayer  let  us  keep  ourselves  from  sin, 
336     With  the  weapons  that  God  hath  given  to  all  mankind. 

Let  us  leave  the  broad  street  and  the  open  way, 

That  leads  to  hell  the  ninth  part  of  men,  and  more  I  ween  ; 

Let  us  go  the  narrow  way  and  the  green  way, 
340     There  journey  little  folk,  but  it  is  fair  and  bright. 

The  broad  street  is  our  will,  which  we  are  loath  to  forsake  ; 

He  who  followeth  wholly  his  will,  goeth  by  this  street. 

They  may  easily  go  along  the  downward  slope 



Alle  godes  lawe  he  ful£.  Jje  newe  and  J>e  ealde 

he  pe  }>os  twa  luue  haued.  and  wel  hi  wule  healde 

Ac  hi  bu$>  wunder  erued-helde.  swa  ofte  Ave  gulted  alle 

312     for  it  is  strong  to  stonde  longe.  and  liht  it  is  to  falle 

Ac  drihte  crist  he  3iue  us  strenc}>e.  stonde  }>at  we  mote 

and  of  alle  vre  gultes.  unne  us  come  bote 

We  wilnied  efter  worldes  wele.  pe  longe  ne  mai  ileste 

316     and  legged  al  ure  iswinch.  on  jnnge  un-stede-faste 

Sswunche  we  for  godes  luue.  half  pat  we  do^  for  ehte 
ne  were  we  nout  swa  bi-cherd.  ne  swa  vuele  bi-cauhte 
3if  we  serueden  god.  so  we  do^  erninges 

320     more  we  haueden  of  heuene.  Jeanne  eorles  oJ>er  kinges 

Ne  muwe«  hi  her  werien  heom  wid  chele.  wid  Jmrst.  ne 

wid  hunger 
ne  wid  elde  ne  wid  de^.  }>e  eldre  ne  Jje  ^eonger 
Ac  J>er  nis  hunger  ne  Jmrst  ne  de^.  ne  vnhelj>e  ne  elde 

324     of  J>isse  riche  we  J>enchet  oft.  and  of  Jjere  to  selde 
We  scolden  alle  us  bi-J)enche.  oft  and  wel  ilome 
hwet  we  be^.  and  to  wan  we  sculle.  and  of  wan  we  come 
Hu  lutel  wile  we  be^  her.  hu  longe  elles  ware 

328     hwat  we  mu3en  habben  her.  and  hwet  elles  hware 
3if  we  were  wise  men.  Jns  we  scolden  ij>enche 
bute  we  wurj>e  us  iwar.  pes  worlS  us  wule  for-drenche 
Mest  alle  men  he  3iued  drinke.  of  one  deofles  scenche 

332     he  sceal  him  curaie  sculde  wel.  3if  he  him  nele  screnche 
Mid  ealm[i]hties  godes  luue.  vte  we  us  bi-werien 
wid  Jjes  wrecches  worldes  luue.  J>at  he  ne  mawe  us  derien 
Mid  fasten,  and  almesse.  and  ibede.  werie  we  us  wid  sunne 

336     Mid  J50  wepnen  pe  god  haued  3iuen  alle  mancunne 
Lsete  we  J>e  brode  stret.  and  pe  wei  bene 
pe  lat  J>e  ni^e^e  del  to  helle  of  manne.  and  mo  ic  wene 
Go  we  jjene  narewe  wei.  and  J?ene  wei  grene 

340     J>er  forS-fare^  lutel  folc.  ac  it  is  feir  and  scene 
pe  brode  stret  is  vre  iwil.  ^e  is  us  lod  for  to  lete 
J>e  ^e  al  folewed  his  wil.  fared  hi  Jmsse  strete 
Hi  muwen  lihtliche  gon.  mid  ^ere  nu^er  hulde 

He  who  hath 
these  two 
loves  fulfils 
the  Old  and 
New  laws. 

We  long  after 
world's  weal 
instead  of  hea- 
venly bliss. 

We  may  get 
more  from 
heaven  than 
from  earls  or 

Let  us  think 
of  the  short- 
ness of  tli is 

and  beware 
of  this  false 

Let  us  fortify 
ourselves  with 
fasts,  alms, 
and  prayer. 

Let  us  go  the 
narrow  and 
green  way. 

The  broad 
way  is  man's 

180  A    MORAL   ODE. 

344     Through  a  goodless  wood,  into  a  bare  field. 

The  narrow  way  is  God's  behests,  there  journey  very  few  ; 

Those  are  they  that  shield  themselves  well  from  every  vice. 

These  go  with  difficulty  along  the  cliffs,  along  the  high  hills  ; 
348     These  forsake  their  own  will  in  order  to  fulfill  God's  behests. 

Let  us  all  go  that  way,  for  it  will  bring  us 

With  the  fair  few  men  before  heaven's  king, 

Where  there  is  the  greatest  of  all  mirth,  with  angels'  songs. 
352     He  who  is  there  a  thousand  winters,  will  not  think  it  long ; 

He  who  hath  least,  hath  so  much  that  he  asketh  no  more. 

He  who  forsakes  the  (heavenly)  bliss  for  this  (world),  he  will  sorely 
rue  it. 

In  God's  kiugdom  there  is  no  evil  nor  want, 
356     But  there  are  many  dwellings,  each  unlike  another. 

Some  there  have  less  mirth  (bliss),  and  some  more, 

According  to  what  they  did  here,  according  as  they  toiled  sore. 

There  shall  be  no  bread  nor  wine,  nor  other  kinds  of  delicacies, 
360     God  alone  shall  be  eternal  life  and  bliss  and  eternal  rest. 

There  shall  be  neither  yellow  nor  grey  (fur),  nor  (fur  of)  coney  nor 

Nor  of  squirrel,  nor  of  martin,  nor  of  beaver,  nor  of  sable. 

There  shall  be  neither  sheet  nor  shroud,  nor  any  world's  weal. 
364     All  the  mirth  (bliss)  that  is  promised  us  shall  be  God  alone ; 

No  mirth  may  be  so  great  as  is  the  sight  of  God. 

He  is  true  sun  and  bright,  and  day  without  night. 

He  is  full  of  every  good,  there  is  nothing  that  he  is  without. 
368     They  who  dwell  about  him  lack  nothing  that  is  good  ; 

There  is  weal  without  grief,  and  rest  without  toil. 

He  who  may  and  will  not  come  thither,  sorely  shall  he  rue  it. 

There  is  bliss  without  sorrow,  and  life  without  death, 
372     Those  who  shall  dwell  there  for  ever,  blithe  may  they  easily  be  ; 

There  is  youth  without  old  age,  and  health  without  sickness, 

There  is  no  sorrow  nor  sore,  nor  ever  any  unhappiness ; 

There  shall  the  Lord  himself  be  seen  as  he  is,  most  certainly. 
376     He  alone  may  and  shall  be  the  bliss  of  angels  and  men. 

And  yet  their  eyes  shall  not  be  all  alike  bright, 





344     £urh  ane  godliese  wude.  in-to  ane  bare  felde 

pe  narewei  is  godes  lies,  per  forS-farS  wel  feuwe 

pat   buS   ^a    pe   heom   sculde^   3eorne.     wid    elche   un- 

pos  god  un-ie)>e  to-jeanes  pe  cliue  a3ean  pe  he3e  hulle 
]>os  lete^  al  bere  a3en  wil.  for  godes  bese  to  fulle 
Go  we  alle  }>ene  wei.  for  be  us  wulle  bringe 
mid  }>o  faire  feuwe  men.  be-foren  heuene  kinge 
per  is  aire  merujje  mest.  mid  englene  songe 
pe  J>is  a  ]msent  wintre  J>er.  ne  JnncS  bim  nobt  to  longe 
pe  J>e  lest  baued.   haue^  so  mucbel.   )>at  he  ne  bit  no 

pe  ^e  blisse  for  ^os  for-lat.  it  him  mai  reuwe  sore 
Ne  mai  non  vuel  ne  now  wane,  beon  inne  godes  riche 

356     ^eh  }>er  be^  wunienges  fele.  elc  oJ>er  vn-iliche 

Sume  Jjer  habbet  lasse  murh^e.  and  sume  habbed  more 
after  }>an  pe  hi  dude  her.  after  J>an  pe  hi  swonke  sore 
Ne  seal  J?er  ben  bred  ne  win.  ne  o)>er  cunnes  este 

360     god  one  seal  beo  eche  lif.  and  blisse.  and  eche  reste 
Ne  seal  j>er  beo  fou  ne  grei.  ne  cunig  ne  ermine 
ne  ocquerne  ne  martres  cheole.  ne  beuer  ne  sabeline 
Ne  seal  Jjer  beo  seed  ne  scrud.  ne  woruld  wele  none 

364     al  pe  murhSe  pe  me  us  bi-hat.  al  it  seal  beo  god  one 
Ne  mai  now  rnurhSe  beo  so  mucbel.  so  is  godes  sibte 
he  is  so^  sunne  and  bribt.  and  dai  a-buten  nihte 
He  is  elches  godes  ful.  nis  him  noting  3H  vten 

368     no  god  nis  him  wane.  pe  wunied  him  abuten 

per  is  wele  abute  grame.  and  reste  abuten  swinche 
pe  mai  and  nele  }>ider  come,  sore  it  him  seal  of  jnnche 
per  is  blisse  abuten  tre3e.  and  lif  abuten  dea}>e 

372     pe  eure  scullen  wunien  per.  blij?e  muwen  ben  ejje 
per  is  3eo3e:Se  bute  ulde.  and  hele  abuten  vn-heFSe 
nis  J»er  sorewe  ne  sor.  ne  neure  nan  vn-seal}>e 
per  me  seal  drihte  sulf  i-seon.  swa  he  is  mid  iwisse 

376     he  one  mai  and  seal  al  beo.  engle  and  manne  blisse 
And  ^eh  ne  beod  heore  e3e  naht.  alle  iliche  brihte 

The  narrow 
way  is  God's 

The  narrow 
way  leads  to 

In  heaven 
there  is  no 
lack  of  good 
tilings ; 

but  these  con- 
sist not  in 
bread, wine,  or 
other  earthly 

God  alone  is 
the  bliss  of  the 

In  heaven 
there  is  rest 
and  eternal 

youth  and 

All  in  heaven 
have  not 
equal  bliss, 

182  AN    ORISON    OF    OUR    LORD. 

Because  they  have  not  all  alike  of  God's  light ; 

In  this  life  they  were  not  all  of  one  virtue, 
380     Nor  shall  they  there  have  God  by  one  measure. 

Those  shall  see  more  of  him  who  loved  him  more  here, 

And  know  and  learn  more  of  his  might  and  of  his  mercy. 

In  him  they  shall  find  all  that  one  may  desire, 
384     In  Holy  Book  they  shall  see  all  that  they  were  here  ignorant  of. 

Christ  alone  shall  be  sufficient  for  all  his  darlings  ; 

He  alone  is  much  greater  and  better  than  all  other  things. 

Enough  he  hath  that  hath  him  who  ruleth  all  things  ; 
388     On  him  to  look  is  no  weariness,  well  is  them  that  behold  him. 

God  is  so  glorious  and  so  great  in  his  divine  nature, 

That  all  that  is,  and  all  that  was,  is  worse  than  he  and  less ; 

Nor  may  any  man  ever  say  with  truth, 
392     How  much  mirth  those  have  that  are  in  God's  bliss. 

To  that  bliss  may  God  bring  us,  who  reigneth  without  end, 

When  he  our  souls  unbinds  from  the  body's  bonds. 

May  Christ  grant  that  we  may  lead  such  a  life  here  and  have  such 
an  end  here, 
396     That  we  may  thither  come  when  we  wend  hence.     Amen.] 



Testis,  true  God,  [true]  Son  of  God  !  Jesus,  true  God,  true  man,  and 
^  true  Virgin's  child  !  Jesus,  my  holy  love,  my  sure  sweetness ! 
Jesus,  my  heart,  my  joy,  my  soul-heal  !  Jesus,  sweet  Jesus,  my  darling, 
my  life,  my  light,  my  healing  oil  (balm),  my  honey-drop  !  Thou  art  all 
that  I  trust  in.  Jesus,  my  weal,  my  winsomeness,  blithe  bliss  of  my 
breast !  Jesus,  teach  me,  thou  that  art  so  soft  and  so  sweet,  and 
yet  too   so   likesome   (dear)   and   so   lovely   and   so  lovesome,  that  the 


¥i  nabbed  hi  nouht  iliche.  alle  of  godes  lihte  f<ir  ^,5*^ 

°  not  all  alike  of 

On  bisse  line  hi  neren  nout.  alle  of  one  mihte  ciods llsht- 
380     ne  ber  ne  scullen  hi  habben  god.  alle  bi  one  3ihte 

po  scullen  more  of  him  seon.  be  luuede  him  her  more  They  who 

'  loved  him 

and  more  icnawen  and  iwiten.  his  mihte  and  his  ore  inost  liere> 

shall  see  more 

On  him  hi  scullen  finden  al  bat  man  mai  to  lesten  of  llim  there- 
384     hali  boc  hi  senile  i-seon.  al  bat  hi  her  nusten 
Crist  seal  one  beon  inou.  alle  his  durlinges 
he  one  is  muchele  mare  and  betere.  banne  alle  obere  binges 

In  oh  he  haued  be  bine  hauefc.  be  alle  bing  wealde^1  '  ms. 

r  ...  wealded. 

388     of  him  to  sene  nis  no  sed.  wel  hem  is  be  hine  bi-healdeS 

God  is  so  mere  and  swa  muchel.  in  his  godcunuesse  ah  things  are 

inferior  to 

\at  al  \at  is.  and  al  bat  wes  is  wurse.  benne  he  and  lesse  GoA- 

Ne  mai  it  neure  no  man  ober  segge  mid  iwisse  No  man  may 

'  ,  tell  of  the  joys 

392     hu  muchele  niurlvSe  habbet  bo.  be  beod  inne  godes  blisse  of  heaven. 


o  bere  blisse  us  bringe  god.  be  rixlet  abuten  ende 
benne  he  vre  soule  vn-bint.  of  licames  bende 

Crist  3yue  us  leden  her  swile  lif.  and  habben  her  swile   Christ  grant 

that  we  may 
ende  go  thither 

596     bat  we  nioten  buder  come,  wanne  we  benne  wende.  Amen. 

when  we  die. 



mHesu  so^  god.  godes  sone.  ihesu  so^  go^.  so^  raon.  Mon  *[Poi.f>56.] 

Maidene  hern.     Ihesu  min  hali  loue  min  sikere  spet-  cSdl' 

nesse2.     Ihesu  min  heorte.  Mi  sel.  mi  saule  hele.     Ihesu  swete.  2?swetnesse. 
ihesu  mi  leof.  mi  lif.  mi  leome.  Min  halwi.  Min  huniter.  bu  al 
\>et  ic  hopie.      Ihesu  mi  weole  mi  wimne.    Min  blibe  breostcs 

blisse.      Ihesu  teke  \et  tu  art  se  softe.  and  se  swote.  3ette  to  what  thou  art 

swa  leoflic.  swo  leoflic  and  swa  lufsuin.  ]>et  te  engles  .a.  biholdeb  ,Weet! 

184  AN    ORISON    OF   OUR   LORD. 

angels  ever  behold  thee,  and  yet  are  never  full  (satisfied)  to  look  upon 
thee.  Jesus,  all  fair  (beautiful)  !  before  whom  the  sun  is  but  a  shadow, 
even  she  that  loseth  her  light  and  becometh  ashamed  of  her  darkness 
before  thy  bright  face.  Thou  that  givest  her  light  and  hast  all  that 
light,  enlumine  my  dark  heart.  Give  thy  bower  brightness,  and  brighten 
my  soul  that  is  sooty.  Make  her  (moreover)  worthy  of  thy  sweet 
abode.  Kindle  me  with  the  blaze  of  thy  enlightening  love.  Let  me 
be  thy  lemman  (beloved),  and  teach  me  to  love  thee,  the  loving  Lord. 
Woe  is  me  that  I  am  so  estranged  from  thee  !  But  as  thou  bodily  hast 
departed,  separate  me  from  the  world,  turn  me  heartily  and  turn 
me  altogether  to  thee,  with  true  love  and  belief.  I  have  no  com- 
munion nor  felloAvship,  nor  familiarity  (privity)  with  the  world  ;  for  I 
know  well,  my  darling,  dare  I  so  address  thee,  that  carnal  and  spiritual 
love,  earthly  and  heavenly  love,  cannot  in  one  state  dwell  together  in 
one  breast.  Whosoever  hath  long  absence  of  spiritual  grace,  of  heavenly 
mirth,  it  is  because  they  have  or  long  after  comfort  on  earth,  that  is 
fickle  and  false,  and  all  mingled  with  grief  and  with  bitterness.  There 
is  no  true  bliss  in  anything  external  that  is  not  dearly  bought ;  the 
honey  that  one  eats  therein  is  licked  off  thorns.  But  is  he  not  a 
foolish  chapman  that  buyeth  dear  a  worthless  article  and  refuses  a 
precious  thing  which  one  offereth  him  for  nothing,  and  even  promises 
him  a  reward  for  accepting  it  1  Jesus,  Lord  of  (my)  life,  thou  offerest  us 
thy  grace  all  without  a  request,  and  thereafter  promisest  us,  if  we 
accept  it,  heavenly  blisses  ;  and  we  turn  us  therefrom  and  buy 
worldly  comfort  and  favour  of  man's  speech,  with  many  a  bitter  grief. 
Ah !  Lord  Jesus,  thy  succour  !  why  have  I  any  delight  in  other  things 
than  in  thee  1  why  love  I  anything  but  thee  alone  1  O  that  I  might 
behold  how  thou  stretchedst  thyself  for  me  on  the  cross  !  0  that  I 
might  cast  myself  between  those  same  arms,  so  very  wide  outspread ! 
He  openeth  them  as  doth  the  mother  her  arms  to  embrace  her  beloved 
child.  Yea,  of  a  truth  !  And  thou,  dear  Lord,  goest  spiritually  towards 
us,  thy  darlings,  with  the  same  out-spreading  (embrace)  as  the  mother 
to  her  children.  Each  is  beloved  ;  each  is  dear  ;  each  places  himself 
in  thy  arms  ;  each  will  be  embraced.  Ah  !  Jesus,  thy  humility  and 
thy  great  mercy  !  O  that  I  were  in  thy  arms,  in  thy  arms  so  out- 
stretched and   outspread  on  the  cross !      And  may  any  one  ever  hope 


be.    Ne  beob  heo  neuer  fulle.  forto  lokin  on  be.    Ihmi  al  feir  a- 

3ein  hwani.  be  sunne  nis  boten  a  schadwe.  ase  beo  bet  leoseb  here   The  sun 

liht.  and  scomeb  a^ein  bi  brihte  leor.  of  hire  besturnesse.  bu  bet  before  thy 

jeuest  hire  liht  and  al  bet  leome  hauest  aliht  mi  fester  heorte. 

3ef  J)i  bur  brihtnesse.  mi  saule  bet  is  suti  3et.  make  hire  wurbe  to 

bi  swete  wunninge.    Ontend  me  wib  be  blase,  of  bi  leitinde  loue.    9ive  me  thy 

let  me  beo  mi1  leofmon  and  her2  to  loue  be.  louie  be  louende     >?K 

louerd.  wa  [is  me]  bet  ic  am  swa  fremede.  wib  be.     Ah  ase  bu 

licomliche  iwend  iwend  me  from  the  worlde.  wend  me.  and3     3  ?  ec. 

heorte-liche.  and  turn   me  allunge  to  be.  wib  sobe  loue.  and  from  the 

.  world. 

bneue.     Ich  nabbe  no  mong.  ne  felawscipe.  ne  pnuete.  wij>  J>e 

world,  for  wel  ich  }>at4  mi   leofmo?*  dear  ich  swa  clipien.  \et    *  read  wat. 

flehsliche  loue.  and  gostliche  eorjjliche  lou5  and  heouenliche.  ne     5  MR.  louo 

ma3en  onone  wise  beddin  in  a  breoste.  hwa  se  euer  haueS  longe 

wone  of  gastliche  elne.  of  heouenliche  niurlrSe  hit  is  for-]n  ha 

haueb.  ober  wilneb  after  cunfort  on  eorbe.  bet  is  fikel.  and  fals.    This  world  u 
.  .  .  .       .  .  .         false  and 

and  al  imengd  wib  balewsi^.  and  wib  bitternesse.  nis  nan  blisse   fickle. 

sobes  inan  bing  bet  is  utewrS.  bet  ne  beo  to  bitter  aboht.  bet  et 

huni  ber  in  beob  liked  of  bornes.  me  nis  he  fol  *chapmon  be  bub     *  [Foi.660.] 

deore  a  wac  bing.  and  for  forsakeb  a  deorwurbe  bing.  bet  me 

beodeb  him  for  naut  and  bi-hat  him  ber  take  mede.  forto  nimen 

hit.     Min  ihesu  liues  louerd  bu  beodest  us  bin  elming0.  al  wib     e  ■>  einung. 

uthen7  bune.  and  ber  after  bihastest8  us  wib  bon  bet  we  neomen     'sic. 

hit  heouenliche  blissen.  and  we  wendeb  us  ber  from,  and  buggeb   The  ^.orI(I.8 

worldles  froure.  wib  moni  sori  teone.  and  elne  of  monnes  speche.   dearly" 

a  ihesu  louerd  bi  grib.  hwi  abbe  ich  eni9  licung  in  ober  bing  bene     9Mg  ein 

in  be.  hwi  loue  ich  eni9  bing  bote?i  be  one.  hwi  ne  bi-hold  ich  hu 

bu  strabstest  be  for  me  on  be  rode,  hwine  warpe  ich  me  bitweone 

be  ilke  earmes.  swa  swibe  wide  to-spradde.  he  openeb  swa  be   Thou.oLord, 

openeth  thy 

mode?'  hire  eamies  hire  leoue  child  for  to  cluppen  f  se  sobes  and  arms  to  re- 
ceive us,  as  a 
tu  deorwurbe  louerd.  gostliche  to  us  and  to  [bine]  deorlinges  wib   mother  her 

be  ilke  spredunge  gest.  as  be  moder  to  hire  child,  hua  leof  f  hwa 

lif  f  hwa  deb  him  be  bitweonen.  hwa  wule  beo  bi-cluppet '.   a 

ihesu  bin  eadmodnesse.  and  bin  muchele  milce.  hwi  nam  ich  in  bin 

earmes.     In  bin  earmes  swa  istrahte.  and  isprad  on  rode,  and 

wene%>  ei  to  beon  bi-clupped  bi-twene  bine  blisfulle  earmes.     In 

186  AN    ORISON   OF   OUR   LORD. 

to  be  embraced  between  thy  blissful  arms  in  heaven,  unless  he  pre- 
viously here  has  cast  himself  between  thy  piteous  arms  on  the  cross  1 
Nay,  of  a  truth !  nay,  let  no  man  ever  expect  it.  Through  this  low 
(humble)  embracing  we  may  come  to  the  exalted  one.  He  who  will 
embrace  thee  there,  even  such  as  thou  art  there,  Lord  of  light,  must 
previously  embrace  thee  here,  even  as  poor  as  thou  madest  thyself  for 
us  wretches  ;  that  is  to  say,  whosoever  "will  have  lot  with  thee  in  thy 
bliss,  he  must  share  with  thee  thy  suffering  on  earth.  He  is  no  true 
fellow  who  will  not  go  scot  in  the  loss  as  well  as  in  the  gain.  He  must 
pay  equal  scot  who  will  be  thy  fellow.  O  loving  Lord !  he  must  follow 
thy  steps  through  sore  (trials)  and  sorrow  to  the  abode  of  bliss  and 
of  eternal  joy.  Let  no  man  think  to  ascend  easily  to  the  stars.  Ah ! 
sweet  Jesus  !  O  that  I  might  embrace  thee  with  arms  of  love  so  fast 
that  nothing  may  thence  tear  away  my  heart !  O  that  I  might  kiss 
thee  sweetly  in  spirit  in  sweet  remembrance  of  thy  good  deeds !  O  that 
were  bitter  to  me  all  that  my  flesh  delighteth  in  !  O  that  each  worldly 
thing  might  appear  despicable  to  me  in  comparison  with  the  great  delight 
of  thy  sweetness  !  O  that  I  might  feel  thee  in  my  breast  even  as  sweet 
as  thou  art !  Why  art  thou  so  strange  towards  me  1  O  that  I  could  woo 
thee  with  sweet  love,  for  of  all  things  art  thou  the  sweetest,  and  of 
all  things  the  loveliest,  and  most  worthy  of  being  loved  !  Alas !  alas ! 
the  bitterness  of  my  venomous  sins  is  the  hindrance.  My  sins  are 
the  wall  between  me  and  thee.  My  sins  deny  me  all  this  sweetness. 
My  sins  have  grievously  impaired  me,  and  made  me  at  enmity  with 
thee,  O  lovely  Lord,  and  that  is  little  wonder,  for  I  am  with  their  pollu- 
tion so  filthily  defiled,  that  I  may  not,  nor  dare,  O  lovesome  God,  come 
into  thy  sight.  Ah  !  Jesu,  thy  mercy  !  What  avails  then  thy  blood 
shed  on  the  rood  ]  what  avails  then  the  large  brook  in  thy  soft 
side ;  the  streams  that  ran  down  from  thy  precious  feet  and  from 
thy  blessed  hands  1  Is  it  not  for  to  wash  sinful  souls  1  Is  it  not 
to  save  the  sick  in  sin  1  Who  is  there  unwashen  that  hath  this  saving 
moisture  within  his  heart  1  Who  need  be  unsaved  that  hath  so  mighty 
a  salvation  as  oft  as  he  thereto  hath  true  belief?  My  heavenly  leech 
(physician),  that  for  us  makest  of  thyself  so  mighty  a  medicine, 
blessed  be  thou  for  ever  !  As  my  trust  is  thereto,  let  it  be  my  healing, 
let  it  be  my   remedy.      If  my  sin   (evil)   is  great,  the  might  (virtue) 

ON    UREISUN   OF    OURE    LOUERDE.  187 

heouene  bute  he  warpe.  er  her  bitweone  bine  revvfulle  earmes  on   in  order  to 

'  embrace  thee 

be  rode.     Nai  sobes.  nai.     Ne  wene  bit  neuer  no  mon.  biu-h  bis   >»  heaven,  we 

'  >  '  must  first 

labe  clupping.  me  mot  come  beb  to  be  ber1  be  wule  bi-cluppe.  be  embiace  thee 

bear  swilc.  ase  bu  art  bear  louercl  of  leome.  be  mot  cluppe  be  ear     1  ?  Va,  or 

her  swilc.  ase  bu  makedest  te  her  wreche.  for  us  wrecbes.  bet  is 

to  suggen  hwa  se  euer  wule  habbe  lot  wib  be  of  bi  blisse  i  he 

mot  deale  wib  be  of  bine  pine  on  eorbe.     Nis  na  trewe  ifere  be 

nule  naut  scottin  in  be  lure,  ase  in  be  bi3ete  f  be  mot  scottin   we  must 

share  with 

efne  after  bis  euene.   [ble  wule  beo  bin  fela-je  luuiende  louerd.   thee  thy 

'  '  sorrow. 

he   mot   fole^i  bine  steapes   burh  Bar.   and  burh  sorewe  to  to 

*wunninge.  of  weole  and  of  eche  wunne.     Ne  wene  na  mon  to     *[Foi.  66&.] 

stiben  wr5  este  to  be  steon-en.    A  swete  ihe&u  hwi  w[vS]  earmes 

of  luue  ne  cluppe  ich  be  SAva  faste.  bet  na  bing  ne  beonne  ne 

ma3e  breide  min  heorte.  hwine  cusse  ich  be  sweteliche  ine  gaste 

wrS  swote  munegunge.  of  bine  god-deden.  hwinis  me  bitter  al  bet 

mi  flehs  like^.  hwi  nis  me  unwurhb  elc  wurbliche  bing.  a3ein  be 

muchel  debt  of  bi  swetnesse.  hwi  ne  fele  ich  be  in  mi  breostes 

swo  swote  ase  bu  art.  hwi  art  tu  me  swo  fremede.  hwine  con   why  am  i  so 


ich  be  wo3e  wib  swete  luue.  uor  alle  binge  swetest.  aire  binge  from  Christ  ? 
leoflucest.  and  luue  wurSest.   wei.  wei.  be  bitternesse  of  mine  it  is  on  ae- 

'  count  of  my 

sunnen  attri  is  be  lettunge.  mine  sunnen  beob  wal  bi-tweone  me   foul  sins- 

and  be.    Mine  sunnen  werneb  me  al  bis  swotnesse.    Mine  sunnen 

habbeb  gi'imliche  iwrebed  me.  and  iueed  me  towart  te  luuelicbe   My sins  bave 

'    °  '  made  me  at 

louerd.  and  ]>et  is  lute  wunder.  for  swa  ich  am  wib  hare  hori  ^"mity  w»ta> 

fenliche  ifuled.  \>et  ich  ne  mai  ne  ne  dear  cume  lufsum  god  in 

bin  ehsihbe.     A  ihesu  bin  aore  hwet  deb  benne  bi  blod  isched  on 

be  rode,  hwet  deb  benne  be  large  broc  of  bi  softe  side,  be  strunden 

be  striken  adun  of  bine  deorwurbe  fet.  and  of  bine  edi  honden. 

Nes  hit  for  to  wasehen  sunfulle  saulen.      Nes  hit  for  to  sauuin 

seke  inne  sunne.  hwa  is  benne  unwaschew  be  baueb  bis  halwende  Thj  blood 

may  wash  me 

wet  mwi^   his   heorte.   hwa  derf  beon  un-sauuet   be    haueb  se   clean  of  sins. 
mihti    salue.   ase  ofte  as  he  ber   to    haueb   trewe   bileue.   min 
heoueneliche  leche.  ]>et  makedest  us  of  bi  seolf  se  mihti  medi- 
cine,  iblesced   beo   bu  euer  as  mi  trust  is  ber  to.  hit  beo  mi 
lecbunge  hit  beo  mi  bote.  5ef  min  uuel  is  muchel.  be  mibte  ber    . 

°  J  '  '  -for  drope. 

of  is   more,  as  wis  ase  dieope2  of  bi  deorwurbe3  blod.  mahte     3ms.  deor- 


188  AN    ORISON    OP   OUR   LORD. 

thereof  is  greater.  As  certainly  as  a  drop  of  thy  precious  blood  is 
able  to  wash  away  the  filth  of  all  folk,  so  indeed,  0  living  Lord, 
may  the  five  wells  that  from  thy  blessed  body  sprang  and  poured 
down  streams  of  blood,  wash  my  five  wits  (senses)  of  all  bodily  sins ;  of 
all  that  I  have  seen  amiss  with  my  eyes,  heai'd  with  my  ears,  spoken 
or  tasted  with  my  mouth,  and  smelled  with  my  nose,  felt  amiss  with 
any  limb  (member),  or  sinned  with  the  flesh.  Let  thy  wounds  heal 
the  wounds  of  my  soul  ;  let  thy  death  mortify  in  me  the  pleasures 
of  the  flesh  and  the  bodily  lusts,  and  cause  me  to  live  to  thee,  so 
that  I  may  say  then  with  St.  Paul,  that  saith,  "I  live,  not  I,  but 
Christ  liveth  in  me  j"  that  is  to  say,  I  live  not  in  the  life  that  I  lived, 
but  Christ  liveth  in  me  through  his  abiding  grace  which  quickenetk  me. 
"  Well  was  she  born,"  Jesus  may  then  plainly  say  to  thee,  "thou  that 
art  next  to  him,  help  of  all  helpless  and  heal  of  all  sinful  that  put  their 
trust  in  thee."  Help  me,  queen  of  angels,  heavenly  lady  Saint  Mary, 
mother  and  maiden  and  beloved  woman.  For  to  save  the  sinful,  Jesus 
Christ  became  thy  son.  For  our  sake  thou,  maiden,  wast  made  mother 
of  God.  Thou  wouldst  not  be  what  thou  art,  blessed  above  all,  if 
sinful  men  were  not  as  thine  own  sinful  ones  to  address  thee  boldly, 
for  whom  thou  hast  thy  bliss  and  thy  great  exaltation.  Virgin  mother  ! 
and  maiden  !  and  whose  mother  (art  thou)  1  His  whose  daughter  thou 
art.  His  that  wrought  and  ruleth  all  that  is  created.  His  that  hath  not 
either  beginning  or  end,  that  is  ever  the  same  without  diminution, 
that  remaineth  ever  in  one  state  without  change.  O  great  honour  to 
be  the  mother  of  such  a  son  with  the  chastity  of  a  maiden,  and  to 
have  him  so  subject  to  thee  that  he  desireth  that  all  thy  will  everywhere 
be  furthered.  For  to  show  us  this  he  stretched  forth  his  right  arm 
as  he  stood  on  the  cross,  and  bowed  down  toward  thee  his  precious 
head,  as  though  he  would  say,  "  Mother,  all  that  thou  wilt  (desirest), 
all  will  I."  Ah,  sweet  lady !  Why,  lady,  why  have  I  not  ever  before 
the  eyes  of  my  heart  these  three  sufferings  (of  Christ) — thy  son  was 
fixed  to  the  cross,  his  feet  and  hands  were  pierced  through  with  blunt 
nails,  and  his  side  was  bloody — and  thy  suffering,  lady,  and  Saint 
John  the  Evangelist's,  weeping  on  both  sides  with  sorrowful  sighs  ? 
O  that  I  might  ever  behold  this  in  my  heart,  and  think  that  it  was 
to   deliver   me   and   other   sinners   from   hell,  and  for  to  give  us  the 



waschen  a-wai  alle  folkes  fulbe.  ase  wis  lifes  louerd  be  *  ilke  fif    *  [Fo1-  6Ja'^ 

>  'A  drop  of  thy 

wallen  bet  of  bi  blisfulle  bodi  sprun^en.  and  strike  dun  strondes   bl00,d  may 

'  •  r         o  wash  away 

of  blode  wasche  mine  fif  wittes  of  alle  bodi  sunnen.  of  al  bet  ich  a11  mth- 
abbe  mis-seien  mid  e3en.  mid  min  eren  iherd.  mid  mub  ispekin. 
ober  ismaht.  and  wrS  neose  ismelled.  wib  eini  lim  mis  ifeled. 
and  wiS  flehs  isuneged.  bine  wunden  healen  be  wunden  of  mi 
saule.  bi  deab  adeadi  in  me  flehces  licunge.  and  licomliche  lustes. 
and  do  me  liuien  to  be.  ber  ich  ma3e.  seggen  f  wib  seinte  pawel 
be  seib.  Ic  liuie  naut  ic  ac  crist  liueS  in  me.  bet  is  to  seggen.  Ic 
liuie  ic  ilif  bet  ic  leuede.  ah  crist  liueb  in  me  jrarh  his  wunewde 
grace,  bet  acwike^  me  wel  wes  ba  iboren  bo  mai  ihesu  bis  balde- 
liche  segge  to  be.  bu  bet  ert  eafter  him  alle  helpleses  help,  and 
sunfulles  hele  bet  to  be  habbeb  hope,  helpe  me  englene  quene.    Help  me, 

<>  t         •  •  -i  7  •  i  i  queen  of 

heoueneliche  leafdi  semte  marie  moder  and  maiden  deorwurb  angels! 

wimmon  forto  salui  sunne  ibesu  crist  bicom  bi  sone.  for  ure  sake 

bu  were  maked  maiden  godes  moder.     Nere  bu  naut  bet  tu  art 

edi  ouer  alle  ;ef  sunfulle  neren  for  bi  a^en  sunfulle  to  cleopien  to   Tiiy  sinful 

ones  may 

be  baldeliche.  for  hwam  bu  hauest  bin  edinesse.  and  ti  muchele   address  thee 

.  .  boldly. 

heh-schipe.  maiden  moder.  maiden  and  hwas  moder.  his  hwas 
dohter  bu  art.  his  bat  wrahte.  and  wait  [al]  bat  ischapen  is.  his 
bet  naueb  nouber  ne  biginnuwge  bet  is  euer  ilic  wib-ute  truch- 
unge.  bet  halt  euer  anon  wib-ute  sturunge.  O.  muchele  menske 
to  beon  moder  of  swuche  sone.  mid  holscipe  of  maiden  and 
habben  him  swa  abandun.  bet  he  wule  bet  al  bine  wil  ihwer  beo 
iforbed.  forto  schawen  us  bis  he  strahte  forb  his  riht  earm  ase 
[he]  stod  o  rode,  and  bereb1  dun  towart  te  his  deorwurbe  heaued  '  ?beieb. 
ase  bah  he  saide.  Moder  bet  bu  wult  * 

*  For  remainder  of  text,  see  p.  203,  11.  10 — 21. 


bliss  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven !  This  thought  would  surely  enkindle 
true  love  within  me,  let  the  heart  be  ever  so  cold.  Where  this  burning- 
may  be,  there  should  sin  never  have  any  further  entrance.  Ah,  Jesus  ! 
whither  shall  I  flee  when  the  devil  hunteth  after  me,  but  to  thy  cross  ? 



Christ's  meek  mother,  Saint  Mary ! 
My  life's  light,  my  beloved  lady  ! 

To  thee  I  bow  and  my  knees  I  bend, 
4     And  all  my  heart's  blood  to  thee  I  offer. 

Thou  art  my  soul's  light,  and  my  heart's  bliss  ! 

My  life  and  my  hope,  my  safety  therewith  indeed  ! 

I  ought  to  honour  thee  with  all  my  might, 
8     And  sing  the  song  of  praise  by  day  and  by  night ; 

For  thou  hast  holpen  me  in  many  ways, 

And  brought  me  out  of  hell  into  Paradise. 

I  thank  thee  for  it,  my  beloved  lady, 
12     And  will  thank  thee  while  I  live. 

All  Christian  men  ought  to  worship  thee, 

And  sing  thee  a  song  of  praise  with  exceeding  great  joy, 

For  thou  hast  delivered  them  out  of  the  devil's  hand, 
16     And  sent  them  in  bliss  to  angels'  land. 

Well  ought  we  to  love  thee,  my  sweet  lady ! 

Well  ought  we  for  thy  love  to  bow  down  our  hearts. 

Thou  art  bright  and  blissful  above  all  women, 
20     And  good  thou  art,  and  to  God  dear  above  all  men. 

All  the  company  of  maidens  honour  thee  alone, 

For  thou  art  the  flower  of  them  all  before  God's  throne. 

There  is  no  woman  born  that  is  like  to  thee, 
24     Nor  is  any  thy  equal  within  heaven's  kingdom. 

High  is  thy  royal  seat  above  cherubim, 

Before  thy  dear  Son  among  seraphim. 

Merry  sing  the  angels  before  thy  face, 





[Fnl.  l?0fc]. 

/"^ristes  mikle  moder  seynte  marie. 

^     Mines  Hues  leome  mi  leoue  lefdi. 

To  pe  ich  buwe  and  mine  kneon  ick  beie. 
4     And  al  min  heorte  blod  to  $e  ich  offrie. 

pu  ert  mire  soule  liht.  and  mine  heorte  blisse. 

Mi  lif  and  mi  tohope  min  heale  mid  iwisse. 

Ich  ouh  wurSie  ^e  mid  alle  mine  mihte. 
8     And  singge  pe  lofsong  bi  daie  and  bi  nihte. 

Vor  pu  me  hauest  iholpen  aueole  kunne  wise. 

And  ibrouht  of  helle  in-to  paradise. 

Ich  hit  ponkie  ^e  mi  leoue  lefdi. 
12     And  ponkie  wulle  pe  hwule  ^et  ich  liuie. 

Alle  cristene  men  owen  don  <5e  wurschipe. 

And  singen  £e  lofsong  mid  swuo'e  muchele  gledschipe. 

Vor  &U  ham  hauest  alesed  of  deoflene  honde. 
1G     And  i-send  mid  blisse  to  englene  londe. 

Wei  owe  we  pe  luuien  mi  swete  lefdi. 

Wei  owen  we  uor  pine  luue  ure  heorte  beien. 

pu  ert  briht  and  blisful  ouer  alle  wummen. 
20     And  god  ^u  ert  and  gode  leof  ouer  alle  wepmen. 

Alle  meidene  were  wurSe^  pe  one. 

Vor  pu  ert  hore  blostme  biuoren  godes  trone. 

Nis  no  wummon  iboren  pet  8e  beo  iliche. 
24     Ne  non  per  nis  pin  efning  wrS-mne  heoueriche. 

Heih  is  pi  kinestol  onuppe  cherubine. 

Biuoren  ^ine  leoue  sune  wi^-iraien  seraphine. 

Murie  dreamed  engles  biuoren  pin  onsene. 
*  Cotton.  MS.  Nero  A  xiv. 

To  thee, 
Christ's  meek 
mother.  I 
bend  my 

I  will  siiiR 
unto  thee  by 
day  and  by 

Thou  hast 
released  mnn- 
kind  out  of 
the  devil's 

Thou  art 
above  all 

Thy  throne  ifi 
above  the 

192  A    GOOD    ORISON    OF    OUR    LADY. 

28     Playing,  carolling,  and  singing  between  (at  intervals). 

Full  well  it  pleaseth  them  to  be  before  thee, 

For  they  are  never  tired  of  beholding  thy  fairness, 

Thy  bliss  may  no  one  understand, 
32     For  all  God's  kingdom  is  under  thy  hand. 

All  thy  friends  thou  makest  rich  kings  ; 

Thou  givest  them  royal  robes,  bracelets,  and  gold  rings. 

Thou  givest  eternal  rest,  full  of  sweet  bliss, 
36     Where  that  death  never-  comes,  nor  harm,  nor  sorrow. 

There  bloom  in  bliss  blossoms,  white  and  red, 

Where  never  6now  nor  frost  may  hurt  them, 

There  may  none  fade,  for  there  is  eternal  summer. 
40     No  living  thing  there  is  weak  or  sorrowful. 

There  they  shall  rest  who  here  do  honour  thee, 

If  they  keep  their  life  clean  from  all  evil ; 

There  they  shall  never  sorrow  nor  toil, 
44     Nor  weep,  nor  mourn,  nor  hell-stinks  smell. 

Thei*e  shall  they  be  presented  with  golden  cups, 

And  have  poured  out  to  them  eternal  life,  with  angels'  joy. 

No  heart  may  think  nor  aught  imagine  (reach), 
48     Nor  no  mouth  utter,  nor  tongue  teach, 

How  much  good  thou  preparest  within  Paradise, 

For  them  that  work  day  and  night  in  thy  service. 

All  thy  household  is  clothed  with  white  ciclaton, 
52     And  they  all  are  crowned  with  golden  crowns. 

They  are  as  red  as  the  rose,  as  white  as  the  lily, 

And  evermore  they  shall  be  glad,  and  sing  throughout  merrily. 

With  bright  gemstones  (jewels)  their  crown  is  all  bedecked, 
56     And  they  all  do  what  pleaseth  them,  so  that  nothing  thwarts  them. 

Thy  dear  son  is  their  king,  and  thou  ai-t  their  queen. 

They  are  never  annoyed  by  wind  nor  by  rain. 

With  them  is  evermore  day,  without  night, 
60     Song  without  sorrow,  and  peace  without  fight. 

With  them  is  mirths  (joys)  manifold,  without  trouble  or  annoy  ; 

Music  and  games,  abundance  of  life's  pleasure,  and  eternal  play. 

Therefore,  dear  lady,  long  will  it  appear  to  us  wretches 

ON    GOD    UREISUN    OF    URE    LEFDI. 


28     PleieS.  and  sweie^.  and  singeS.  bitweonen. 

Swu^e  wel  ham  like^  biuoren  J>e  to  beonne. 

Vor  heo  neuer  ne  beo^  sead  pi  ueir  to  iseonne. 

pine  blisse  ne  mei  nowiht  understonden. 
32     Vor  al  is  godes  riche  an  under  pine  honden. 

Alle  ]>ine  ureondes  pu  makest  riche  kinges. 

pu  ham  jiuest  kinescrud  beies  and  gold  ringes. 

pu  3iuest  eche  reste  ful  of  swete  blisse. 
36     per  ^e  neure  deaS  ne  com '.    ne  herm  ne  sorinesse. 

per  blowe^  mne  blisse  blostmen.  hwite  and  reade. 

per  ham  neuer  ne  mei.  snou.  ne  uorst  iureden. 

per  ne  mei  non  ualuwen.  uor  per  is  eche  sumer. 
40     Ne  non  liuiinde  ping  woe  per  nis  ne  3eomer. 

per  heo  schulen  resten  pe  her  ^e  do£  wurschipe. 

3if  heo  3eme:5  bore  lif  cleane  urom  alle  queadschipe. 

per  ne  schulen  heo  neuer  karien  ne  swinken. 
44     Ne  weopeu  ne  murnen  ne  helle  stenches  stinken. 

per  me  schal  ham  steoren  mid  guldene  chelle. 

And  schenchen  ham  eche  lif  mid  englene  wille. 

Ne  mei  non  heorte  penchen  ne  nowiht  arechen. 
48     Ne  no  muS  imelen  ne  no  tunge  tegen1. 

Hu  muchel  god  ^u  3eirkest  wrS-inne  paradise. 

Ham  pet  swinke^  dei  and  niht  rSine  seruise. 

Al  pin.  bird  is  i-schrud  mid  hwite  ciclatune. 
52     And  alle  heo  beo^  ikruned  mid  guldene  krune. 

Heo  beo^  so  read  so  rose  so  hwit  so  pe  lilie. 

And  euer  more  heo  beo^  gled  and  singed  puruhut  murie. 

Mid  brihte  3imstones  bore  krune  is  al  biset. 
56     And  al  heo  do^  pet  ham  like^.  so  pet  no  ping  ham  ne  let. 

pi  leoue  sune  is  hore  king  and  pu  ert  hore  kwene. 

Ne  beo%  heo  neuer  i-dreaued  mid  winde  ne  mid  reine. 

Mid  ham  is  euer  more  dei  wi3-ute  nihte. 
60     Song  wrS-ute  seoruwe  and  sib  wrS-ute  uihte. 

Mid  ham  is  murulvSe  moniuold  wi^-ute  teone  and  treie. 

Gleobeames  and  gome  inouh  lines  wil  and  eche  pleie. 

pereuore  leoue  lefdi  long  hit  punched  us  wrecchen. 


The  angels 
sing  and  play 
before  thee. 

Thou  givest 
them  royal 
robes,  I  'nice- 
lets,  ami  gold 

Those  that 

I our  tlu-e 

and  lead  pure 
Uvea  shall 
have  rest  in 


1  ?  techen. 

All  thy 
household  are 
crowned  with 


Thy  son  is 
their  king 

and  thou  art 
their  queen. 

194  A  GOOD  orison  of  our  lady. 

64     Until  thou  from  this  poor  life  to  thyself  us  fetch. 

We  may  never  have  perfect  joy  (gladship) 

Ere  we  to  thyself  come,  unto  thy  high  honour  (worship). 

Sweet  mother  of  God,  gentle  maiden  and  well-beloved, 
68     Thine  equal  was  never  born,  nor  evermore  shall  be. 

Mother  thou  art,  and  virgin  void  of  all  vice  ! 

Throughout  high  and  holy  in  angels'  rest. 

All  the  host  of  angels  and  all  holy  things 
72     Say  and  sing  that  thou  art  of  life  the  well-spring, 

And  they  all  say  that  thou  art  never  wanting  in  mercy, 

Nor  shall  any  man  that  worships  thee  ever  be  lost. 

Thou  art  my  soul's  (light)  without  leasing, 
76     After  thy  dear  son,  most  beloved  of  all  things. 

All  heaven  is  full  of  thy  bliss, 

And  so  is  all  this  earth  of  thy  mercy. 

So  great  is  thy  mercy  and  gentleness, 
80     That  no  man  that  earnestly  prayeth  thee  may  lack  (miss)  thy  help. 

Each  man  that  looketh  to  thee  thou  givest  mercy  and  grace, 

Though  he  may  have  much  offended  and  grieved  thee  sorely, 

Therefore  I  entreat  thee,  holy  queen  of  heaven, 
84     That  thou,  if  it  be  thy  will,  hear  my  petition  (boon). 

I  entreat  thee,  lady,  for  the  greeting 

That  Gabriel  brought  thee  from  our  heavenly  King, 

And  also  I  beseech  thee  for  Jesus  Christ's  blood, 
88     Which,  for  our  benefit,  was  shed  on  the  cross, 

For  the  great  sorrow  that  was  in  thy  mind, 

When  thou  at  his  death  before  him  stoodest, 

That  thou  make  me  clean,  outwardly  and  inwardly, 
92     So  that  not  any  kind  of  sin  may  ruin  me. 

The  loathsome  devil  and  errors  of  all  kinds 

Banish  from  me  far  away,  along  with  their  foul  filth. 

My  dear  life  (love),  from  thy  love  shall  nothing  separate  me, 
96     For  on  thee  depends  my  life,  and  my  salvation  also. 

For  thy  love  I  toil  and  sigh  very  often, 

For  thy  love  I  am  brought  into  bondage, 

For  thy  love  I  forsook  all  that  was  dear  to  me, 

ON    GOD    UltEISUN    OF    URE    LEFDI. 


61     Vort  pu  of  pisse  erme  Hue  to  ^e  suluen  us  feeche. 
We  ne  muwen  neuer  habben  fulle  gledscbipe. 
Er  we  to  pe  suluen  kumen  to  pine  heie  wurschipe. 
Swete  Godes  moder  softe  meiden  and  wel  icoren. 
pin  iliche  neuer  nes  ne  neuermore  ne  wurS  iboren. 
Moder  pu  ert  and  meiden  cleane  of  alle  laste. 
puruhtut  bei  and  holi  in  englene  reste. 
Al  englene  were  and  alle  bolie  ping. 
Sigge^  and  singed  pet  tu  ert  Hues  welsprung. 
And  beo  sigge^  alle  pet  ^e  ne  wonted  neuer  ore. 
Ne  no   mon  pet  ^e  wui-^e^  ne  mei  neuer  beon  uorloren. 
pu  ert  mire  soule  wi^-ute  leasunge. 
Efter  pine  leoue  sune  i  leouest  aire  pinge. 
Al  is  pe  beouene  ful  of  pine  blisse. 
And  so  is  al  pes  middeleard  of  pine  mildheortnesse 
So  mucbel  is  pi  milce  and  pin  edmodnesse. 
pet  no  mon  pet  ^e  3eoi'ne  bit  of  belpe  ne  mei  missen. 
Ilch  mon  pet  to  pe  bisilrS  Jju  3iuest  milce  and  ore. 
paub  he  ^e  habbe  swirSe  agult  and  i-dreaued  sore, 
pereuore  icb  ^e  bidde  holi  beouene  kwene. 
pet  tu  3if  pi  wille  is  iher  mine  bene. 
Ich  Se  bidde  lefdi  uor  pere  gretunge. 
pet  Gabriel  ^e  brouhte  urom  ure  heouen  kinge. 
And  ek  ich  ^e  biseche  uor  ihesu  cristes  blode. 
pet  for  ure  note  was  i-sched  o^ere  rode. 
Vor  ^e  muchele  seoruwe  $et  was  o^ine  mode, 
po  pu  et  ^e  dea^e  him  bi-uore  stode. 
pet  tu  me  makie  cleane  wi^-uten  and  eke  wr3-mnen. 
So  pet  me  ne  schende  none  kunnes  sunne. 
pene  lo^e  deouel  and  alle  kunnes  dweolulrSe. 
Aulem  urom  me  ueor  awei  mid  hore  fule  ful<5e. 
Mi  leoue  lif  urom  pine  luue  ne  schal  me  no  ping  to-dealen. 
Vor  o^e  is  al  ilong  mi  lif  and  eke  min  heale. 
Vor  pine  luue  i  swinke  and  sike  wel  Home. 
Vor  pine  luue  ich  ham  ibrouht  m  to  peoudome. 
Vor  pine  luue  ich  uorsoc  al  pet  me  leof  was. 








Sweet  mother 
of  God,  thou 
bast  no  equal. 

Thou  art  the 
well-spring  of 



Heaven  is  full 
of  thy  bliss. 

Thou  givest 
mercy  to  all 
that  ask  it. 

Make  me 
clean,  within 
and  without. 

For  thy  love 
I  toil  and 

196  A    GOOD    ORISON    OF    OUR    LADY. 

100     And  gave  thee  all  myself.     Dear  life  (love),  think  thou  of  that. 

That  I  have  at  times  made  thee  angry,  I  am  truly  sorry. 

For  Christ's  five  wounds  do  thou  give  me  mercy  and  grace. 

If  thou  hast  no  mercy  upon  me,  I  know  full  well 
104     That  in  hell -pain  I  shall  swelter  and  burn. 

Full  well  thou  sawest  me,  though  thou  wert  silent, 

Where  I  was,  and  what  I  did,  yet  thou  didst  bear  with  me. 

If  thou  hadst  taken  vengeance  upon  my  wickedness, 
108     Truly  I  had  wholly  lost  the  bliss  of  Paradise. 

Thou  hast  yet  borne  with  me  for  thy  goodness, 

And  now  I  hope  to  have  full  forgiveness. 

And  now  I  hope  never  to  fall  into  hell-pain, 
112     Since  I  have  come  to  thee  and  am  thine  own  servant. 

Thine  I  am,  and  will  be  now  and  evermore, 

For  on  thee  and  on  God's  mercy  depends  all  my  life. 

My  dear  sweet  lady,  for  thee  I  long  exceedingly. 
116     Unless  I  have  thy  help,  I  shall  never  be  joyful. 

I  thee  entreat  that  thou  come  to  my  death, 

And  chiefly  then  manifest  thy  love. 

Receive  my  soul  when  I  depart  from  this  life, 
120     And  shield  me  from  sorrow  and  everlasting  death's  care  (grief). 

If  thou  wilt  that  I  thrive,  take  good  heed  to  me, 

For  I  shall  never  prosper  unless  it  be  through  thee. 

With  very  evil  vices  my  soul  is  fast  bound  ; 
124     Nothing  so  well  as  thou  can  heal  my  wounds. 

To  thee  alone  is  all  my  trust,  after  (next  to)  thy  dear  Son, 

For  his  holy  name,  of  my  life  grant  me  the  loan. 

Suffer  not  the  devil  (enemy)  to  touch  me, 
128     Nor  to  draw  me  into  hell-pain. 

Take  heed  to  me,  so  that,  be  what  may,  it  will  ever  be  best  for  me, 

For  thine  is  the  worship,  if  I,  wretch,  may  well  thrive. 

Thou  forsakest  no  man  for  his  wickedness, 
132     If  he  is  ready  to  repent  and  prayeth  thee  for  forgiveness. 

Thou  canst  easily,  if  thou  wilt,  all  my  sorrow  allay, 

And  much  better  see  (what  is  needful)  for  me,  than  I  can  say  (ask). 

Thou  canst  easily  requite  my  greeting  (complaint), 



100     And  3ef  ^e  al  mi  suluen.  looue  lif  ipench  pu  pes. 

pet  ich  ^e  wre^ede  sume  srSe  hit  me  reowe^  sore. 

Vor  cristes  fif  wunden  ^u  3if  me  milce  and  ore. 

3if  pu  milce  nauest  of  me  |>et  ich  wot  wel  3eorne 
104     pet.  ine  helle  pine  swelten  ich  schal  and  beornen. 

Ful  wel  pu  me  iseie  pauh  pu  stille  were. 

Hwar  ich  was  and  hwat  i  dude  ]>auh  pu  me  uorbere. 

3if  pu  heuedest  wreche  inumen  of  mine  luSernesse. 
108     Iwis  ich  heuede  al  uorloren  paradises  blisse. 

pu  hauest  3et  forboren  me  uor  pine  godnesse. 

And  nu  ich  hopie  habben  fulle  uo^iuenesse. 

Ne  wene  ich  neure  uallen  in-to  helle  pine. 
112     Hwon  ich  am  to  fte  ikumen  and  am  %in  owune  hine. 

pin  ich  am  and  wule  beon  nu  and  euer  more. 

Vor  o^e  is  al  mi  lif  ilong  and  o  godes  ore. 

Mi  leoue  swete  lefdi  to  pe  me  longed  swuSe. 
116     Bute  ich  habbe  pine  help  ne  beo  ich  neuer  bli^e. 

Ich  pe  bidde  pet  tu  kume  to  mine  uorS-srSe. 

And  nomeliche  peonne  pine  luue  kuSe. 

Auouh  mine  soule  hwon  ich  of  pisse  liue  uare. 
120     And  i-schild  me  urom  seoruwe  and  from  eche  dea^es  kare. 

5if  pu  wult  ^et  ich  r£eo  gode  3eme  nim  to  me. 

Vor  wel  ne  wurSS  me  neue?*  bute  hit  beo  puruh  ^e. 

Mid  swupe  luSere  lasten  mi  soule  is  jniruh  bunden. 
124     Ne  niei  no  ping  so  wel  so  pu  healen  mine  wunden. 

To  pe  one  is  al  mi  ti'ust  efter  pine  leoue  sune. 

Vor  is  holie  nome  of  mine  liue  3if  me  lune. 

Ne  pole  pu  pene  unwine  pet  he  me  arine. 
128     Ne  pet  he  me  drawe  in-to  helle  pine. 

Nim  nu  3eme  to  me  so  me  best  a  beo  ^e  beo. 

Vor  pin  is  pe  wurchipe  3if  ich  wreeche  wel  ipeo. 

pu  ne  uorsakest  nenne  mon  uor  his  luSernesse. 
132     3*f  he  1S  to  bote  3eruh  and  bit  pe  uoi^iuenesse. 

pu  miht  lihtliche  3if  pu  wult  al  mi  sor  aleggen. 

And  muchele  bet  biseon  to  me  pen  ich  kunne  siggen. 

pu  miht  for3elden  lihtliche  mine  gretunge. 

Give  me 
mercy  for 
the  sake  of 
Christ's  five 

Tliou  hast 
borne  long 
wiili  my  sins. 

Without  thy 
help  I  shall 
never  be 

With  vile 
sins  my  soul 
is  fast  bound. 

Let  not  the 
devil  touch 

[Fol.  123a.] 

Thou  canst 
allay  all  my 


136     And  all  my  labour,  and  my  sorrow,  and  my  kneeling. 

In  me  there  is  nothing  fair  to  be  seen, 

Nor  anything  that  is  worthy  to  be  before  thee, 

Therefore  I  pray  thee  that  thou  wash  me  and  clothe, 
140     Through  thy  great  mercy  that  spreadeth  so  very  wide. 

It  is  not  to  thy  honour  that  the  devil  should  entice  me  (to  sin)  ; 

If  thou  wilt  permit  it,  truly  he  will  greatly  rejoice  (to  do  s  >), 

For  he  would  never  that  thou  shouldst  have  honour, 
144     Nor  that  any  man  that  honoured  thee  should  have  gladness. 

Thou  knowest  full  well  that  the  devil  hateth  me, 

And  chiefly  because  I  worship  thee. 

Therefore  I  entreat  thee  to  guard  and  protect  me, 
148     So  that  the  devil  may  not  trouble  me,  nor  error  harm  me. 

So  thou  dost  and  so  thou  shalt  for  thy  mercy, 

Thou  shalt  give  me  a  fair  portion  of  heavenly  bliss. 

If  I  have  broken  (sinned)  much,  much  will  I  repent, 
152     And  perform  my  shrift,  aud  fair  thee  pray, 

The  while  I  have  my  life  and  health. 

From  thy  service  shall  nothing  separate  me. 

Before  thy  feet  I  will  lie  and  cry, 
156     Until  I  have  forgiveness  of  my  misdeeds. 

My  life  is  thine,  my  love  is  thine,  my  heart's  blood  is  thine, 

And  if  I  dare  say  it,  my  dear  lady,  thou  art  mine. 

All  honour  have  thou  in  heaven,  and  also  on  earth, 
160     And  all  joy  have  thou  as  much  as  thou  deservest. 

Now  I  beseech  thee  by  Christ's  charity  (love), 

That  thou  thy  blessing  and  thy  love  give  to  me  ; 

Preserve  my  body  in  purity. 
164     God  Almighty  grant  me,  for  his  mercy, 

That  I  may  see  thee  in  thy  exalted  bliss, 

And  that  all  my  friends  may  be  the  better  now  to-day, 

That  I  have  sung  thee  this  English  lay. 
168     And  now  I  beseech  thee,  for  thy  holiness, 

That  thou  bring  the  monk  to  thy  joy, 

That  made  this  song  of  thee,  my  dear  lady. 

Christ's  meek  mother.   Saint   Mary  !     Amen. 

ON    GOD    UREISUN    OF    URE    LEFDI. 











Al  mi  swine  and  mi  sor  and  mine  kneouwunge. 

Ine  me  nis  no-Jung  feier  on  to  biseonne. 

Ne  no  ping  \et  beo  wurSe  biuoren  pe  to  beonne. 

pereuore  ich  pe  bidde  \et  pu  me  wassche  and  scbrude 

puruh  pine  muchele  milce  ]>et  spert1  so  swuSe  wide. 

Nis  hit  ^e  no  wur£scipe  pet  pe  deouel  me  to-drawe. 

3if  pu  wult  hit  rSauien  iwis  he  wule  fturchut  fawe. 

Vor  he  nolde  neuere  \et  pu  hefedest  wur^schipe. 

Ne  no  mon  \et  pe  wurSeS  pet  he  hedde  gledschipe. 

pu  hit  wost  fid  3eorne  pet  pe  deouel  hate^  me. 

And  nomeliche  pereuore  pet  ich  wurSie  )>e. 

pereuore  ich  pe  bidde  pet  pu  me  wite  and  werie. 

pet  pe  deouel  me  ne  drecche  ne  dweoVSe  me  ne  derie. 

So  pu  dest  and  so  pu  schalt  uor  ^ire  mild-heortnesse. 

pu  schalt  me  a  ueir  dol  of  heoueriche  blisse. 

3if  ich  habbe  muchel  ibroken  muchel  ich  wulle  beten. 

And  do  mine  schrifte  and  pe  ueire  greten. 

pe  hwule  pet  ich  habbe  mi  lif  and  mine  heale. 

Vrom  ^ire  seruise  ne  schal  me  no  ping  deale. 

Biuoren  pine  uote  ich  wulle  liggen  and  greden. 

Vort  ich  habbe  uoi^iuenesse  of  mine  misdeden. 

Mi  lif  is  pin  mi  lime  is  pin  mine  heorte  blod  is  pin. 

And  jif  ich  der  seggen  mi  leoue  leafdi  pu  ert  min. 

Alle  wurSschipe  haue  pu  on  heouene  and  ec  on  eorSe. 

And  alle  gledschipe  haue  pu  al  so  pu  ert  wurSe. 

Nu  ich  pe  bi-seche  ine  cristes  cherite. 

pet  pu  pine  blescinge  and  pine  luue  3iue  me. 

3eme  mine  licame  ine  clenenesse. 

God  almihti  unne  me  vor  his  mild-heortnesse. 

pet  ich  mote  pe  iseo  in  ^ire  heie  blisse. 

And  alle  mine  ureondmen  pe  bet  beo  nu  to  dai. 

pet  ich  habbe  i-sungen  pe  oesne  englissce  lai. 

And  nu  ich  pe  bi-seche  vor  ^ire  holinesse. 

pet  pu  bringe  pene  Munuch  to  pire  glednesse. 

pet  funde  ^esne  song  bi  ^e  mi  looue  leafdi. 

Cristes  milde  moder  seinte  marie,     amen.  % 

1  ?  spret. 

It  is  not  to 
thy  honour 
that  I  should 
fall  into  sin. 

Preserve  me 
from  the  devil 
and  from  all 

Before  thy 
feet  I  will  cry 
until  I  have 
thy  forgive- 

[Fol.  1236.] 

Give  me  thy 
love  and  keep 
me  pure. 

Bring  the 
author  of  this 
lay  unto  thy 





Jesus,  true       Tesu  scrS  god.  so^  godes  sune.     Iesu  so^  god.  soS  mon.  and 

God,  true  son 

of  God,  true     -■-     so^  meideiies  bern.     Iesu  niin  holi  luue.  Mi  sikere  swet- 

bod  of  a 

virgin!  nesse1.     Iesu  miu  heorte.  mine  soule  hele.     Swete  iesu  mi  leof. 

i  MS.  spet-  ...  .  . 

nesse.  mi  hf.  mi  leome.  niin  healewi.  min  huni  ter.  bu  ert  al  bet  ich 

heart's  and      liopie.      Iesu   mi  weole.   mi  wunne.   mi   bli^e   breostes   blisse. 

soul's  joy  ! 

iesu  teke  bet  bu  ert  so  softe.  and  so  swete.  %et  perto  pu  ert  so 

leoflicli.  so  louelich.  and  so  lufsum.  bet  te  engles  euer  bi-holde^ 

be.  ne  ne  beo^  beo  neuer  ful.  forto  logen  on  be.     Iesu  al  feir. 

The  sun  pales  a-sein  bwam  be  sunne  nis  buten  ase  a  scheadewe.  ase  beo  bet 

before  thy  •  '  '  ' 

light.  leose^  hire  libt  '.    and  schine^  a-3ein  bine  brilite  leore  uor  hire 

beosternesse.  bu  bet  3eouest  hire  liht.  and  al  ^et  leome  haueft. 
aliht  mine  beostri  heorte.  31^  mi  bur  brithnesse.  and  brihtte  mine 

*LFoi.i24a.]   soule  *bet  is  suti.  and  make  hire  wur<5e  to  bine  swete  wuninge. 

Knkindie  me     Oiitend  me  wrS  blase,  of  bine  leitinde  luue.     Let  me  beon  bi 

with  thy  '  .     ..  ' 

light.  leofmon.  and  ler  me  for  to  louien  be  liuiinde  louerd.  woa  is  me 

bet  ich  am  so  freomede  wrS  be.  auh  ase  bu  al  hauest  licamliche 

Let  me  have     iwend  me  from  be  worlde  '.   wend  me  ec  heortliche.  and  turn 

no  fellowship  ' 

with  the  me  aliunde  to  be.  wrS  so^e  luue.  and  mid  bi-leaue.  bet  ich  nabbe 

world.  or  r 

no  mong.  ne  felauhschipe.  ne  speche.  ne  priuite  wrS  be  worlde. 
for  ich  wot  mi  leofmon.  der  ich  so  cleopien  be.  ^et  fleschlich  luue 
and  gostlich.  eorSlich  luue  and  heouenlich  '.  ne  muhen  onone 
wise  bedden  in  one  breoste.  lnvoa  so  euer  haue^  longe  wone  of 
gostlich  elne.  of  heouenliche  mur'Se  '.  hit  is  for-bi.  ^et  heo  liaue^. 
o^er  wilned  '.  efter  cumfort  on  eorSe.  ^et  is  fikel.  and  fals.  and 
worldly  al  imeragd  wrS  baluhsrS.  and  wrS  bitternesse.      Nis  no  blisse 

dearly  so^es  ibinge  ¥et  is  wtewrS  f  ^et  ne  beo  to  bitter  abowt.  ^et  tet 

uni  ^er  inne.  ne  beo  ilicked  of  bornes.  Me  nis  he  fol  chepmon. 
¥et  bu^  deore  awoc  bing.  and  forsake^  a  deorwur¥e  bing.  ^et  me 

*  For  Translation,  see  pp.  182-190. 

ON    UREISUN    OF    GOD    AiMIHTT.  201 

beot  him  for  nowt.  and  bihat  him  ber  teken  mede.  for  to  nimen 

hit '.     Mi  iesu  hues  louerd.   bu   beodest  bin  elning.  al  wrS-ute   Thou,  o  Lord, 

*  offerest  us  thy 

bone,   and  ber   efter  bihotest  us   wi$   ben  Set  we   nimen  hit.   erace  without 

'  '  our  asking  fur 

heouenliche  blissen  f  and  we  wended  us  ber  from,  and  bugged  u- 

worldes  froure.  wv6  moni  sor.  and  teoue.  and  elne  of  monnes 

speche f  af  iesu  louerd.  bi  grrS.  hwi  habbe  ich  eni  *licunge.  in    *[Foi.i2t&.] 

o$er  binge  f  ben  i  be.  hwi  luuie  ich  ei  bing  bute  be  one  '.  hwi  ne 

bi-hold  ich  hu  bu  streihtest  be  for  me  on  be  rode  f  hwi  ne  Avorpe 

ich  me  bi-tweonen  beo  ilke  ermes  so  swrSe  AvrSe  to-spredde.  and  o  that  t  might 

'  *  throw  myself 

i-openeS  so  be  moder  deS  hire  ermes.  hire  leoue  child  for  to  bi-  betweren  thy 
cluppen  f  3e  so^es.  and  bu  deorewurSe  louerd  gostliche  to  us 
and  to  Sine  deorelinges.  AvrS  be  ilke  spredunge  3eiest.  ase  be 
moder  to  hire  childe.  hwo  leof  i  hwo  lif  f  hwo  deS  him  her 
bitweonen  f  hwoa  wule  beon  bi-clupped  '.  a  iesu  bin  edmodnesse. 
and  bi  muchele  milce.  hwi  nam  ich  ibin  ermes  so  istreihte.  and 
ispred  on  rode  '.  andweneS  ei  to  beon  bi-clupped  bitweonen  bine   Wemust 

suffer  even  as 

blisfulle  ermes  in  heouene.  bute  he  Avorpe  er  him  her  \  bi-tweon-  *•'""  ^st 

1  suffered. 

en  bine  rew^ful  ermes  oSe  rode  f  Nai  soSes  nai  f  ne  wene  hit 
ueuer  nomon.  buurh  bis  lowe  cluppinge.  me  mot  come  to  be 
heie  '.  bet  wule  bi-cluppen  be  ber  swuch  '.  ase  bu  ert  ber  louerd 
of  leoue.  he  mot  cluppen  be  er  her  '.  swuch  ase  bu  makedest  be 
her.  wrecche  i  for  us  wrecches.  Set  is  to  seggen.  hwoa  so  euer 
wule  habben  lot  wvS  be  of  bine  blisse  '.  he  mot  delen  wrS  be  f   wTe  must 

'  *  '  share  thy 

of  bine  pine  on  eorSe.  nis  he  nout  treowe  ifere  bet  nule  nout   sorrows. 

scotten  ibe  lure  '.    ase  ibe  bi-3ete.  he  mot  scotten  efne  efter  his 

euene.  bet  wule  beon  bi  felawef  liuiinde  louerd.  *he  mot  folewen    *[Foi.i25a.] 

bine  steopes.  buruh  sor.  and  buruh  seoruwe.  to  Se  wununge  of 

weole  f  and  of  eche  wunne.     Ne  wene  nomon  to  stihen  AA'iS  este   We  cannot 

ascend  with 

to  be  steorren.     A  swete  iesu.  hwi  mid  ermes  of  luue  ne  cluppe   ease  to  the 

.  .  8tars- 

ich  be  so  feste.  bet  no  bing  beonne  ne  muwe  breiden  mine  heorte  f 

hwi  ne  cusse  ich  be  sweteliche  ine  goste.  wiS  swete  munegunge 

of  bine  goddeden  f  hwi  nis  me  bitter,  al  \et  mi  flesch  likeS.  hwi 

nis  me  umvurS  euerich  wordlich  bing  a-jein  be  muchele  delit  of 

bine  swetnesse '.  hwi  ne  iuele  ich  be  imine  breoste  so  swete  ase 

bu  ert  f  hwi  ertu  me  so  freomede  5  hwi  ne  con  ich  Avowen  be. 

W$5  swete  luue  wordes  aire  binge  swetest.  and  aire  binge  leoflu-   theewith00 

sweet  words. 

202  ON    UREISUN    OP    GOD   ALMIHTI. 

kest  and  luue  wurSest  f    wei  wei.  be  bittemesse  of  alle  mine 
My  sins  are  a  attri  sunneii  is  be  lettunge.     Mine  sunnen  beo^  wal  bi-tweonen 

wall  between 

me  and  thee.  me.  and  be.  Mine  sunnen  wernefc  me  f  al  bis  swotnesse.  Mine 
sunnen  habbeS  grimliche  iwursed  me.  and  iueied  me  toward  be 
luueliche  louerd  f  and  \et  is  lutel  wunder.  forso  ich  bam  wrS 
bore  borie  fenliche  ifuled  f  \et  ich  ne  mei.  ne  ne  der  lufsum 
Godd  '.   cumen  ibine  eihsilrSe.  a  f  iesu  bin  ore.  hwat  deih  beonne 

Thy  blood        bi  blod  isched  obe  rode,  hwat  deih  beonne  be  large  broc  of  bine 

shed  on  the         '  '  . 

cross  can  wash   softe  side,  be  streames  bet  striden  adun  of  bine  deorewurSe  uet. 

our  sinful  '  '  ' 

souls-  and  of  bine  eadie  honden.  nes  hit  forto  waschen  sumfule1  soulen  f 

1  So  in  MS. 

*[Foi.i256.]  nes  hit  for  to  *saluen  seke  ine  sunnen  '.  hwoa  is  beonne  un- 
weaschen.  bet  aue^  bis  halwende  wet  inwrS  his  heorte  1  hwoa 
berf  beon  unsalued.  bet  haue^  so  mihti  salue.  ase  ofte  ase  he  ber- 

Thou  art  our    to  haue^  treoue  bileue  '.   Min  heouenliche  leche.  ^et  makedest  us 


physician.  0f  j,}  seolf  so  mihti  medicine,  iblesced  beo  bu  euer.  ase  min  trust 
is  ber  to  f  hit  beo  mi  lechuunge.  hit  beo  mi  bote.  3if  miw  uuel  is 
muchel  f  be  mihte  ber  of.  is  more,  ase  wis  ase  a  drope  of  bine 
deorewurSe  blode.  muhte  weaschen  awei  alle  folkes  fulSe  i  ase 
wis  liues  louerd  beo  ilke  fif  wellen  of  bine  blisfule  bodie  sprungen 

wash  my  five   and  striken  dun  strundes  of  blode.  weaschs  mine  fif  wittes  f   of 

wits  from  all 

sins.  alle  blodie  sunnen.  of  al  \>et  ich  habbe  mis-iseien  mid  eien.  and 

mid  min  earen  ihei'd.  wrS  muSe  ispeken.  o^er  ismauht  and 
wrS  noese  i-smelled.  wrS  eni  lim  mis-iueld.  and  wrS  fleschs 
isuneged.  bine  wunden  helen  be  wunden  of  mine  soule.  bi 
dea^  f  a-deadie  in  me  flesches  licunge  I  and  licamliche  lustes. 
and  maiden  me  liuien  to  be  £et  ich  muwe  seggen  wv6  seinte 

Christ  liveth     powel  %et  serS.     Ich  liuiee  nout  ich  f  auh  crist  liue^  in  me.  ^et 

in  me  through     _  ,,  , 

his  grace.         is  to  seggen.  ich  liuie  nout  ine  hue  bet  ich  liuede.  auh  crist  hue^ 

in  me.  buruh  his  wuniinde  grace  i  ^et  acwike^  me.  wei  was  he 

ibeoren  bet  mei  iesu  bis  baldeliche  seggen  to  be. :  bu  ^et  ert  efter 

*[Foi.i26o.]   him.  alle  helplease  help,  and  sunfules  hele  bet  to  *be  habbeS 

Help  me,  o      hope,  help  me  englene  cwene  of  heouene  '.  heouenliche  leafdi.  seinte 

mother  and 

maiden,  most   marie.     Moder  and  meiden  deorwurSe  wimuion.  for  to  saluen 

precious  of 

women.  sunfule '.  iesu  crist  bi-com  bi  sune.   and  for  ure  sake  bu  were 

imaked  meiden  i  godes  moder.  Nere  bu  nout  ^er  bu  ert.  eadi 
ouer  alle  '.   }if  sunfule  neren.  for  bi  owe  sunfule.  for  to  cleopien 

ON    UREISUN    OF    GOD   ALMIHTI.  203 

to  be  baldeliche  f  for  hwam  bu  hauest  bin  eadinesse.  and  \>'me 

muchele  heihschipe.     Meiden.  and  moder.     Meiden  \and\  hwas   Thou  art  the 

mother  of  him 

moder  [his  hwasl  dohter  bu  ert  his  bet  wrohte  and  welt,  al  bet   who  created 

L  J  '  r  '  and  ruletli  all 

ischeapen  is.  his  bet  naue^  noirSer  ende  '.  ne  biginnunge.  \>et  is  th"ws. 

euer  i-liche.  wi&-lite  sturiunge  obe  muchele   menske  to  boen1     'SoinMS. 

moder  of  swich  sune  wrS  iholschipe  of  meiden.  and  habben  him 

so  abaundune.  ^et  he  wule  ^et  bin  wille  oueral  beo  i-uorSed.  for 

to  scheawen  us  bis  '.   he  strecche^  bene  ritht2  erm  uorS.  ase  he     2Soin  MS. 

stout  orode.  and  beie^  adun  toward  be.  his  deorewurSe  heaued. 

ase  bauh  he  seide.     Moder  al  \et  bu  wult  1  al  ich  wulle.  aswete 

leafdi.  hwi  leafdi  hwi '.   nabe  ich  euer  bi-foren  mine  heorte  eihen.    Mfty  i  ever 

keep  before 

beo  ilke  breo  stondung'es.  bi  sune  was  ituht  ou  rode,  burh  driuen   me  the  three 

'  >  °        '  >  sufferings  of 

fet  and  honden.  w¥6  dulte  neiles.  blodi  his  side,  and  bi  stondunge   suffer';/,11  anci 

leafdi.  and  sein  iohanes  ewangelistes  weopinde  otwo  half  wrS   j^j^ 

sorbfule  sikes  '.  hwi  ne  bi-hold  ich  bis  euer  in  mine  heorte.  and 

benche  ^et  hit  was  for  me.  and  for  o^re  sunfule  *to  aredden  of    *[Foi.i26&.] 

belle,  and  forto  3iuen  us  heoueriche  blisse '.  bis  boht  wolde  siker- 

liche  ontenden  so  so^  luue  on  me.     Nere  be  heorte  so  cold,  bet 

ne  schulde  neuer  sunne  habben  forSer  in-yong.  ber  bis  brunc 

were,  a  iesu  hwuder  schal  ich  fleon  hwon  be  deouel  hunted  efter 

me  bute  to  bine  rode  '. 

204  A    HYMN   TO    OUR    LADY. 



Sweet  Lady  Saint  Mary,  maiden  above  all  maidens,  that  barest  the 
blissful  bairn  (child)  that  raised  up  all  mankind  that  had  fallen 
down  through  Adam's  sin.  Through  his  holy  passion  he  cast  down 
the  devil  and  harrowed  hell.  I,  a  sorry,  sinful  thing,  ask  thy  mercy, 
that  thou  be  my  pleader  against  the  foes  of  my  soul,  that  they  may 
not  accuse  it ;  but  protect  me  and  help  me,  merciful  maiden,  in  all 
my  necessities.  My  enemies  have  encompassed  me  about  on  every  side, 
and  seek  the  death  of  my  soul.  Wicked  men  and  devils  have  pierced 
me  with  many  wounds  that  kill  my  soul,  except  thou  be  my  leech. 
I  have  oft  been  obedient  to  all  my  three  foes — to  the  devil,  and  to  the 
world,  and  to  the  sins  of  my  flesh.  I  acknowledge  myself  guilty,  and 
cry  thee  mercy,  Lady,  for  I  have  made  gates  of  all  my  five  senses  for 
the  entrance  of  sinful  vices.  I  have  looked  amiss,  hearkened  amiss, 
felt  amiss,  spoken  amiss,  loved  sweet  smells.  Pride  and  desire  of  praise 
have  sore  wounded  me  ;  also  wrath  and  envy,  leasing,  perjury,  un- 
faithfulness, cursing,  backbiting,  and  flattery.  Sometimes  I  have  had 
wrongful  possession  of  other  men's  goods,  and  have  given  amiss,  and 
received  amiss,  and  often  withheld  amiss  ;  quick  to  do  evil,  slow  to  do 
good  ;  negligent  and  slothful  ;  sometimes  too  playful,  at  other  times  too 
moody.  I  have  sinned  both  in  meat  and  in  drink,  and  with  the  filth 
of  the  flesh  defiled  myself.  Thus  I  am  loathsomely  hurt  in  body  and 
in  soul  with  sins  of  all  kinds ;  for  though  the  work  was  not  in  the 
body  the  will  was  in  the  heart.  All  this  I  acknowledge  to  thee,  sweet 
Lady  Saint  Mary,  highest  of  all  saints.  Intercede  for  me  and  protect 
me,  for  I  am  worthy  of  torment.  Beseech  thy  blessed  Son  to  show 
me  kindness,  mercy,  and  grace,  for  he  may  deny  thee,  maiden,  who 
barest  him,  nothing  of  thy  requests.  I  pray  thee,  and  beseech  thee,  and 
entreat  thee  (if  it  be  needful  for  me),  by  his  conception  in  thy  holy 
body,  by  his  birth,   by   his   humble  fasting  in   the   wilderness,   by   the 





wete  leafdi  seinte  marie  meiden  ouer  alle  meidnes.   bet  bere  Sweet  lady, 

have  mercy 

^et  blisfule  bern.  bet  aredde1  al  inoncun  up.  bet  was  adun  upon  a  sorry, 

'  '  sinful  thing. 

a-fallen.  ^et2  buruft  adames  sunne.  and  ^et2  buruh  his  holi  pas-     i?arerdde. 
siun  werp  bene  deouel  adun.  and  heriede  belle,  icb  on  sori  sunfule    •5er|g'"a 
bing  f  bidde  bin  ore.  ^et  tu  beo  mi  motild  a2eines  mine  soule   ue  my  advo. 

*      °  *  cate  against 

fon.  bet  heo  hire  ne  muwen  bitellen.  auh  were  me.  and  help  me  my  soul's  foes, 
milzfule  meiden  f  in  alle  mine  neoden.  Mine  widerwines  habbeSS 
biset  me  on  euche  half  abuten  f  and  seche$  mine  soule  dea^. 
lu^re  men  and  deoflen.  heo  habbe'S  monie  wunden  on  me  ifestned  f 
bet  acwelle^  mine  soule.  bute  bu  beo  mi  leche.  ich  habbe  ofte 
ibuwen  to  alle  mine  bi'eo  i-fon.  to  be  feond.  and  to  be  world,  and   the  world, 

T  I  J  flesh,  and  the 

to  mine  flesches  sunne.  ich  icnowe  me  gulti.  and  creie  be  leafdi  devil- 
merci.  for  ich  habbe  imaked  jetes  of  alle  mine  fif  wittes.  to  sun-  ihave  sinned 

J  with  all  my 

fule  unbeawes.  mis  i-loked.   Mis  ihercned.  Mis  ifeled.  mis  ispeken.   five  "it3- 

iloued  swote  smelles.  prude  and  wilnunge  of  pris  f    me  habbe^ 

sore  iwunded.  *ase  wre^e.  and  onde.  lesunge.  missware.  vuele    *[Foi  127a.] 

i-holden  treou^e.  cursunge.  bac  bitunge.  and  fikelunge  f   summe 

tide,  ich  habbe  iheued  of  o¥er  monnes  mid  woh.  and  mid  unriht 

iseuen  mis.  and  inumew  mis.  and  mis  etholden  ofte.  tovel  i  spac.   i  have  been 

■*  quick  to  do 

and  slow  f  to  Godd.  semeleas  I  and  unlusti.  sumehwile  to  pleiful  f   evil-  but  s'ow 

J  l  to  do  good. 

to  drupi  o^er  hwiles.  ich  habbe  i-suneged  ine  mete,  and  ine 
drunche  bo^e.  and  mid  flesches  ful^e  ifuled  me.  Jms  ich  am  lod- 
liche  i-hurt  ine  licame.  and  ine  soule  f  wrS  alie  cunnes  sunnen. 
for  bauh  Jjet  were  nere  i  be  bodie  '.  be  wil  was  in  be  heorte.  al 
bis  ich  i-cnoulechie  be  swete  leafdi  seinte  marie,  heiest  aire  hale- 
wen.    Nim  mot  for  me  and  were  me.  for  ich  am  pine  wurSe.  bi-  intercede 

1  with  thy  son 

sech  for  me  bine  seli  sune  f  Milce.  and  merci.  and  ore.  for  nout  forme- 
ne  mai  he  werne  be  f  maiden  be  bine  bere  of  alle  bine  bisocnen. 
Ich  bide  be  and  biseche  be  and  halsi  3if  me  howeS  bit '.  bi  his 
flech  founge  of  ]>me  eadie  bodie.  bi  his  iborenesse.  bi  his  eadi 

206  A   HYMN    TO    OUR   LADY. 

hard  injuries  (hurts)  and  by  the  unworthy  wrongs  that  he  willingly 
suffered  for  us  sinful  creatures ;  by  his  mortal  agony,  and  by  his 
bloody  sweat  ;  by  his  blessed  prayers  in  the  hills  by  himself;  by  his 
capture  and  binding ;  by  his  leading  forth  ;  by  all  that  he  was  doomed 
to ;  by  his  change  of  raiment,  now  red,  now  white,  (put)  on  him  in 
mockery ;  by  his  scorning,  and  by  his  spitting  and  buffeting,  and  by 
his  blinding  ;  by  the  crown  of  thorns  ;  by  the  sceptre  of  reed  given 
him  in  scorn  ;  by  his  own  cross,  so  hard  dragging  on  his  soft  shoulders ; 
by  the  blunt  nails  ;  by  the  sore  wounds ;  by  the  holy  rood ;  by  the 
opening  in  his  side ;  by  his  bloody  stream  that  ran  in  many  places, 
in  his  circumcision,  in  his  blood-sweating,  in  his  pain  through  the  crown 
of  thorns  ;  (through  the  nails)  first  in  his  one  hand  and  then  in  his  other  ; 
lastly  in  the  piercing  of  his  side,  besides  (other)  sore  wounds.  Yet,  some 
saints  think  that  the  true  blood-stream  was  in  his  first  capture,  in  the  fast 
binding,  when  the  blood  was  wrung  out  of  his  blessed  nails.  I  entreat 
thee  that  thou  beseech  him,  by  his  shame,  by  his  sorrow,  by  his  death 
on  the  cross ;  by  all  that  he  said,  did,  and  suffered  on  earth  ;  by  the 
holy  sacrament  of  his  flesh  and  blood  that  the  priest  sanctifieth  ; 
through  the  grace  of  baptism ;  through  all  the  other  sacraments  that 
Holy  Church  followeth  and  useth  ; — through  all  these  I  beseech  thee, 
God's  precious  mother,  that  their  might  may  help  me,  and  their 
strength  go  forth  (prevail)  where  my  offering  faileth ;  for  my  belief  is 
that  I,  through  them,  shall  be  saved.  Jesus,  thy  Son  and  God's  Son, 
gave  us  himself  altogether ;  and  all  is  ours — what  he  spake,  and  did, 
and  suffered  on  earth.  May  his  torment  on  the  cross  and  his  death  de- 
stroy my  sins ;  and  may  his  arising  (resurrection)  raise  me  into  holiness 
of  life  ;  and  may  his  uprising  (ascension)  cause  me  to  advance  upwards  in 
high  and  holy  virtues,  from  high  to  higher  (virtues)  ever  until  I  see 
in  Zion,  the  high  tower  of  heaven,  the  Lord  of  light,  whom  the  angels 
ever  behold  and  ever  the  longer  (they  behold  him)  the  more  they  desire 
it.  And  because  in  that  happy  song  is  all  we  seek,  Lady,  through 
thy  intercession  make  known  my  petition  to  thy  blessed  Son.     Amen  ! 

ON    LOFSONG    OF    URE    LEFDI.  207 

festunge  ibe  wildernesse.  bi   be   herde   hurtes  and  be  unwur^e   i  entreat  thee 

°        '  >  '_  by  all  his 

wowes  Set  he  for  us  sunfule  willeliche  bolede.  bi  his  deaSfule   sufferings  and 

>  wrongs, 

grure.  and  bi  his  blodie  swote.  bi  his  eadi  beoden  in  hulles  him 

one.  bi  his  nimunge.  and  bmdunge.  bi  his  ledunge  forS.  bi  al  bet 

me  him  demde.  bi  his  clones  wrixlunge.     Nu  red.  nu  hwit.  him 

on  hokenmge.  bi  his  scornunge.  and  bi  his  spotlunge.  and  bufet- 

tunge.  *  and  his  heliunge.  bi  be  bornene  crununge.  bi  £e  kine3erde    *[Foi.  1276.] 

of  rode.1  him  of  scornunge.  bi  his  owune  rode,  on  his  softe  schul-     '  =  rede. 

dres.  so  herde  druggunge.  bi  be  dulte  neiles.  bi  be  sore  wunden  f 

bi  be  holie  rode,  bi  his  side  openunge.  bi  his  blodi  Rune  bet  ron  and  by  tiie 

stream  of 

inne  monie  studen.     In  umbe  keoruunge.  in  his  blod  swetunge  .   Wood  that 

ran  in  many 

in  his  pine  bornene  crummge.  erest  in  his  one  bond  and  seo&Jen  places. 

2  A  word 

in  his  o^er.  olast  in  his  side  burlunge  wrS-ute  sore  wunde.  ^et    erased. 

ase  halewen  weneS.    bet   to^e3  blod  rune,   was    in   his  ereste.     3  ■>  so$e- 

nimunge  in  be  feste  bindunge.  bet  tet  blod  wrong  ut  et  his  eadie 

neiles.  ich  halsi  be  bet  Su  bi-seche  him  bi  his  schome.  bi  his  sor.   1  entreat  thee 

.  .  .     }>y  a11  his 

bi  his  deaS  on  rode,  bi  al  bet  he  seide  wrohte  and  bolede  in  sorrows  and 

'  '  shame. 

eorSe.  bi  be  holi  sacrement  of  his  flech  and  of  his  blod  bet  Se 
preost  sacred,  burh  be  grace  of  fuluht.  burh  alle  be  o^re  sacre- 
menz.  bet  holi  chirche  foluweS  and  useS.  burh  alle  ich  bi-seche 
be  godes  deore-wurSe  moder  bet  heore  mihte  helpe  me.  and  hore 
strencSe  go  forS.  ber  min  oflxirage  wonted,  for  min  bileue  is  bet 
ich  schal  buruh  ham  beon  iboreuwen.  iesu  bi  sune  and  Godes 
sune.  3if  us  al  him  suluen  and  al  is  ure  bet  he  spec  and  wrohte 
and  bolede  in  orSe.  his  pine  on  rode  and  his  deaS  acwellen  Mine   May  his  death 

...  ...  .  destroy  my 

sunnen.  and  his  ariste  arere  me  in  lif  holinesse.  and  his  *up  sins 
ariste  do  me  stepen  uwward  in  heie  and  holi  beawes.  from  heih   May  ins  re- 

7,1  v  a    •   i     •  •  1       i     •      a  pi  r    surrectiouand 

and  to  nerre  euer  Set  ich  lseo  m  syon  be  heie  tur  01  heouene  f   ascension 
bene  louerd  of  leome.  bet  te  engles  euer  biholdeS.  and  euer  so  advance 

1  1  •  p  t  •  higher  and 

lengrre  so  heo  3irne:S  hit  more,  lor  \\>et  sen  song  is  al  bet  me  higher. 
secheS.  leafdi  burh  bin  erndinge  tuSe5  me  mine  bone  to  bine  eadi    5  ?  cufte. 
sune  aniew. 

208  A    HYMN    TO    OUR    LORD. 



Jesus  Christ,  God's  Son,  true  God  and  true  man,  born  of  the  blessed 
maiden  Mary,  who  is  maiden  and  mother  without  a  mate.     I  am 
of  all  sinful  men,   as  I   fear,  the  most    defiled   with   sin.     I  pray  and 
beseech   thee  with   inward   (true)   heart  through  thy  conception  in  the 
maiden's  body  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  through  thy  birth  without  breach 
of  her  body ;    and  through  all  that  thou  taughtest,  and   sufferedst  for 
sinners  upon  earth  ;  through  thy  five  wounds  and  the  blessed  flood  that 
flowed  from  them ;  through  the  iron  nails   and  the  crown  of  thorns  ; 
and  through  thy  pains  and  shames,  and  thy  precious  death  on  the  cross ; 
and  through  the  same  cross,  hallowed  of  thy  precious  limbs,  upon  which 
thou  meekly  outstretchedst  thyself ;  and  (through)  thy  mother's  wail  and 
St.  John's  sorrow  when  thou  unitedst  them  as  son  and  mother  ;  for 
pity  of  thy  pains  ;  and  through  thy  blissful  arising  the  third  day  from 
death,  and  through  thy  honourable  ascension  into  heaven  ;  through  the 
grace  and  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  whom  thou  on  Whit  Sunday  sentest 
to  thy  beloved  disciples  and  pouredst  out  upon  those  that  rightly  loved 
and  believed  upon  thee ;  and  through  thy  awful  coming  at  Doomsday 
to  judge   both    quick    and    dead;    and  through  thy  blessed   flesh   and 
thy   blessed   blood   hallowed   upon   the   altar;    through   the   virtue    of 
baptism ;    through    all    the    other   sacraments  in   which    Holy    Church 
believes  ;    through  thy  great  kindness  and  mercy,  that  is  greater  than 
all  that  is  named,  except  the  grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  who  is  equal 
with  thee  and  with  thy  blessed  Father,  God  full  of  all  good  ; — have  mercy 
upon  me,  and  hear  my  petitions  through  the  blessed  prayers  of   thy 
meek  mother  and  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  and  all  thy  saints.     Forgive 
me  my  sins  that  are  dreadful  and  horrible  in  thy  eyesight.     Lord,  I 
view  them   in  great  dread  of  thine   awe  ;  behold   thou   them  not,  lest 

ON    LOFSONG    OF    URE    LOUERDE.  209 



csu  crist  godes  sune  acrS  godd  and  scrS  men  of  be  eadie  meiden  Lord  Jesus, 

.-,...  .  have  mercy 

iborcn  mana.  bet  is  meiden  and  bute  make  moder.  lcb  of  upon  me,  de- 
filed with  fain . 

tdle  sunfulle  am  on  most  ifuled  of  sunne  ase  icb  drede*.  icb  bidde 
and  bi-secbe  be  wr8  inwarde  heorte  burh  bin  akennednesse  ine 
meidenes  licame  of  be  holi  Goste.  and  buruh  jjin  iborenesse  wrS 
uten  brucbe  of  hire  bodie  buruh  al  bet  ^u  tawbtest.  and  Jjoledest 
for  sunfule  in  eorSe.   burh  bine  vif  wunden.  and  be  eadie  flod   I  beseech  thee 

by  thy  pas- 
bet  of  ham  fledde.   b?«7t  ^e  irene  neiles  and  be  bornene  crime,   sion,  death, 


and  burh  be  pinen  and  be  schomen  and  bi  deorcwurSe  dea$  o^e  ill,a  ascen- 

>  '       l  >  >  sion  ; 

rode  and  buruh  ^e  ilke  rode  i-halewed  of  bine  deorewurSe 
limen.  ^et  bu  on  hire  mildelicbe  streibtest.  and  bine  moderes 
ream  and  sein  i[o]hanee  soruwe  bo  |m  Bomnedest  bam  ase  sune 
and  moder.  uor  rew^ie  of  bine  pinen  and  burch  bine  blisfule 
ariste  be  bridde  dai  of  dea%e.  and  burh  bine  wurSful  astiunge 
into  beouene.  burh  ^e  grace  and  be  3eoue  of  be  bob  goste.  bet  by  thy  gift  of 

the  Holy 

bu   on  bwite  sune  dai  sendest  bine  deorewurSe  *deciples.  and  Ghost; 

jettedest  to  beo  bet  rith  luuie^  be  and  leued.  and  burh  jane 

eisfule  cume  a  domesdai  to  demen  bo^e  cwike  and  deade.  and  i>y  thy  coming 

at  Doomsday  ; 

burh   bine   eadi   flesche  and  bine  iblescede  blode  i-sacred  o^e 

weouede.   burh  be  mibte  of  fulubt.   bark  alle  be  o^re  sacremens.   by  the  sacra- 
ment of  thy 
bet  holi  chirche  ileueS.   bv/rh  bine  mucbelc  milce  and  merci  bet   tiesh  and 

is  more  ben  al  bet  is  inempned  wrS-ute  be  grace  of  be  oli  goste. 

bet  is  efne  wr5  be  and  wr5  bin  eadi  feder.     Godd  of  alle  godd 

ful.   haue  merci   of  me   and  iber  mine  bonen.    buruh   be  selie   hear  my 


bonen  of  bine  milde  moder  and  seint  iohannea  ewamjeliste.  and  through  the 

'  prayers  of  thy 

alle  bine  halewen.  for-2if  me  mine  sunncn  bet  ateliche  beoft  and   l,lesfed 


grisliche  i  bine  eih  sib¥e.  louerd  ich  i-seo  bain  wrS  mucliel  ugge 
of  bin  cic.   ne  bi-hold   bu   ham  nout  leste  bu  wreoke  ham  on 


210  A    HYMN    TO    OUR    LOUD. 

thou  avenge  them  upon  me  in  the  furiousness  of  thy  wrath.  Lord, 
thy  apostle  saith  thus,  "  If  we  condemned  ourselves,  we  should  not  else- 
where be  condemned."  Meek  merciful  God,  I  judge  myself  before  thee, 
after  thy  mercy  that  is  greater  than  all  my  sins,  as  truly  as  a  drop 
of  thy  precious  blood  that  thou  sheddest  on  the  cross  were  enough  to 
wash  away  the  filth  of  all  folk.  Through  the  stark  streams  and  the  flood 
that  flowed  from  thy  wounds  for  to  heal  mankind,  cleanse  and  wash 
my  sinful  soul  ;  through  thy  five  wounds  opened  on  the  cross,  pierced 
through  with  nails,  and  sorrowfully  filled  up,  heal  me  sore  wounded 
through  my  five  wits  with  deadly  sins,  and  open  them,  heavenly  king, 
toward  heavenly  things,  and  turn  to  the  world  thy  precious  cross  upon 
which  thou  outstretchedst  thyself.  Be  my  shield  and  protection  in  every 
quarter  against  the  darts  of  the  devil,  which  he  (the  traitor)  shooteth 
at  me.  Let  thy  passion  quench  the  passion  of  sins  that  abideth  within 
me.  Let  thy  pains  preserve  me  from  the  pains  of  hell,  and  let  thy 
precious  death  keep  me  from  the  death  that  never  dieth,  so  that  thy 
death  may  mortify  the  deadly  lusts  of  my  body  and  the  laws  of  my 
limbs.  Let  the  world  be  (dead)  to  me,  and  me  to  the  world.  Through 
thy  arising  to  life  immortal,  0  Lord,  raise  me  from  the  death  of  the  soul ; 
and  give  me  life  in  thee  ;  that  I  love  not  this  world,  but  only  thee, 
living  Lord,  and  whatever  is  good  before  thee  ;  that  I  may  be  dead  to  the 
world,  and  ever  live  to  thee,  so  that  I  may  say  with  St.  Paul  who  saith, 
"  I  live,  not  I,  but  Christ  liveth  in  me."  Lord  (grant  me)  thy  rnercy,  since 
I  have  climbed  so  high  with  this  same  petition,  and  yet  lie  so  low,  and 
because  earthly  losses  excite  so  much  displeasure  in  my  heart.  Meek 
God,  thy  mercy  !  for  hereby  I  die,  who  erewhile  spake  of  such  things, 
and  (yet)  sin  deadly.  High  (exalted)  Saviour,  God,  help  me  and  heal  my 
heart  thereof.  Dear  Lord  Jesu  Christ,  look  toward  me  as  I  lie  thus  low 
and  bemoan  to  thee  of  things  that  trouble  me  now  most,  next  to  my  sins. 
High  Saviour,  bow  thyself  to  me,  and  incline  (thine  ear)  to  my  prayers. 
I  have  in  me  neither  wisdom  nor  honour,  and  am  devoid  of  counsel ;  I 
have  not  wherewith  to  lead  my  life  in  this  world,  and  am  helpless.  I  am 
in  many  wise  disgusted  in  mind  and  heart,  sick  with  sorrow,  and  have  not 
any  one  to  comfort  me.     Precious  Lord,  as  thou  art  the  counsellor  of  the 

OX    LOFSONG    OF    DEE    LOUEEDE.  211 

me  iwodschipe  of  bine  wreSSe.  louerd  J>in  apostel  seiS  bus.  ^ii 
we  ne  fordemden  us  seolue?4  ne  schulde  we  nout  beou  elles  hwar 
for-demed.   milde  merciable   godd   icli  deme  to   be  '.   efter  bine   i  condemn 

myself  before 

milce  bet  is  [mo]  re  ben  al  min  [uu]el  is  1  ase  wis  [as]e  a  drope   tliee- 

of  bine  deorewurSe  blode  ]>et  tu  o  rode  scheddest  were  i-nouh 

to  weaschen  alle  folkes  fulSe.  beo  sterke  stremes  and  j?et  flod 

bet   fleaw   of  bine   wunden.  moncun   uor  to  helen'   clense  and   wash  my 

'  '  sinful  sou]  in 

waschs  mine  sunfule  soule  hurh  bine  fif  wunden  iopened  o  i*ode.    *!ie  Wood  of 

>s  x  thy  wounds. 

wiS    ncilts    uor-driuene   and   seorulifulliche  fordutte.    hel    me 

uorwunded   *]>urh   mine  fif  wittes  wrS  deadliche  sunnen.  and    *[Foi.i29a.] 

opene  ham  heouenliclie  king  touward  heouenliche  binges,  and 

turn  to  be  worlde  bi  wurSfule  rode  \>et  bu  spreddest  be  on.  beo 

mi  scheld  and  mi  warant  on  euehe  half!  ajcin  bes  feoudes  flon   i$e  my  shield 

against  the 

\et  he  scheot  to  me  on  euche  halue  be  swike.  bi  passiuw  acwenehe   darts  of  the 
be   passiun    of   sunnen   bet  wunieS   wiS    inne   me.    J>ine   pinen 
buruwen  me  from  be  })inen  of  belle,  and  bi  dereowurSe1  deaS     tsic. 
from   bene   deaS   Set  neuer  ne   deieS.  \et  Si  deaS  a-deadie  pe 
deaoliche   lustes  of  mine  licame.  and  te  lawen  of  mine  limen   Let  me  he 

dead  to  the 

beo  Se  world  [dead]  to  me.  and  me  to   be  worlde.   burh  bine   world  and  live 

L  J  '  '  '  to  thee. 

ariste  louerd  to  liuef  bate  deaSe.  of  soule  deaSe  arer  me.  and 
3if  me  lif  in  Se.  ]>et  ieh  ibisse  worlde  ne  luuie  nout  bute  J>e 
liuinde  louerd.  and  liwat  so  god  is  uor  be.  Ipet  ieh  to  be 
world  beo  dead,  and  euer   liuie2  to  be.    \>et  ieh  muwe  siggew     -  a  stroke 

too  many  in 

wiS  seinte  powel  bet  seiS.  ieh  liuie  nout  ieh  '.  auh  crist  liueS     Ms. 

in  me.  louerd  bi  merei  ase  ieh  ham  heie  iclumben  wiS  bis  ilke 

bone,    bet    ligge    so  lowe.   and  uor    eoi*Sliche  luren  so    muche 

mislicuiige  habbe   in   mine   heorte.     Milde  godd  bi  milce.    for 

herburh  ieh  deie  bet  spec  er  of  swuche  binge,  and  deaSliche 

sunegi.   heie  helinde  godd  help  me.   and  hel  herof  mine  heorte. 

leoue  louerd  iesu  crist  loke  toward  me  ase  ieh  ligge  lowe.  and   Look  towards 

°°  _  me  as  I  lie 

mone  to  Se  of  binge  Set  me  derueS  mest  nuSe  efter  mine  sunnen.    tIlus  Iow- 
heie  helinde  *beih  be  to  me.  and  buh  to  mine  bonen.     Nabbich    *[f<jU2<*.] 
nowSer  in   me  wisdom  ne  wurschipe  and  am  redleas  nab  ieh    lam  without 


[h]\varemide  le[de]n  mi  lif  i  bis[se]  Avorlde  and  am  helples.  icb    devoid  of 
habbe  on  monie  wise  mislicunge  of  bonke  and   heorte  sec  of  lie'P- 
sorwe.   and   oabbe   hwoa   me  froure.     DeorewurSe  drihten  ase 

212  A    HYMN    TO    OUR    LORD. 

perplexed,  counsel  me  that  am  helpless  and  uncertain  what  to  do,  how  I 
ought  to  conduct  myself  and  live  on  earth  in  maidenhood  and  purity  of 
both  soul  and  body.  As  thou  art  help  of  the  helpless,  behold,  high  Lord, 
how  man's  help  faileth  me.  Let  me  receive  thy  help  the  more  readily, 
so  that  I  shall  trust  on  thee  alone,  and  confide  (in  thee)  ever  without  end. 
Had  I  done  so  of  yore,  I  know  of  a  truth  it  would  have  been  better 
for  me  than  it  is  now.  For  the  while  that  I  trusted  upon  man  thou 
saidst  "  Hold  thee  to  them,"  and  leftest  me  wholly  ruined  by  those  that 
I  trusted  upon,  and  they  have  become  traitors  to  me,  heavenly  Lord, 
I  believe,  for  my  good.  I  honour  and  thank  thee  that  thou  hast  de- 
prived me  of  them,  for  thou  sawest  that  trust  in  them  deceived  me,  and 
thou  desirest  that  I  should  hope  and  trust  in  thee  alone.  For  to  show 
me  how  this  hope  in  thee  alone  shall  avail  me  better  than  did  pre- 
viously  the  trust  in  the  others,  thou  hast  deprived  me  of  man's  help, 
for  thou  wilt  give  me  thine.  Blessed  be  he  that  thus  turneth  loss  to 
gain.  Truly  all  my  woe  on  earth  shall  turn  for  me  into  joy  if  I  love 
God  with  my  true  belief.  Lord,  I  believe  it,  and  love  and  will  love 
thee  more,  Lord,  through  this  affliction  than  I  did  previously  in  all 
my  weal,  for  I  know  assuredly  it  would  have  wholly  deceived  me,  if 
it  were  not,  Lord,  for  the  help  of  thy  grace.  Lord,  I  beseech  thee 
with  inward  heart  to  give  me  neither  too  much  nor  too  little,  for  through 
either  many  a  man  ofttimes  sinneth  ;  but  grant  me  that  I  may  truly  say 
with  the  maiden  that  saith  of  thee  these  words,  "  My  beloved's  left  arm 
holdeth  up  my  head,"  she  saith,  "  and  his  right  arm  shall  embrace  me." 
Let  me  be  thy  beloved,  and  say  as  she  saith,  "  Beloved,  with  thy  left 
arm,"  that  is,  with  thy  worldly  gifts,  "  hold  up  my  head,"  that  I  through 
too  much  poverty  fall  not  into  the  filth  of  sin.  And  "  Beloved,  with  thy 
right  ami,"  that  is  in  heaven,  with  endless  blessings,  "embrace  me,"  so 
that  whatsoever  I  shall  thenceforth,  sweet  gentle  Lord,  pray  or  desire, 
I  may  pray  thee  that  I  may  receive  in  obedience,  both  poverty  and 
wealth,  according  to  thy  good  pleasure.  Though  I  have  not  entirely 
all  that  I  want,  nor  contest  thou  to  me  as  soon  as  I  desired  it,  I  do 
not  mistrust  thee,  but  am  confident  that  thou  wilt  take  from  me  all 
that  may  do  me  harm,  and  give  me,  sweet  merciful  Lord,  what  is 
needful  for  me  ;  but  thou  that  seest  all  things  abidest  thy  time.     Now 

ON    LOFSONG    01'    UHE    LOUEKDE.  213 

bu  ert  redlcase  fed.  red  me  bet  am  helples  and  redles.  hu  ich 

schule   leden   me  and  Iiuien   on   eorSe  wrS  meidhod   and  ine 

clennesse  of  soule.  and  of  bodie  bo^e.  ase  bu  ert  neodfulles  help 

bi-hold  heie  louerd  hu  nionnes  help  truke'S  me.  bin   help  beo   Letme receive 

r  .    l  thy  help, 

me  be  ^arewere  forto  be  one  ich  chulle  trusten  and  hopien  euer 

buten  ende.  hefdieh  3are  so  idon  me  stode  betere  ben  me  de^ 

ich  hit  wot  to  so^e.  uor  beo  liwile  ^et  ich  truste  uppo  mon   Man's  help 

faileth  me. 

bu  seidest.  hold  be  to  ham  and  lettest  me  al  iwurden  wrS  beo 
bet  ich  truste  uppon.  and  beo  beo^  me  itrukede  heouenlich 
louerd.  ich  i-leue  for  mine  selh¥e  ich  herie  be  and  bonke.  bu 
liam  hauest  bi-nume  me.  uor  bu  iseihe.  bet  te  hope  of  ham  bi- 
swoc  me  and  wult  bet  ich  hopie  end  truste  to  be  one.  for  to 
schewen  hu  ]?is  hope  to  pin  ones  help  schal  gon  me  betere  ut. 
ben  dude  er  be  o^res.  bu  hauest  binume  me  fulst  of  monne  1 
uor  bu  wult  bin  3eouen  me.     Iblesced  beo  bet  bus  went  lure   Blessed  be 

thou  that 

to  biseate.  sikerliche  al  mi  woa  on   eorSe   schal  turnen  me  to    tumest  my 

woe  into  joy. 

ioie.  }if  ich   Godd  luuie  mid  treowe  bileaue.  louerd  *ich  ileue    *[p0i.i3o«.j 

hit  and  luuie  and  wulle  luuien  J;e  more  louerd  burh  Jus  wondred 

ben  er  in  al  mine  weole.  uor  ich  wot  to  so^e  hit  wolde  habben 

al  bi-swike  me.     $]£  N  help  nere  louerd  of  bine  grace,  louerd 

ich   bi-seche  ^e  wrS  inwardc  heorte  ne  3if  bu  me  nouSer  to   ewe  me  nei. 

ther  too  much 

muchel  ne  to  lutel.   uor  ]>urh  ev6ev  moni  mon  sunegge^  i-lome.    nor  too  little. 

auh  leue  me  ^et  ich  mote  so^liche  seggen  wrS  ^e  meiden  bet 

of  be  seiS  beors1  wordes.     Mi  leofmoranes  luft  erm  halt  up  min     i  sie. 

1  leaned  heo  serS.  and  his  riht  erm  schal  biclupen   me  abuten. 

let  me  beo  bi  lcouemon  and  siggen  ase  heo  serS.  leof  wi^  bi 

luft  erm.  bet  is.  wi^  bine  worldliche  3eouen  hold  up  min  heawed 

^et  ich  burh  to  mucbe  wone  ne  falle  i  fuFSe  of  sunne.  and  leof  Support  me 

with  thy  right 

wiS  bin  riht  erm.   bet  is  in  heuene  wrS  endelease  blissen  bi-clupe  arm. 

me  abuten.  al  schal  beon  bet  ich  wulle  beonne  forS  swete  milde 

louerd  bidde  ooer  wilni  ich  biddc  ^e  ^et  ich  mote  under-uon 

in  obedience  bo^e  wone  and  weole  be  ine  cwemnesse.  bauh  ich 

nabbe  nout  one  al  Set  me  biheouede  ne  me  ne  cume  nowt  ase 

sone  ase  ich  wolde.  ich  ne  mishopie  be  nout  auh  am  al  siker 

of  Set  ]>u  wult  binime  me  r>et  me  wolde  herm  don.  and  3ife  me   Give  me  what 

.,„.,,,  it         •  t'1011  deemtst 

bet  me  is  biheue  swete  nnlzlule  louerd.  auh   bu  bet  allc  bnig   needfnlfor 


214  A    HYMN    TO    OUE    LORD. 

I  have  lost  the  comfort  of  all  mankind,  I  know  that  thou  wilt  send 
me  the  Holy  Ghost  to  comfort  me,  and  advise  me  and  help  me  and 
comfort  me,  better  than  all  those  might  in  whom  I  trusted  ;  for  thus 
saith  the  Psalmist  David  in  the  Psalter,  "  The  world  hath  forsaken  me, 
and  God  hath  received  me."  Again  he  saith  elsewhere,  "  Have  thy  de- 
light in  God,  and  he  will  give  thee  the  wishes  (prayers)  of  thy  heart ; 
make  known  to  him  the  way  that  is  thy  desire,  and  he  will  accomplish  it 
for  thee."  Thou  knowest  what  I  desire,  omnipotent  God,  but  of  that  as  of 
all  else,  ever  let  thy  will  be  done,  for  thou  wilt  soon  enough  clo  better  by 
me  than  I  may  desire  ;  and  I  obediently  beseech  thee,  Lord,  not  through 
anything  I  deserve  from  thee,  but  through  this  hope  and  in  this  trust  in 
thy  great  mercy,  that  thou  be  now  my  counsel,  my  help,  and  my  grace. 
But  I  will  love  thee  now,  before  them  that  I  previously  loved,  trusted, 
and  hoped  in.  For  now  I  understand  how  true  it  is  what  St.  Austin  saith 
in  his  book,  "  Unhappy  is  he  that  is  with  love  tied  to  any  earthly  thing, 
for  ever  is  that  sweet  dearly  bought  with  a  twofold  of  bitter;  but  we 
understand  it  not  ere  that  we  lose  it,  and  it  turns  to  loss,  from  which 
quarter  so  ever  it  befalleth,  before  we  least  expect  it." 

Qweet  soft  Jesus,  blessed  be  those  that  love  thee  and  thy  sure  sweet- 
*^  ness,  that  no  one  may  lose  except  he  lose  faith  in  thy  love.  But 
without  thy  gifts  none  may  love  thee.  With  the  flame,  Lord,  of  the  Holy 
Ghost,  that  is,  thy  Father's  love  and  thine,  inflame  my  heart  and  con- 
sume all  that  is  hurtful  therein,  and  feed  it  so  forwardly  that  it  may 
enlumine  me  ever  in  thy  belief  and  in  thy  love,  the  longer  the  more 
so.  My  love  and  my  counsel,  all  my  help  and  my  comfort,  help  me 
ever  for  good  and  turn  me  from  sin,  and  give  me  will  and  might  and 
wisdom  to  forsake  every  sin,  and  to  work  Avell.  Precious  Lord,  thou 
owest  not  any  man  anything  for  his  deserts,  but  doest  all  that  thou 
doest  through  thy  sweet  grace,  wholly  unmerited  by  us.  Make  known 
in  me  what  mercy  is,  and  that  grace  is  (of  thy)  grace  and  not  of  our 
works.  But  do  so  by  me  that  my  foes  may  grin  (with  rage),  and  good 
men  may  rejoice  and  bless  thy  name  and  honour  it  without  end.     What 

ON    LOFSONG    OF   URE   LOUERDE.  215 

isihst  ¥et  abidest  his  time.     Nu  ich  habbe  uorloren  al  moncunne   i  have  lost  the 

comfort  of  all 

froure  ich  wot  *\>et  bu  wult  sendcn  me  bene  holi  gost  to  clnen   mankind. 

me.  and  reden  me  and  helpen  me  and  froure  me  betere  ben  alle 

beo  ilke  muhten  pet  ich  on  truste.  uor  bus  sei<5  be  salmwruhte 

daurS  ibe  sawter.  be  world  haue¥  for-let  me.  and  godd  hawe^ 

underfo  me.  eft  elles  bwar  be  serS.  baue  bi  licunu  ine  godd  and  Let  my  de- 

.       .  .  hsht  be  in 

be  wule  }iuen  be  bonen  of  bine  beorte.  vnwrih  him  bene  wei  pet  thee. 

is  bi  wilnunge.  and  he  wule  hit  forSen.  bu  wost  hwat  ich  wilni 

al   weldinde   Godd.  auh  of  pet  ase  of  belles  hwat  i  iwurSe  bi 

wille  euer.  uor  bu  wult  inouhre^e  don  betere  bi  me  ben  is  pet 

ich  wilni.  and  ich  buhsumliche  bi-seche  be  louerd  buruh  non  of- 

seruunge  to  ^e.  auh  purh   bis   hope,   and  i  bis  trust  to   bine 

muchele  milce.  ^et  bu  beo  mi  red  nu.  Min  help  and  min  cine. 

auh  be  ich   chulle  luuien  nu.  uor  ham  pet  ich  luuede  er  and 

truste  to  and  hopede.  uor  nu  ich  understonde  bu  so^  hit  is 

^et  seint  austin  ser8   in  his  hoc.  uniseli  is  ^et  is  wi*5  luue  to   Unhappy  is 

he  that  is 

eni  corSlicb  biug  iteied.  uor  euer  h\&  oet  swete  f  abouht  mid   attached  to 

earthly  tilings, 
twofold  of  bittre.  auh  me  ne  hit  underwit  nout  er  ben  me  bit 

leose.  and  to  lure  hit  bi-kumeS  of  hwuche  half  so  hit  failed  i 

er  me  lest  Avene. 

Qwete  softe  iesu  iseli  beo^  ^et  be  luuieS  and  bine  siker  swet- 

^     nesse.   pet  no  mon  ne  mai  leosen  bute   he   be  treulac  of 

bine  luue  lete  auh  wrS-uten  bine  3eoue  ne  mai  be  non  *luuien.    *[FoU3ia.] 

wv6  be  lai  louei'd  of  be  holigost.  bet  is  bi  feder  luue  and  bin.    Enkindle 

within  me  the 

tend   mine  heorte  and  uorbern  al  bat  is  baluful.  ber  inne  and  love  of  thee. 
fed   bit  so  forSward.  pet  hit   ontende   me   euere  ibine  bileaue   Enlighten  me 

7    •  •  i  i  -\r-    i  7         •  i       ,     ever  with  thy 

and  in  bine  luue.  so  lengre  so  more.     Mi  luue  and  mi  red  al   ueiief. 

min  help  and  mi  froure  fulst  me  euer  to  gode  and  cher  me 

from  sunne.  and  yif  me  wil  and  mihte  and  wit  to  leten  eucb 

uuel  and  wel  uorto  wurcben.  deorwurSe  drithen  bu  nowest  none   we  deserve 

7     i  •  c  it  nothing  at 

mon  nowitht  purk  his  of-seraunge  auli  dest  us  al  pet  bu  dest  thy  hands. 
purh  bine  swete  grace  al  unofserued  cuiS  in  me  hwat  is  milce   ah  we  have 
and  pet  grace  is  grace  nout  hure  werkes  auh   do  so  bi  me. 
pet  mine  fon  grennen  and  gode  gladien  arid  blescien  bine  nome. 
and  herien  buten  bende.  hwat  mote  ich  milzfule  louerd  to  be 


may  I  do,  merciful  Lord,  for  thee  that  mayest  and  canst  do  all  things 
and  wilt  well  do,  and  desirest  all  that  is  good  1  All  that  is  needful  for 
me  (give  me),  I  beseech  thee,  God  full  of  all  good,  with  these  three 
words,  as  thou  mayest  (art  able)  and  canst  and  wilt.  Merciful  Lord, 
have  mercy  upon  me  and  upon  all  Christian  men.     Amen. 


T  believe  in  God  the  Father  Almighty,  Creator  of  heaven  and  earth  : 
-*-  and  in  Jesus  Christ  his  only  Son  our  Lord,  who  was  conceived  through 
the  Holy  Ghost,  and  born  of  the  maiden  Mary,  suffered  under  Pontius 
Pilate,  was  nailed  on  the  cross,  was  dead  and  buried,  and  he  lighted  into 
hell ;  and  the  third  day  he  arose  from  death  to  life,  and  ascended  into 
heaven,  where  he  sits  on  the  right  hand  of  God  the  Father  Almighty  ; 
thence  he  will  come  to  judge  the  quick  and  the  dead.  I  believe  in  the 
Holy  Ghost,  and  in  the  holy  church,  and  the  communion  of  saints,  the 
forgiveness  of  sins,  the  resurrection  of  the  flesh,  and  eternal  life  after 
death.     Amen. 



Our  Lord  Almighty  God  desires  and  commands  us  that  we  love  him 
and  think  of  him  and  speak  of  him,  not  for  his  benefit,  but  our 
advantage  and  help  ;  for  to  him  may  all  creatures  say,  Bonorum  meorum 
non  iiidiges — Of  my  goods,  O  Lord,  thou  standest  in  no  need.  But 
as  Saint  Austin  saith,  "  If  no  man  thought  of  God,  none  would  speak  of 
him ;  if  none  spake  of  him,  none  would  love  him ;  if  none  loved  him, 
none  would  come  to  him,  nor  would  participate  of  his  bliss,  nor  of  his 
greatness."  It  is  most  sweet  to  speak  of  him.  Think  ye  that  each  word 
of  him  is  sweet  as  if  a  honey-drop  fell  upon  your  hearts.  He  is  heaven's 
light  and  earth's  brightness,  the  welkin's  gleam,  and  gemstone  (jewel)  of 
all  creation  ;  bliss  of  angels,  and  joy  and  hope  of  mankind ;  the  strength 
of  the  righteous  and  solace  of  the  needy.  He  is  the  beginning  of 
all  things,  and  both  beginning  and  end  ;  he  is  beginning  for  he  was 
ever ;   he   is   end  without  any  ending ;    he   is   King  of  all  kings,  and 


\et  alle  J>ing  nieiht.  and  const,  and  wult  wel  don.  and  wult  al 
\et  god  is.  al  be£  me  euer  is  neod.  ich  biseche  be  godd  of  allc 
godd  ful  wr5  beos  breo  wordes.  ase  bu  meiht.  and  const.  aw? 

wult.     Milzfule  louerd  haue  merci  of  me  and  of  alle  cristene  Have  mercy 

upon  me  and 

men.    ame?l.  all  Christian 



Ich  bileue  on  god  feder  al-mihti.  schuppare  of  heouene  and  i  believe  in 

....  G°d"  tl,u 

of  eorSe.    and  on  lesu   crist  bis  onlepi   sune  ure   louerd*  Father, 

Creator  of 

bet  was  ikenned  buruh  ¥>e  boli  aroste.  iboren  was  of  ^c  meidene  heaven  and 

'                                         '                                    °  earth; 

marie,    ipined  was   under  ponce  pilate.   moiled  was   o¥e  rode,  in  Jesus 

Christ  his 

dead  and  iburied.  be  lihto1  in  to  belle,  ^e  bridde  dei  be  a-ros  only  son  our 

'  Lord ; 

from  deaoe  to  Hue.  and  steili  in  to  heouene.  ber  he  sit  o  godes  i  react  niite. 

rithond  feder  al-mihti.  }>onene  he  kumefc  to  demen  ¥>e  quike  and 

^e    deade.      Ibileue    on  *¥>e  holi  goste.  and  on   boli  cbircbe.  in  the  Holy 

e  1     i                          •                      c                        ii                    -x  Ghost;  in  the 

lmennesse  ot  baluwen.  uoi^menesse  ol  sunnen.  uleches  up  ariste  holy  Catholic 

church,  etc 

eche  lif  eftcr  dea^  f  amen.  *  [Pol.  1316.] 


[DE   INITIO   CREATURE.*]  *[Foi.s4.] 

Vre  hlaford  almihti3  god  wile  and  us  hot.  bat  we  bine  lufie.  God  bids  us 

7       'C     1     •                           -                            7                                           11'                   -              "    1                         1-  '°Ve'    tl[i,lli- 

and  of  him  smaae  and  speee.  naht  him  to  mede  ac  hus  to  and  speak  of 

..  him. 
freme  and  to  fultume.  for.  him  sei"3c  alle  hiscefte.     Bonorum. 

tneorum  now  [m]-diges.  hlaford  to  mine  gode  ne  beniede^  be.  Ac 

alswo  sanctus  augustinus  cwe^.     Gif  non  man  ne  poht  of  Gode.  The  words  of 

St.  Austin. 

non  ne  spece  of  him.  Gif  non  of  him  ne  spece  non  bine  ne 
lufede.  Gif  non  bine  ne  lufede.  non  to  him  ne  come,  ne  delende 
neVe  of  his  eadine'sse.  nof  his  merlrSe.     Hit  is  wel  swete  of  him 

to  specene.  benche  jie  aelc  word  of  him  swete.  al  swa  an  huni  Each  word  of 

'•if          ,.i               7          v,     -i     .1  Cod  is  sweet. 

t'ar  felle  upe  31'ure  hierte.  Heo  is  hefone  lilit.  and  eorcSe  briht- 
nesse.  loftes  leom.  and  all  hiscefte  3imston.  anglene  blisse.  and 
mancenne  hiht  and  hope,  richtwisen  strenhebe.   and  niedfulle 

frouer.     Heo  bis  selra  pinga  angin.  and  hordfruma  and  sende.  God  is  the 

'  beginning  of 

he  his  ord  for  he  wes  efre.  he  is  sende  buton  selcere  jjiendunje.  a11  things. 

*  Cott.  Vesp.  A.  22. 


Lord  of  all  lords.  He  hokleth  with  his  might  heaven  and  earth  and  all 
creatures  without  toil.  No  creature  may  perfectly  comprehend  nor 
understand  concerning  God.  He  formed  his  creatures  when  he  would. 
Through  his  Wisdom  (the  Son)  he  wrought  all  things,  and  through  his 
Will  (Holy  Ghost)  he  endowed  them  all  with  life.  This  Trinity  is  one 
God,  that  is,  the  Father  and  his  Wisdom  (of  himself  ever  begotten)  and 
the  Will  of  them  both,  that  is,  the  Holy  Ghost,  that  proceedeth  of  the 
Father  and  of  the  Son  alike.  He  created  ten  hosts  (or  states)  or  com- 
panies of  angels,  that  is  angeli  (messengers),  archangeli  (high  messengers), 
throni  (thrones),  dominationes  (lordships),  princijxdus  (chiefs),  potestates 
(spirits  of  powers),  virtutes  (mighty  spirits),  cherubim  (fulness  of  know- 
ledge), seraphim  (burning  or  inflaming).  Wherefore  they  ai'e  thus  named 
shall  be  told  in  another  place.  Here  ai*e  nine  orders  (or  states)  or  hosts 
of  angels.  They  have  no  bodies,  but  they  are  all  spirits,  very  strong  and 
mighty  and  of  great  beauty,  formed  for  the  praise  and  honour  of  their 
Creator.  The  tenth  order  revolted  and  became  evil  (or  as  many  as  might 
have  completed  the  number  of  the  tenth  host).  God  created  them  all  good 
and  let  them  have  their  own  choice  (discretion)  to  choose  whether  they 
would  love  their  Creator  or  renounce  him.  Now  the  elder  (chief)  of  the 
tenth  order  was  beautifully  formed,  so  that  he  was  called  "Light-bearing" 
(Lucifer).  Then  began  he  to  be  moody  (grow  proud)  for  the  fairness 
that  he  had,  and  said  in  his  heart  that  he  would  and  easily  might  be  equal 
to  his  Creator,  and  sit  in  the  north  part  of  the  kingdom  of  heaven,  and 
have  power  and  dominion  against  God  Almighty.  Then  he  confirmed 
this  counsel  (resolve)  with  the  order  over  which  he  presided,  and  they  all 
were  obedient  to  this  resolve.  When  they  all  had  determined  upon  this 
plan  amongst  themselves,  then  came  God's  wrath  upon  them  all,  and  they 
all  lost  that  fair  hue  (form)  in  which  they  were  created,  and  became  loath- 
some devils ;  and  very  rightly  it  so  befell  them  when  they  would  with 
pride  be  better  than  they  were  created,  and  their  elder  (chief)  said  that 
he  might  be  equal  to  God  Almighty.  Then  became  he  and  all  his  com- 
panions more  perverse  and  worse  than  any  other  creatures ;  and  whilst 
that  he  meditated  how  he  might  share  dominion  with  God,  the  Almighty 
Creator  was  preparing  hell-torment  for  him  and  his  fellows,  and  drove 
them  all  out  of  the  mirth  (joy)  of  heaven's  kingdom  and  caused  them  to 


heo  is  alra  kinsrene  kins:,  and  alra  hlafoi'dera  hlaford.  he  halt   iieistiio 

°  king  of  all 

mid   his  mihte  hefene  and  eorSe.   and  alle  3escefte  buton  je-   i™gs. 

Bwince.     Ne  me3  nan  iscefte  fulfremedlice  sme^an  ne  under- 

stonden  embe  god.  heo  3escop  3esceafte  bafta  he  wolde.  burh  his 

wisdom  (se  sune)  heo  jeworhte  alle  bing.  and  burh  his  wille  (ali 

gast.)  he  hi  alle  3eliffeste.  beos  brimnis  is  an  god.  ]>at  is  se  fader.   The  Trinity 

and  his  wisdom,  of  him  selfe  efre  acenned.  and  hare  beire  wille 

bat  is  se  hali  sjast.  he  g&6  of  be  fader  and  of  be  sune  selice.     He   c.od  created 

r  &>  te  f  r  3  ^     ten  orders  of 

3escop  tyen  engle  werod.  (o^er  had.)  o^er  hapes.  bat  beo&  angeli  angels. 

(boden.)  archangeli.   (hahboden.)  Troni.   (brimsetles.)     Domina- 

tio?ies.    hlafordscipe.    Principals    alderscipen.    Potestates.    an- 

wealda  gastes.  Uirtutes.  mihti  gastes.  Cherubim.  3efildnesse  of 

ywitte.  Seraphiw  birninde  oSer  anhelend.  for  wan  hi  beo^  buss 

icwe^e  me  seel  sigge,  an  o^re  stowe.     Her  beo^  ni3en  anglen    Nine  are  good 


hapes.  [o$er  had.]  o^er  werod.  Hi  nabbed  nenne  lichama.  ac  hi 
ba#>  alle  gastes.  swi¥e  strange  and,  mihti  an  mucele  feirnesse 
isceapew  to  lofe  and  to  wurhminte  hare  sceoppinde.  bat  teonSe   The  tenth  re- 

_  m  helled  against 

werod  abrea^.  and  awende  on  yfele  o^er  al  swa  fele  be  me  mihte   G«d. 

bat  tio^e  hape  fulfellen.     God  3esceop  alle  gode.  and  let  hi  hi 

habben  a^en  chire.  to  chiesen  3ief  [h]y  wolden  hare  sceappinde 

lufie.  o^er  hine  ferleten.     pa  wes  bes  tyendes  hapes  alder  swibe 

feir  isceapen.  swa  bat  heo  was  3ehoten  leoht  berinde.    pa  be-gan   Tiieir  leader 


he  to  modienne  fer  bere  feirnesse.  be  heo  hafde.  and  cwe^  an  his  wanted  to  he 

equal  to  God. 

herto.  bat  he  wolde  and  ea^e  mihte  bien  his  sceoppende  3elic.  and 

sitte  an  norSdele  hefene  riches,  and  habbe  anwealda  and  riche 

an3en  godelmichti  ba  yfesten[d]e   [he]   bisne  red.  wrS  ban  hape 

be  [he]  bewiste.  and  hi  alle  to  rede  gebu3on.    pa  be  li1  alle  hafeden     '  ?  hi. 

bisne  i*ed  betwuxe  ham  3efestnod.  ba  be-C07»  godes  grama  ofer  came  upon 

ham  alle.  and  hi  alle  wurSore  *  awende  of  ban  fe^re  hiwe  be  hi     *  pp'oi.  546.] 

an3escapen  were  to  lo^lice  deoflen.  and  swrSe  richtlice  ham  swa  and  they 

became  lnath- 

belamp.    pirSe  hi  wolde  mid  modinesse  beon  betere   bonne  he   some  devils, 
3esceapew  we're,  and  cweS  hare  alder  bat  he  mihte  beon  bam 
selmihti  god  jelic.  ba  warS  he  and  halle  his  ifeVen  forcirSran  and 
wursan  bamie  amis?  o^er  jesceafte.  And  ba  wile  be  he  smeade  hu  he  and  were 

1  '  driven  out  of 

mihte  delen  rice  wrS  god.  ba  wile  3earcode  se  almihti  sceappende  heaven, 
him  and  his  iferen  helle  wite.  and  hi  alle  adrefde  of  heofan  rices 


fall  into  the  eternal  fire  that  was  prepared  for  them  fur  their  pride. 
Then  forthwith  the  nine  hosts  (or  orders)  that  were  left,  bowed  to  their 
Creator  with  all  humility,  and  resigned  their  purpose  to  his  will.  Then 
strengthened  the  Almighty  God  the  nine  orders  (hosts  or  states)  of  angels 
and  established  them  so  that  they  never  afterwards  might  be  able,  nor 
desire,  to  depart  from  his  will.  Neither  may  they  nor  desire  they  to 
perpetrate  any  sin,  but  ever  they  are  [meditating]  about  this  alone — 
how  they  may  obey  and  please  God.  So  might  also  the  others  have 
done  that  there  fell,  if  they  had  been  willing;  for  God  had  created  them 
great  angels,  and  let  them  have  their  own  will,  and  would  never  have 
inclined  nor  forced  them  to  that  evil  counsel,  neither  to  think  nor  to 
act  wrongly.  Then  would  God  supply  and  make  good  the  loss  that  had 
been  suffered  in  the  heavenly  host  (or  state),  and  said  that  he  would  create 
man  out  of  earth,  so  that  the  earthly  man  should  prosper  and  obtain 
by  humility  the  abode  in  heaven  which  the  devil  lost  through  his  pride. 
And  God  wrought  a  man  of  loam  (earth)  and  blew  spirit  into  him,  and 
endowed  him  with  life,  and  he  then  became  man  formed  in  soul  and  in 
body,  and  God  gave  him  the  name  of  Adam,  and  he  was  for  some  time 
alone.  God  then  brought  him  into  Paradise  and  there  lodged  him  and 
said  to  him  :  "  Of  all  the  things  that  are  in  Paradise  thou  mayest 
enjoy,  and  they  are  all  given  unto  thee,  except  one  tree  that  standeth  in 
the  midst  of  Paradise.  Touch  thou  not  this  tree's  fruit,  for  thou  shalt 
become  deathly  (mortal)  if  thou  eatest  this  tree's  fruit."  Why  would 
God,  who  such  other  great  things  assigned  him,  forbid  him  such  a  small 
thing  %  In  order  to  make  him  understand  that  he  was  his  Lord,  and 
that  he  should  be  obedient  to  him,  and  observe  his  behests  ;  as  if  he 
should  say  to  him,  '  Forego  thou  the  fruit  of  one  tree  and  with  this  easy 
obedience  thou  shalt  obtain  the  mirth  of  heaven's  kingdom,  and  the 
place  from  which  the  devil  fell  through  disobedience.  If  thou  breakest 
this  little  behest  thou  shalt  perish  by  death.'  And  then  was  Adam  so 
wise  that  God  brought  unto  him  neat  and  deer-kind  and  fowl-kind,  when 
he  had  made  them,  and  Adam  gave  them  all  names.  Then  spake  God  : 
"  It  is  not  meet  that  this  man  be  alone  and  have  no  helper ;  but  let  us 
make  him  a  companion  for  his  help  and  comfort."    And  God  then  caused 



mirh^e.  ami  let  befallen  on  bat  ece  fer  be  ham  3earcod  was  fer  <i»d  f«"  into 

hare  prdde.     pa  sona  be  nigon  werod   [o^e  hapes].   be  ber  to 

lafon  were,   biigon  to   hare   scyppende.   mid  selra  sedmodnisse. 

and  bete'hton  bare  r6d  to  bis  wille.     pa  2efestnede  se  admihti  The  nine 

orders  were 

god  ba  nigen  angle  wserod  [heapes.  bad.],  and  3estebelfaste  swa  strengthened 

bat  hi  nefre  ne  mihteft  ne  noldan  si^San.  fram  his  wille  Jebugon.  could  neither 

>  jo  ciimmit  or 

ne  hi  niu^en  ne  hi  nedle^  nane  synne  3ewercon.     Ac  hi  efre  beo^  ^",'^1,, 

ymbe  bat  in  bu  hi  mugon  god  hihersamian  and  him  3ecwemen. 

Swa  micbte  a?ac  be  o¥re  be  ber  fellon  don  %6f  hi  wolden.  forSi  ^e 

god  hi  3eworhte  to  meren  anglen.  and  let  ham  h&bba  ag&me 

cire.  and  hi  nefre  ne  bide  nane  niede  to  ban  yfele  re'de.  ne  yfel  to 

bence.  ne  to  dorane.     pa  wolde  god  sefyllan  and  seinnian  bone  God  made 

s      .  J    J  *  Y  good  the  I033 

lere  be  forloren  was.   of  ban  hefenliee  werode  \ve\   hade.l  and  of  the  tenth 

'  L  order  by  the 

cweft  bat  he  wolde  we*rcan  man  of  eorSan  bat  he  eorSlic  man  creation  of 

'  >  man, 

sceolde  3e:6eon.  and  gearnian  mid  admodnisse.  b1  wuniunge  on  1  p  be  or  J>a. 

befeii  rice,  be  se  deofel  forwo[r]hte  mid  modinesse.     And  god  ba  whom  he 

,  created  out  of 

3eworhte  senne  man  of  lame,  and  him  on  bleow  gast.  and  bine  earth, 
3eliffeste.   and  he  war?)    ba    man   3esceapen   on   sawle.   and  on 

lichame  and  god  hiwi  sette  nama.  adam.  and  he  wes  to  sume  and  called 

^  .  .  him  Adam. 

wile  anstandende.     God  J>a  nine  brobte  into  paradis.  and  bine 

3elogode  and  him  to  cwe%.     ^Elra  bara  binge  be  on  paradis  beo^  lie  forbad 

-  7  111-1  /I  ''""    '"  eat   °^ 

bu  most  bruce.  and  alle  hi  beo^  be  betebte.  buton  ane  treovve  be  tll(;  free  >" 

'  J  the  middle  of 

stent  on  midden  paradis.  ne  hrdpe  bu  bes  trowes  westm.  for  ban  Paradise. 

bu  wurst  dea^lic.  3ef  bu  bes  trowes  westm  3eetst.    Hwi  wolde  god 

swa  litles  binges  him  forwerne.  be  him  swa  my  eel   o^er  bing 

betohtel  forte  don  hi«i  understonden.  bat  he  his  hlaford  was. 

nii'l  bat  he  sceolde  to  him  bugon  and  his  3ehese  healde.     Al  se 

he  to  him  cwe^e.  forging  bu  ones  treowes  westm.  and  mid  bare  Death  was 

se^elice  hyrsumnesse.  bu  3earnest  hefen  rices  rnerbSe.  and  bane  penalty  it  he 

stcde  be  se  deofel  of  hafel  \  burh  unihersamnesse.     Gif  bu  banne  command. 

bis  litle  bebod  to  brecst.  bu  scealt  dea^e  sweltan.     And  ba  was 

adam  swa  wis.  bat  god  3eledde  to  him  niatenu.  and  deorcen.  and 

fugcl  cyn.  ba&a  he  3esceapen  hafede.  and,  adam  ham  alle  namen 

jesceop.      pa  cwe$  god.     Nis  hit  ntiht  3edanfenlic.  bat  bes  man  c.od  said  it  is 

i  7  pi  •  i  •  not  meci  f°r 

ane  beo.  and  nab[l>e]  nenne  lultume.  ac  uton  wircan  hiwj.  3emace  man  to  be 


hi?//,  to  fultume  and  to  froure2.     And  go[d]  ba  3eswefede  bat  a  Ant  it 

written  above 
u  in  the  MS. 


Adam  to  fall  asleep ;  and  when  he  slept  he  took  a  rib  from  his  side,  and 
made  of  that  rib  a  woman;  and  Adam  named  her  Eva,  that  is,  life, 
because  she  is  mother  of  all  living.  All  creatures  God  created  and  made 
in  six  days,  and  on  the  seventh  day  he  ended  his  work,  and  then  ceased 
and  hallowed  that  day.  All  things  God  wrought  through  his  word. 
But  when  he  created  man  he  said  not,  Let  there  be  man,  as  of  other 
creatures,  but  he  said,  "  Let  us  make  man  in  our  likeness,"  and  he  then 
wrought  man  with  his  hands,  and  breathed  into  him  a  soul,  wherefore 
man  is  better,  if  he  does  what  is  good,  than  other  creatures,  except 
angels  ;  for  they  all  come  to  nothing  (perish),  and  man  is  eternal  in 
one  part,  that  is,  in  his  soul.  The  body  is  mortal  through  Adam's 
guilt,  but  nevertheless  God  will  raise  again  the  body  to  eternal  things 
at  doomsday.  When  the  devil  perceived  that  Adam  and  Eve  were  so 
created  that  they  should  obtain,  through  humility  and  obedience,  the 
abode  in  heaven  from  which  he  fell  for  his  pride,  then  took  he  much 
anger  and  envy  towards  man,  and  considered  how  he  might  ruin  them. 
He  afterwards  came  in  an  adder's  form  to  the  two  men  (persons) — first  to 
the  wife,  and  thus  said  unto  her:  "Why  has  God  forbidden  you  this  tree's 
fruit  which  stands  in  midst  of  Paradise?"  Then  said  the  woman,  "God 
has  forbidden  us  the  fruit  of  this  tree  and  said  that  we  should  die  if  we 
tasted  of  it."  Then  spake  the  devil,  "  It  is  not  so,  but  God  knows  well 
enough  that  if  ye  eat  of  the  tree  then  shall  your  eyes  be  opened,  and  ye 
shall  know  good  and  evil,  and  be  like  angels.  They  were  not  created 
blind,  but  God  created  them  so  innocent  that  they  knew  nothing  of  evil, 
neither  in  sight  nor  in  speech  nor  in  works."  Then  became  the  woman 
beguiled  through  the  devil's  lore,  and  took  of  the  fruit  of  the  tree  and 
ate,  and  gave  her  husband  and  he  ate.  Then  both  became  mortal  and 
knew  both  good  and  evil,  and  they  were  then  naked  and  ashamed  thereat. 
Then  came  God  and  asked  who  broke  his  behest,  and  drove  them  out  of 
Paradise  and  said:  "Because  thou,  man,  wast  obedient  to  thy  wife's  words 
more  than  to  mine,  thou  shalt  with  toil  earn  thy  meat ;  and  the  earth 
is  accursed  through  thy  works  and  shall  yield  thee  thorns  and  brambles. 
Thou  art  taken  from  earth  and  thou  shalt  turn  to  earth.      Thou  art  dust 


adam.  and  ba&e  he  slep.  ba  3enanie  lie  ribb  of  his  sidan.  and  so  he  created 

Eve  out  of 

3eworhte  of  bane  ribbe  ana  wifman.  and  ada?«  hi  nemnede.  eua.   Adam's  ribs. 

\at  his  lif.  for  ban.  be  hi  is  selra  libbinde  moder.     ./Ella  3escefte 

god  3esceop  and  hiworhte  on  syx  dagum.  *and  on  bail  seofe^an     *[Foi.  55a.] 

de3  he  3eendode  his  wurc.  and  3esweac  ba.  and  bane  de3  halgode. 

Ealle  bing  3eworhcte  god  burch  his  worda.  ac  ba^a  3eworhte 

man.  he  ne  cwe^  naht  3ewur%e  man.  alse  of  o^ere  sceafte.  ac  he 

cwe^.     Uton  gewurcan  man  to  ure  anlicnesse.  and  he  worhte   God  mado 

ba  bane  man  mid  his  handen.  and  him  anbleow  sawle.  forSi  is   own  likeness. 

se  man  beter  3^f  he  god  3e:Sih$  bamie  oSre  3esceafte  bnton  englen. 

for  ban  be  hi  alle  3e\vr5e;6  to  nachte.  and  se  man  is  ece  on  ane 

dele.  \at  his  an  ber  sawle.     Se  lichame  is  deadlic  burh  adames   The  body  is 


gylt  ac  beahwe^e[r]  god  arerb"  eft  bane  licame  to  e'cene  bingum   through 

Adam's  sin. 

adomes  de$.  pa  on3eat  se  deofel  ]>at  adam  and  eua  weron  tofii 
3esceapene.  \at  hi  sceoldan  mid  edmodnisse  and  mid  hersamnisse 
3earnie  ba  wuniimge  on  hefe  rice  be  he"  of  afeol.  for  his  upahefed- 
nesse.     pa  nam  h6  mulcene  gramen  awl  andan  toSan  mannum.   Satan  plots 

how  he  may 

and  smeade  hu  he  hi  fordon  mihte.  he  co??i  ba  anedren  hiwe   ruin  A(1a»» 

and  Eve. 

to^az?*.  twam  mannuw.  erest  to^a/i  wife,  and  hir  to  cwe^.    Hwi 

for-bead  3eu  god  bes  trowes  westm.  be  stent  on  midden  paradis  1 

pa  cwe^   \>at  wif.      God  hus  for-bead  bes   trowes  westm.  and 

cwe^.  \at  we"  sceoldorc  dea%  swelten.  3if.  we  his  abiri^don.     pa   He  persuades 

cwe^  se  deotel.     Nis  hit  naht  swa.  ac  god  wot  3enoh  3eare  ^if  36   tiie  forbidden 


of l  ba?i  treowe  sete^.  banwe  beoS  3iure  eagen  3eopened.  and  imugon  >  ms.  os. 
3ecn6wen  ei^Sev  god  and  euyl.  and  beoft  englew  3elice.  Nare 
bio  blinde  3escapene.  ac  god  hi  3esceop  swa  bilewitte  pat  hi  ne 
cu^an  nan  ping-  eueles.  na^or  ne  an  iselrSe.  ne  on  sprece.  ne  on 
weorce.  Warb  ba  \at  wif  for-spannen  burh  be  deofles  lare.  and 
3enam  of  bes  trowes  westm.  and  seat,  and  3iaf  hire  were  and  he 
set.  pa  weran  bo^e  deadlice.  and  cuSon  36'ider  god  and  yfel. 
and  hi  ber2  ba  nacode.  and  ham  bas  scamede.  pa  com  god  and  2orwer. 
acsode.  be  his  bebod  to  brece.  and  adrefde  hi  ut  of  paradis.  and  God  ''rives 

them  out  of 

cwe^.  for  ban  be  were  hihersa?».  bines  [?  wifes]  wordum  mor  ¥»m  Paradise. 
mine,  bu  scealt  mid  arfe^nesse  be  metes  tylian.  and  se  eorSe  his 
awirigd  on  bine  weorcum.  syl'Se  bornes  and,  brembles.     pu  eart 
of  eor^e  3enume.  and  bu  awenst  to  eorSe.     pu  seart  dust,  and  bu 


and  thou  shalt  turn  to  dust."  God  made  them  garments  of  skins  and 
they  were  clothed  with  the  skins.  Adam  was  then  dwelling  in  this  life 
in  toil ;  and  he  and  his  wife  then  begat  children,  both  sons  and  daugh- 
ters ;  and  he  lived  nine  hundred  and  thirty  years,  and  afterwards  died, 
as  was  foretold,  on  account  of  his  guilt ;  and  his  soul  went  to  hell. 
Then  soon  there  sprang  up  a  great  people,  and  very  many  led  evil  lives 
and  displeased  God  with  various  crimes,  and  chiefly  with  fornication.  Then 
waxed  God  so  wroth  through  man's  crime  that  he  said  that  it  repented 
him  that  he  had  ever  created  mankind.  At  that  time,  however,  there  was 
a  righteous  man  before  God  whose  name  was  Noah.  Then  said  God  to 
him,  "  I  will  destroy  all  mankind  with  water  for  their  sins,  but  I  will  hold 
(preserve)  thee  in  safety,  both  thy  wife  and  thy  three  sons,  Shem,  Ham,  and 
Japhet,  and  their  three  wives,  because  thou  art  righteous  and  acceptable  to 
me  (unto  me).  Make  thee  now  an  ark,  three  hundred  fathoms  long  and 
fifty  fathoms  wide  and  thirty  fathoms  high.  Roof  it  all,  and  daub  all  the 
seams  with  tar,  and  go  afterwards  therein  with  thy  family.  I  shall  gather 
unto  thee  of  deer-kind  (animals)  and  of  fowl-kind  by  pairs  (mates  together), 
that  they  may  afterwards  multiply.  I  will  send  a  flood  over  all  the  earth." 
He  did  as  God  commanded  him,  and  God  locked  them  within  the  ark 
and  sent  down  a  rain  from  heaven  forty  days  together,  and  opened  there- 
with also  all  well-springs  and  water-springs  of  the  great  deep.  The 
flood  then  increased  and  bore  up  the  ark,  and  it  passed  above  all  the 
hills.  Then  was  every  living  thing  drowned,  except  those  within  the  ark, 
by  whom  was  again  established  all  the  earth.  Then  God  promised  that  he 
would  never  again  destroy  all  mankind  with  water,  and  said  to  Noah  and 
to  his  sons,  "  I  will  set  my  covenant  betwixt  me  and  you  (as  a  token)  of 
this  promise,  that  when  I  arch  over  heaven  with  clouds,  then  shall  my 
rainbow  appear  in  the  firmament,  and  I  shall  be  mindful  of  my  covenant 
that  I  will  not  henceforth  drown  men  with  water."  Noah  lived,  in  all 
his  life,  nine  hundred  and  fifty  years,  and  he  then  died.  For  some  time 
after  the  flood  God's  awe  (fear  of  God)  was  upon  mankind  and  there  was 
one  language  amongst  them  all.  Then  said  they  betwixt  themselves  that 
they  would  make  a  city  and  a  tower  (steeple)  within  the  city  so  high  that  its 


awe*nst  to  duste.  God  ham  ^eworhta  pa  reaf  of  fellaw  and  hi 
were  mid  pan  fellen  3escridde.  Adam  pa  wes  wniende  on  peses 
life  mid  jeswmce.  and  heo  and  his  wif  pa  beam  3estriende. 
3edeir  sunen  and  dochtreu.  and  he  lefede  nigon  hundred  3iere. 
and  xxxti.  and  si^an  swealt.   swa  swa  him  ?er  be-haton  wes   After  Adam 

died  his  soul 

forSam  gilte.  and  his  sawle  3iwende  to  helle.  pa  wearS5  pa  redlice   went  int0  hel1- 
micel  mennisc  sewexon.  and  were  swrSe  manege  on  yfele  awende.   The  world 

waxed  wicked, 

and  3egremeden  god  mid  tnistlicuwi  leahtrum.  and  swrSost  mid 

for-lisere.       Po  warS  god   to^aw   swrSe  3egremed  burh   manna  and  it  re- 
3  r  &  3  »  r  pented  God 

mandede  bat  he  cweS   bat  him  of-buhte  bat  he  efre  mawcinn   that  he  had 

made  man. 

3esceop.  pa  wes  hwe^ere  an  man  richwis  et-foran  gode.  be  wes 

Noe  3ehaten.  ba  cwe^  god  to  him.  ic  wille  fordon  al  mancinn   God  tells 

Noah  that  he 
mid  watere  for  hare  sinnum.  ac  ic  wille  halden  be  ennen  and  ti   will  destroy 

the  whole 

wif.  and  bine  preo  sunes.  sem.  ch&m.  iafet.  and  hare  preo  wif.  for  world. 

ban  be  bu  art  richwis  and  me  3ecweme.     Wrec  be  nu  an  arc. 

preo  hund  fedme  l&ng.  and  fifti  fedme  wid.  and  pritti  fedme 

heah.     Geref  hit  all.  and  idem  hall  p[e]  seames  mid  tirwan.  and 

ga  inn  se¥>en  mid  pine  lmviin.    *Ic  ^egaderi  in-to^e  of  diercynne.    *  [F«i.  556.] 

and  of  fugel  cynne  simle  gemacan.  bat  hi  eft  to  fostre  bien.     Ic 

wille  senden  flod  ofer  alne  middennard.     He  dede  ba  swa  him   Noah  makes 

an  ark. 

god  bebead.  and  god  be-leac  hi  binnaw  pan  arce.  and  asende  ren 
of  heofene.  xl.  dagas  to-gedere.  and  3eopenede  per  to  3eanes  alle 
well -springes,  and  weter  peotan  of  per  mycele  nlwelnisse.  \)at 
flod  wex  ba.  and  aber  up  ban  arc.  and  hit  ofer-stah  selle  duna. 
WearS  ba  elc  bins  cuces  adrenct.  buton  ba  be  binnon  bane  arce   The  flood 

1  '       }  .  comes  and 

were.  Of  pan  wearS  eft  3estapeled  eall  middenard.  pa  be-heot  god  drowns  aii 

bat  he  nolde  nefre  eft.  al  mancyn  mid  water  acwellan.  and  cwe^ 

to  noe.  and  to  his  sunum.     Ic  wille  settan  mi  wed  betwuxe  me.   The  covenant 

•v.  •  -if  •  i      °f  tne  raul" 

and  eow.  to  pisan  behate.  bat  is.    p&nne  ic  ofe[r]-teo  hefenes  mid  bow. 

wlcne.  b&nne  brS  atawed  min  ren  boge.  betwuxe  ban  folce  [vel 

wlcne].  ba.nne  beo  ic  3emene3ed  mines  weddes.  bat  ic  nelle  henon 

forS  mancyn.  mid  watere  adrenche.     Noe  lefede  on  all  his  life 

nigon  hund  3eare.  and  fifti.  and  he  ba  for^ferde.      pa  wes  ba   After  Noah's 

death,  for 

sume  hwille  godes  3eie.  on  3emancynne.  efter  pa  flode.  and  wes   awhile  men 
on  3ereard  an  ham  alien.      pa  cwe^en  hi  betwxe  ham  bat  hi 
wolda»  wercen  ane  burch.  and  enne  stcpel  binnaw  para  bine. 



roof  (top)  should  reach  to  heaven,  and  they  began  to  work.  Then  came 
God  thereto  when  they  were  most  busily  at  work  and  gave  each  man  that 
was  there  a  separate  language,  and  none  of  them  knew  what  the  other  said ; 
and  they  then  ceased  their  building  and  were  scattered  over  all  the  earth. 
Afterwards  mankind  became  deceived  through  the  devil  and  turned  aside 
from  belief  in  God,  so  that  they  wrought  for  themselves  likenesses,  one  of 
gold,  another  of  silver,  a  third  of  stone,  a  fourth  of  wood,  and  gave  them 
names  and  offered  them  gifts  (sacrifice) ;  and  the  devil  came  into  these 
forms  and  dwelt  therein  and  spake  to  men,  as  though  they  were  gods,  and 
deceived  men.  Then  this  error  spread  abroad  over  all  the  earth,  and  the 
true  Creator,  who  alone  is  God,  was  despised  and  dishonoured.  There 
was  (at  this  time),  nevertheless,  a  tribe  which  never  bowed  down  to 
a  devil-idol,  but  ever  honoured  the  true  God.  It  sprang  from  Noah's 
eldest  son,  who  was  called  Shem,  and  his  son  was  called  Arphaxad,  and 
his  son  was  Sala ;  and  Sala  begat  a  son  called  Heber  (of  whom  spi-ang 
the  Hebrew  folk  whom  God  loved),  and  from  this  tribe  (kin)  came  all  the 
patriarchs  (high  fathers)  and  prophets  who  spake  of  Christ's  coming  to 
this  life,  that  towards  the  end  of  this  world  he  would  become  man  for 
our  redemption — he  who  was  ever  God  with  the  heavenly  Father.  And 
to  this  folk  God  gave  and  established  laws,  and  led  them  dry-footed  over 
the  sea,  and  fed  them  forty  winters  with  heavenly  loaf  (bread),  and 
wrought  many  wonders  among  the  folk,  because  from  this  race  he  would 
choose  him  a  mother.  Then  at  last,  when  the  time  came  which  God 
foreshowed,  he  sent  his  angel  to  a  maid  named  Mary.  Then  came  the 
angel  unto  her  and  greeted  her  with  God's  words,  and  showed  her  that 
God's  Son  shotild  be  born  of  her  without  intercourse  of  man,  and  she 
believed  then  his  words  and  became  with  child.  When  her  time  came, 
she  brought  forth  [a  child]  and  yet  remained  a  maiden.  The  Child  is 
twice  begotten  :  he  is  begotten  of  the  Father  in  heaven  without  any 
mother;  and  again,  when  he  became  man,  when  he  was  born  of  a  pure 
maiden,  without  any  earthly  father.  God  the  Father  wrought  all 
mankind  and  all  creatures  through  the  Son,  and  afterwards  when  we 
were  lost,  he  sent  that  same  Son  for  our  redemption.  He  was  born 
without  sin,  and  his  life  was  wholly  without  sin.  He  performed,  how- 
ever, no  wonder   (miracle)    openly  until   he   was  thirty  winters  in   his 


swa  hahcne  bat  his  rof  asti^e  up  to  hefenne.  and  begunnon  ba  to 

worcen.     pa  com  god  ber  to.  ba  ba  hi  swr5est  worhtan.  and  aiaf  The  building 

r  °        r  '      y  J  of  Habel  and 

selce  man  be  ber  was  suuderlice  sprece.  and  har  non  neste  wat   the  confusion 

'      '  l  of  tongues. 

o^er  cwe^.  and  hi  ba  iswicon  hare  timbringe.  mid  to-ferden  ofer 
alne  middenarde.  pa  si&San  wearS  mancynn.  burh  deofol 
beswice.  and  awendan  fram  godes  3elafen.  swa  bat  hi  worhtan 
ham  anlicnessen  sum  of  golde  sum  of  selfre.  of  stane.  of1  trewe.   The  origin  of 

°  idolatry. 

and  sceope  ham  naman.  and  lac  offreden.  and  com  se  deofel  to     i  ms.  os. 
har  anlicnesse  and  ber  an  wnede  and  to  mannen  sprece  swice  hi 
godes  were,  and  beswicene  mennisc.     pa  asprang  bis  jedweld 
ofer  all  middenard.  and  was  se  so^e  sceppende  se  be  ane  is  god 
forsewen  and  seunwui^ed.     pa  wes  hwe^ere  an  me3ie  cjnn  be   The  race  of 

Seth  wor- 

nefer  ne  abeah  to  nane  deofel  ryld.  ac  efer  wurSade  bane  soSiie   shipped  the 

-"  r  true  God. 

god.  Se  asprang  of  noes  ylste  sune  be  wes  3ehotan  sem.  and 
his  sune  bete  arfaxat.  and  his  sune  sale,  and  bes  sale  jestrienede 
enne  sune  be  wes  sehaten  heber.  of  ban  asprang  bat  eberisce  folc.   The  Hebrews 

sprang  from 

be  god  lufede.  and  of  ba  cynn  come  alle  be  heahfederes.  and  Seth. 

witi3en.  ba^e  cyddon  C/mstes  to-cyme  to  bis  life,  bat  heo  wolde 

man  beon  for  nean  en  ende  bissere  wurold.  for  ure  alysendnisse. 

se  be  efre  wes  god  mid  ban  hefonlice  feder.  and  bes  cenne  god   God  gave 
I  °  >  jo        theni  )aws 

sselde  and  3esette  se  [ve\  laga].  and  he  hi  ledde  ofer  se  mid  dreie   ^J,^'^"1 
fote.  and  he  hi  afedde  feorti3  wintre  mid  hefenlice  hlafe.  and  fele   g^  the  Red 
wundre  onSam  folce  3eworhte.  fer  ban  be  he  wolde  of  bise  cynne 
him  moder  3eceosen.     pa  et  nextan  ba  .se  time  com  be  god  fore- 
scewede.   ba  sende  he  his  aengel  to   ane  mede  be  was   Maria   of  this  people 

came  the 

aehaten.     pa  com  se  amgel  to  hire  and  segrette  hi  mid  godes   saviour. 

*  *  God's  Son. 

wordon.  and  cydde  h)Te.  bat  godes  sune  sceolde  beon  acenned  of 
hire,  buton  weres  3emanan.  and  hi  ba  3elifd  his  wordum  and 
warS  mid  cylde.  pa^a  hire  time  com  hi  acennede  and  burh- 
wunedo  meden.  bat  cild  his  twies  acenned.  he  is  acenned  of  be 
feder  on  hefene  buton  elcer  moder.  and  eft  ba^e  he  man  3ewarS.    He  was  bom 

of  a  pure 

ba  was  he  acenned  of  be  clene  meidene  buton  elce  eorSlice  federe.   maiden  and 

>  >  his  whole  life 

God  fader  3eworhte  mancin.  and  selle  3esceafte  burh  bane  sune.    was  sinless. 
and  efft  ba$e  we  forwyrhte  were  ba  sende  ban  ilce  sune  to  ure 
alisendnesse.  heo  was  buton  senne  acenned.  and  his  lif  was  all   He  worked 


buton  synne.     Nse  worhte  he  *  bah  nane  wndre  openlice.  er  ban    *  [Foi.  56a.] 


humanity.  Then  afterwards  he  chose  him  disciples,  first  twelve  (whom 
we  call  apostles,  that  is,  messengers),  and  subsequently  two-and-seventy 
that  are  called  disciples  (learning-knights).  Then  performed  he  many 
miracles,  that  men  might  believe  he  was  the  Son  of  God.  He  turned 
water  into  wine,  and  passed  dry -footed  over  the  sea  ;  he  calmed  the  winds 
by  his  behests,  and  he  gave  sight  to  blind  men,  right  gait  to  the  halt 
and  lame,  and  smoothness  to  lepers  and  health  to  their  bodies.  To  the 
dumb  he  gave  speech  and  to  the  deaf  hearing ;  to  the  devil-sick  (those 
possessed  with  devils)  and  mad  he  gave  sense  and  drove  out  the  devils, 
he  healed  all  sickness,  and  dead  men  he  raised  from  their  tombs  to  life. 
He  taught  the  folk  to  whom  he  came  with  great  wisdom,  and  said  that 
no  man  could  be  saved  unless  he  rightly  believed  in  God,  were  baptized, 
and  adorned  his  belief  with  good  works.  He  shunned  every  sin  and  all 
leasing,  and  taught  righteousness  and  truth.  Then  the  Jewish  folk  took 
offence  at  his  doctrine  (lore)  and  plotted  how  they  might  put  him  to  death. 
Then  became  one  of  Christ's  twelve  attendants,  who  was  called  Judas,  a 
traitor  through  the  devil's  instigation ;  he  went  to  the  Jews  and  plotted 
with  them  how  he  might  betray  Christ  to  them.  Though  all  men  were 
gathered  together,  they  might  not  destroy  him,  if  he  himself  did  not  will 
it.  Wherefore  he  came  to  us  because  he  desired  to  suffer  death  for  us  and 
with  his  own  death  to  deliver  all  mankind  that  believed  on  him  from  hell- 
torment.  Christ  then  permitted  that  the  blood-thirsty  men  should  take 
him  and  bind,  and,  hung  on  a  cross,  put  him  to  death.  Lo  (then)  two 
believing  (faithful)  men  honourably  entombed  him,  and  Christ  in  the 
meanwhile  descended  into  hell  and  subdued  the  devil  and  took  from  him 
Adam  and  Eve  and  that  portion  of  their  offspring  that  erewhile  pleased 
him,  and  he  arose  from  the  dead  with  this  great  host  on  the  third  day  of 
his  passion.  He  came  then  to  his  apostles  and  comforted  them,  and  for 
the  space  of  forty  days  dwelt  with  them,  and  the  same  lore  that  he  ere- 
while had  taught  them  he  afterwards  repeated,  and  commanded  them  to 
go  over  all  the  earth  preaching  baptism  and  true  belief.  The  Lord  then, 
on  the  fortieth  day  of  his  resurrection,  ascended  to  heaven  before  the 
sight  of  them  all  with  the  same  body   in  which  he  had   suffered,  and 


be  he  was  J>ritti  wintre  an  bara  mennisnisse.  ba  se^en  aceas  he 
him  leornmchnihtes.  erest  twelf.  ba  we  hata^  apostles.  bat  brS 
erndracene.  And  si£San  twa  and  sefenti3e.  ba  beo^  3enamned. 
discipwli.  leoruincuihtes.     pa  wercte  he  fele  wundra.  bat  men  so  that  men 

'  might  believe 

mihten  selefeu.  bat  he  was  godes  beam.     He  awende  water  to   that  he  was 

J  '  b  Gods  Son. 

uine.  and  eode  ofer  se"  mid  dreie  fotu»t.  and  he  3estilde  windes 
mid  Lis  hesne.  and  he  foi^iaf  blinde  manne  3eseclrSe.  and  halten 
and  lamen  richte  gang,  and  hreoflin  smiSnesse.  and  hele  hare   He  healed 

s      °  the  sick, 

lichame.  dumben  he  forgeaf.  getocnisse.  and  deafum  hercnunge. 
Deofel  seocun  and  wodan  h[e]  3eaf  3ewitt.  and  ba  deoflew  to 
drefde.  and  selc  untrumnisse  heo  3ehelde.     Deade  men  he  arerde  raised  tne 

3  dead, 

of  hare  berieles  to  life,  and  lerde  bat  folc  be  he  to  com  mid 

mucelene  wisdome.  and  cwe^  bat  naman  ne  ma!  bien  3ehalden.   and  taught 

^  the  folk  how 

buton  he  nch[t]hee  selife  on  god.  and  bat  lie  beo  3efulled.  and  they  might  be 


his  3eleafen  mid  goden  wrcon  3e3lenge.  heo  onscunede  elc  unricht 
and  alle  leasunge.  and  tochte  richwisnesse.  and  soSfestnesse. 
pa  nam  be  iudeisee  folc  micel  anda  on3ean  his  lare.  and  smeadan   The  Jews 

-,,..,,.  .  sought  to  put 

hu   In  michte  June  to   dea^e   sedon.     pa  warS  an  bera  twelf  Christ  to 

3  '  death. 

Christes  beigne  se  be  was  iudas  3ehaten.  burh  diofies  tihtinge 

beswicen.  and  heo  3ede  to  ban  iudeiscaw  folce.  and  smeade  wrS 

him  hu  he  Christ  heom  belewen  michte.  bah  al  mennisc  were   Christ  per- 
mitted them 
3egadered.  ne  michti  hi  alle  bin  acwelle.  3ef  he  sylf  nold.  for  bi   to  do  so. 

he  com  tu  us.  bat  he  wolde  for  bus  dea^  browian.  and  swa  al 

mancyn.  ba^e  3elyfad.  mid  his  a3en  dea^e  alyse  fram  belle  wite. 

Crist  ba  3e:5afode.  bat  ba  wel  reowen  hine  3enuman  [ve\  a1]  and 

3ebunden.  and  an  rode  hencgene  acwealdon.     Hwet  ba  twe3en 

3elefde  men  him  arwrSlice  bebyriddon.  and  crist  on  bare  wile. 

to  belle  3ewende.  and  bane  deofel  3ewilde.  and  him  of  ana?M,.    He  died,  was 

i  j  7  p        •  iii-  buried,  and 

adam  and  eu&m.  and  hare  oisprmg  bane  del.  be  him  ser  3ecwemde.   on  the  third 

day  rose  from 

and  aras  of  dea^e  mid  ba7»  mucellum  werode.  an  ban  bridde  dei3e.   tue  dead- 

1  >.c.  or 

his  browunge.     Com  ba  to  his  apostlen  ami  hi  3efrefrode.  and 
furtfe  da3en  firste  ham  mid  wnede.  and  ba  ilce  lare.  be  he  ham 

er  tochte  eft  3eedlehte2.  and  bet  hi  faren  ofer  all  middennard  2  ms. 

,  t  Jeedsehte. 

bodiende  fulluht.  and  soS  3eleafen.     Drihte?i  ba  an  ba  furteohte  on  the 

de3e  his  seristes  astah  to  heofene.  et-for  har  alra  3esyclrSe.  mid  after  his  re- 

•  ,        ,  •  .  .  .     .  .  surrection  he 

pan  ilce  licama  be  he  onbrowode  and  sit  an  bar  swr&eran  hallo  ascended  int.. 

heaven,  where 

230  A  PARABLE. 

sittetli  on  the  right  hand  of  his  Father,  and  ruleth  over  all  crea- 
tures. He  hath  opened  to  all  righteous  men  entrance  to  his  kingdom, 
and  those  that  altogether  despise  his  behests  shall  be  sunk  into  hell. 
Verily  he  shall  come  at  the  end  of  this  world,  and  all  that  have 
ever  received  a  soul  shall  arise  from  death  to  meet  him,  and  each  be 
rewarded  according  to  his  deserts. 


It  happened  that  there  was  a  rich  king  who  was  strong  and  mighty; 
his  land  stretched  far  and  wide ;  his  people  were  innumerable ;  his 
subjects  on  all  sides  remained  under  his  sway.  Then  it  so  chanced  that 
a  thought  occurred  to  him  that  he  would  know  in  all  his  dominions 
who  were  friends  or  foes,  well-disposed  or  hostile  ;  and  he  resolved  to 
prepare  a  great  feast  and  thither  to  call  all  his  subjects  so  that  they 
at  one  (set)  time  should  come  to  his  court  (city) ;  and  he  appointed  a  day 
that  they  all  at  the  latest  should  be  there  on  that  day.  But  this  differ- 
ence he  had  set  (made)  between  friends  and  foes,  that  when  they  came 
promiscuously  to  the  court,  if  he  were  a  friend,  he  was  to  be  respect- 
fully called  aside  and  made  to  wash  and  take  his  first-meat,  so  that 
he  would  not  think  it  very  long  to  await,  until  noon,  the  lord's  arrival 
(entrance)  •  if  he  were  a  foe,  he  was  to  be  met  forthwith  at  the  gate 
with  good  cudgels  and  strong  whips  and  straitly  be  surrounded  and 
bound  hand  and  foot  and  cast  into  darkness,  and  there  abide  until  all 
his  fellows  were  assembled,  that  they  might  be  all  together  clean  im- 
prisoned for  ever.  Then  the  king  sent  his  messengers  from  five  quarters 
to  all  his  subjects  to  invite  this  folk.  Wherefore,  without  exception, 
they  came,  some  earlier,  others  later,  some  as  friends,  others  as  foes, 
and  it  was  done  unto  them  as  I  before  said  was  bidden.  When 
the  time  came  that  the  lord  should  come  into  the  hall  with  his 
honoured  guests,  with  earls  and  princes,  with  knights  and  thanes, 
then  he  said,  "  Ere  we  with  our  friends  go  to  meat,  let  us  see  these 
uncouth  men,  our  foes."     When  they  came  before  him,  then  turned  he  to 



his  fa^er.  and  aire  sceafte  :ewalt.     He  haueS  serimed  rihtwisaw  lie  sits  at  his 

J  J  Fatlier's  right 

mannan  infer  to  his  rice,  and  J>a  be  his  bebode  allunge  for-seo^ 

He  liath 

beS  an  helle  besencte.     Witodlice  he  cumS  an  ende  bisser  wrld.   toWskhi    ' 

doiu  for  all 

and  alle  ba^e  sawle  efre  underfengon.  ariseS  of  da^e  him  to-   those  who 

>  °  keep  his 

3eanes.  and  elc  3eelt  efter  his  3earnunge. 


[AN   BISPEL.*]  *[Foi.«66.] 


it  selamp  bat  an  rice  king  wes.  Strang  and  mihti.  his  laud   a  parable  of 

3  l    '  &  °  ,      a  rich  king, 

gelest  wide  and  side,  his  folc  was  swrSe  serfeS-telle.  his 
under-beoden  3ewer  on  his  cyne  rice  wuneden.  pa  be-fel  hit  swa 
bat  him  a  bance  befell  to  under3eite  wa  an  alle  his  cyne  rice  him   who  invited 

friends  and 

were  frend  oSer  fend,  hold  o^er  fa.  and  he  nam  him  to  rede  bat  foes  to  his 

'  court. 

heom  wolde  3earceon  ana?  grate  la^ienge.  and,  bider  3eclepien  all 
his  underbeod.  bat  hi  bi  ene  fece  to  his  curt  [berie]  come  sceolde 
and  sette  aenne  de^ie.  bat  hi  alle  be  be  latst  to  ba  de^ie.  ber  were. 
Ac  bis  3esceod  he  hadde  isett  bi-tweone  frend  and  feud,  bat  ban   ins  friends 

were  courte- 

hi  come  mistlice  to  berie.  3ef  he  frend  were,  me  bine  sceolde   onaly  received 

and  feasted. 

derewrlice  forS  clepien.  and  do  hine  wasse.  and  3iefe  him  his 

formemete.  bat  him  to  \ang  ne  buhte  to  abiden  of  fe1  laford  to  be  '  read  o'S  se. 

none  inn  come.     Gief  he  fend  were,  me  sceolden  anon  eter2  gat  2  =  et  ber. 

3emete  mid  gode  repples  and  stiarne  swepen.  and  stiarne  hine  nis  foes  were 

beaten  and 

besie.  and  binde  him  hand  and  fett.  and  do  hine  into  biester-   imprisoned, 
nesse.  and  ber  abide  of3  all  his  3eferen  were  3egadered.  bat  hi     3?of=off. 
alle  clone,  simle  belocen  were,     pa  sende  se  king  his  aerndraches 
of  fif  ce^en  to  alle  his  underbeodeu.  to  36^16  bis  folc.  hwet  bute 
icome  sum  cofer  sum  later  sum  frend  sum  fend,  and  was  idon  bi 

ham  al  swa  aer  cwe^e  bat  isett  was.     pa  hit  ber  to  com.  bat  se   when  the 

•  i  •  i   'or(* came 

hlaford  into  bar  halle  come,  mid  his   dierewurd  3eferede.  mid   into  the  hail 

he  sent  for 

serlen  and  aldren.  mid  cnihten  mid  beinen.  ba  cwe^  se  hlafor[d]  to   ins  foes, 
his.   JEer  b&nne  we  mid  ure  frienden  to^e  mete  go.  scepie4  we  bes     4 1  scewie. 
unco£e  rnaen  ur  3efo.  ba  hi  to-fur  hiiw  come,  ba  wente  he  bin  to 

232  A    PARABLE. 

them,  and  thus  said,  "  Wretched  men,  what  caused  you  to  raise  up  in 
all  my  dominions  hatred  and  strife  and  war  against  me,  and  to  bow  (do 
homage)  to  my  foes  1  As  (truly  as)  I  enjoy  my  kingdom  ye  shall  not 
eat  (bite)  of  my  meat  ;  but  they  shall  that  have  merited  it  with  my 
love."  When  this  was  said,  quickly  were  they  then  thrust  into  dark- 
ness, that  they  died  of  hunger;  and  the  lord  betook  himself  to  his 
friends,  and  ate  and  drank  and  made  himself  very  joyful  with  them  ; 
and  there  they  had  bread  and  wine  and  seven  dishes.  Now,  good 
men,  understand  this  parable.  This  king  is  our  Lord  God  Almighty, 
who  is  King  over  all  kings  and  Lord  over  all  lords.  Strong  he  is 
and  mighty,  for  he  created  all  things  of  nought,  and  no  thing  may 
(be)  against  his  will  or  withstand  him.  Wherefore  to  him  saith  the 
prophets,  Qui  ccelortim  contines  tronos,  <kc. — that  is,  Lord  of  Might, 
thou  holdest  the  thrones  of  heavens,  and  thou  beholdest  the  deep  which 
is  under  the  earth  ;  and  thou  weighest  the  hills  with  thy  hand.  He 
is  truly  mighty,  because  there  is  no  might  but  from  him.  His  land 
is  all  this  earth,  for  he  created  and  established  it  all  without  labour. 
He  is  our  King  and  Creator  and  Father  and  Lord — King,  for  he  in 
righteousness  created  all  things,  man  and  angel,  good  and  evil ;  Creator, 
for  he  made  us  bodies  and  breathed  souls  into  them ;  Father,  for 
he  feedeth  and  clotheth  us  and  reared  us  up  as  children  ;  Lord  he 
is,  because  his  awe  (fear)  and  dread  is  over  us,  and  ought  to  be.  He 
is  our  Father;  he  giveth  us  his  earth  to  till  and  corn  to  sow.  His 
earth  produces  for  us  corn,  fruits,  neat  (cattle),  and  deer-kind  (beasts). 
His  light  produces  for  us  light  and  life.  His  water  produces  for  us 
drink  and  fishes.  His  fire  is  for  manifold  services.  The  sun,  moon, 
stars,  rain,  dew,  wind,  wood,  produce  for  us  innumerable  favours. 
All  that  we  have,  we  have  from  this  Father,  from  whom  we  all  have 
our  bliss.  May  we,  ween  we,  call  him  at  all  our  Mother  1  Yea,  we 
may.  What  doth  the  mother  to  her  child  1  First  she  showeth  and 
blesseth  it  by  the  light,  and  afterwards  she  putteth  her  arm  under 
it,  or  covers  his  head,  that  he  may  sleep  and  rest.  This  does  the 
Lord  of  you  all.  He  rejoices  us  with  the  daylight  ;  he  sends  us  to 
sleep  with  the  dark  night.  Yet  for  another  reason  God  made  the 
night.  He  knoweth  well  that  many  men  are  so  full  of  covetousness, 
that  might  they  always  see,  they  would  never  control  themselves  (in 
eudeavouring)    to    beget    worldly    goods,    wherefore    God    hath    created 

AN    BISPEL.  233 

ham  and  bus  cweS.     Unwraste  man  wat  lacede  3eu  an  alle  mire  and  enquired 

_  ,  ,  .  the  cause  of 

rice  J>at  31c  hatrede  and  widerwardnesse  ajeues  me  ye  win  sceolde.   their  enmity. 
and  to  mine  fa  3ebugon.     Swa  ibruce  ic  mine  rice  ne  scule  31c   Not  a  bite,  he 

...  ,  ,  .         .  .  -.       said,  should 

mine  mete  lbite.  ac  scule  ba  be  hit  mid  mire  lute  3earnede.     p&  they  liave  of 

.   _,  his  meat,  but 

bis  was  isegd.  ba  were  cote  abruden  into  besternesse.  be  hi  sturfe  should  be 

°        r  r  r  thrust  into 

hunOTe.  and  se  hlaford  nam  hit  him  to  is  frenden  and  et  and  darkness j  but 

°  with  his 

dranc  and  macede  hine  wel  blrSe  mid  his  and  ber  hi  hadden   frie'K]s  >>e 

i  made  merry. 

brad  and  win.  and  vii.  sandon.     IT  [N]u  gode  menn  understande^ 

bis  bispel.     pes  king  is  ure  hlaford  almihti  god  be  is  king  ofer  This  king  is 


alle  kingen.  and  hlaford  ofer  alle  hlafordew.    S[t]rang  he  his  and  God, 
michti.  for  he  3esceop  alle  bing  of  nahte.  and  na  bing  ne  ma^i 
a3enes  his  wille.  ne  him  wrSstande.  for  ban  hiwi  seigd  se  witi3e. 
Qui  celarum  routines  tvonos  et  cetera,  pat  is.  hlaford  of  mihte  be  the  lord  of 

heaven  and 

alste  hefenen  brimsettles.  and  to  neowelnesse  be  under  eorSe   earth, 
is  be-locest.  in.  pon1.  be  dunan  bu  awi^hst  eorSe  belucst2  mid     >?uppon. 
bina  hand  ;   he  is  iwiss  mihti  for  ban  be  non  mihte  nis  butow    2  In-  pon  ce 

'  '  '  dunan  eoroe 

fr&?n  him.     His  land  is  all  bes  middenard.  for  he  alle  3esceop.   belucst  teems 

to  bean  inter- 
and  all  dihte  wrS-ute  swince.     He  us  is.  king,  and  sceppend.    potojfonofike 

and  fader,  and  hlaford.     King  for  he  mid  rihtwisnesse  diht  man 

and  engel  god  and  euel.  sceppende.  for  he  us  machede  lichame 

and  sawle  ableow.  feder  for  he  us  fett  and  scred.  and  forSteh  al   He  is  our 

father,  for  he 

se  is  cyldren.  hlaford  for  ban  be  is  3eie  and  drednesse  is  ofer   feeds  and 

'  clothes  us. 

hus.  and  [ve\  as]  ah  to  bieiine.     He  is  hure  fader,  he  lenS  us  his 

eor^e  to  tolie.  he  corn  to  sawe.  his  eorSe  us  werp^  corn  and  His  earth 

gives  us  corn. 

westm.  niatt.  and  dierchin.   his  loht  leoem  and  lif.  his  water.   His  water 

,  ,  i   a       •  l  •      sr  Till-  \  •         *  Sives  us  drink 

drench  and  nscynn.  his  ier  maniteald  bemnge.  his  sonne.  mone.  and  fishes. 
sterren.  rieu.  daw.  wind.  wude.  unitald  fultume  al  bat  we  habbeS 

of  bese  feder  we  habbe^.  of3  warn  we  alle  and  us  sielbe  habbe^.  3ms.  os. 

Mu3e  we  abet  clepeien  hine  moder  wene  we.  31c  mu3e  we.  hwat  May  we  also 

de$  si  moder  hire  beain.  formes  hi  hit  chete^  and  blissrS  be  be  mother?  We 

.       .  .  .  may. 

hchte.  and  sebe  hi  die^  under  hire  arme  *o:Ser  his  hafed  hele^     *[Foi.5~a.] 
to  don  him  slepe.  and  reste.     pis  de£  all  3~ure  drihte.  he  blisse^   God  sends  us 

.,*...  r  .         .  to  sleep  with 

hus  mid  d3eies4  licht.  h[ej  sweueS  hus  mid  biestre  nicht.     Giet  ti;e  dark 

for  an  o^re  bing  god  3escop  ba  niht.     He  wat  wel  bat  man^e  <>sic. 

men  bie^  sa  ful  of  3escung.  mihti  efre  isi.    Na  3ewold  ham  selfe.  also  created^ 

t<)  bigeten  wrldlic  echte.  ber  for  god  hafd  3escepe  ham   reste.  man's  covet- 


234  A    PARABLE. 

rest  for  them,  though  sometimes  (it  be)  against  their  wish.  Moreover, 
he  spake  a  wonderful  word  to  the  soul  by  the  prophet  Isaiah,  Numquid 
potest  mulier  oblivisci  infantem  suum  ut  non  misereatur  filii  uteri  sui, 
that  is,  Is  there,  beloved !  any  mother  that  can  so  forget  her  own  child  as 
not  to  have  compassion  upon  the  child  of  her  own  womb  1  and  if  she  for- 
getteth,  yet  will  I  not  forget  thee,  saith  the  Lord.  And  since  he  is  Father 
and  Lord,  he  himself  hath  said  by  the  prophet,  Si  ego  pater  ubi  est 
honor  meus,  si  dominus  ubi  est  timor  meus ;  that  is,  If  I  am  Father, 
where  is  my  honour  1  if  I  be  Lord,  where  is  my  awe  (fear)  1  There- 
fore, good  men,  to  our  King  we  owe  honour,  to  our  Creator  all  that 
we  are,  to  our  Father  true  love,  to  our  Lord  fear.  And  this  is  the 
King  who  will  know  among  all  his  subjects,  who  love  him  and  who 
hate  him,  who  is  friend  and  who  is  foe,  and  therefore  he  hath  summoned 
all  his  folk  on  a  certain  day,  that  is,  doomsday,  that  they  all  finally 
should  be  there.  We  said  first  that  these  messengers  were  sent  from 
five  regions — so  they  are.  These  five  regions  are  five  laws,  because 
God  is  known  through  these.  The  first  law  is  the  natural  law  that 
God  first  set  in  the  heart  of  mau,  that  is,  that  no  man  should  do  unto 
another  but  what  he  would  that  a  man  should  do  to  him.  No  man 
possessed  of  reason  is  without  this  law.  Messengers  of  this  law  were 
Abel,  Seth,  Enos,  Noah,  and  such  like  good  men.  Since  this  earth 
was  established  (from  the  first  man  unto  the  last  that  shall  be  at 
this  world's  end)  there  has  been  no  time,  nor  shall  there  be,  that 
God  hath  not  sent  good  men  to  invite  his  folk  to  his  kingdom.  But 
this  law  was  soon  corrupted  through  abominable  crimes  and  manifold 
sins.  Thereafter  God  raised  up  the  law  through  Moses,  the  leader  of  his 
people  whom  he  had  then  chosen,  and  he  wrote  it  himself  upon  tables 
of  stone;  and  it  lasted  for  some  time  (and  thereof  were  Moses,  Aaron, 
Samuel,  and  many  others,  teachers  and  inviters),  so  long  that  this 
law  also  was  soon  perverted  and  corrupted,  through  disobedience, 
until  the  time  came  that  God  sent  the  holy  phophets,  and  they 
revived  by  their  writings,  through  the  gift  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  the 
good  law,  and  corrected  the  folk,  as  far  as  they  were  able,  and  fore- 
told the  coining  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus  Christ,  who  should 
write  his  own  will  in  our  hearts,  through  the  gift  of  his  Holy  Ghost,  and 
make  us  with  his  might  what  book-learning  could  not.  And  in  this 
law  of  the  prophets  were  many  preachers  ;  but  afterwards  within  a  while 

AN    B1SPEL.  235 

siime  wile  hares  unbances.  3eiet  he  cwe^  a  minder  worder  to  bar 

sawle  bi  ba  witie  ysaiam.  potest  mulier  obliuisci  in-   The  words  of 

fanteva  suum  ut  nou  misereatur^ii  «teri  sui.  bat  is  la  lief  ma3ie 

wimaw  foryeten  his  oge  cild.  bat  hi  ne  milsi.  hire  barn  of  hire 

ogen  inno^.  and  3ief  hi  ftn^iet  bah  hweSer  nell  ic  for^ete  J?e  cwe^ 

drihtew.  be  bam  be  he  fader  is  and  laford  he  him  selb  cwed  be  be    God  is  Father 

.  ....  and  Lord> 

witie.    Si  ego  pater  ubi  est  honor  mens,  si  rfominus  ubi  est  timor 

meus.  bat  is.  gif  ic  fader  ham.  wer  his  mi  mawscipe.  sif  ic.  hlaford    wherefore  we 

owe  him  our 

wer  his1  mine  aseie?  ber  fore.  G.  m.  ure  king.  Ave  ose^  wrhmint.   Jove,  fear, 

J  '  and  honour. 

hur  sceappend  al  bat  we  bie^.  ure  fader  so^e  lufe.  ur  hlaford     '  ms.  hss. 

drednesse.     And  bis  is  seo  king  be  wile  wite  an  alle  his  under- 

beode  wa  hine  lufeft  and  hwa   hine  hate^.  hwa  him  is  frend 

o^er  fend.   And  ber  for  he  ha^  3ela¥ed  alle  fol[c].  to  ane  d3eie.  bat   OnDoomsday 

God  will  take 

is  domes  dseie.  bat  hi  alle  ber  beon  be  be  latst.  hwe  seden  serst  bat   note  of  friends 

J         '  r  '  '         and  foes. 

bes  aerndraces  wer  isent  of  fif  che^en.  swa  ibeo^.  bas  fif  che^en    The  five 
beo^  fif  lagan,  for  ban  be  god  is  burh  besen  3ecnowe.     Si  forme   denote  five 


lage  bat  is  si  3ecende  lage.  be  god  sett  formest  an  bes  mawnes   The  natural 
heorte.  bat  is  bat  non  man  ne  don  o^ere.  buton  bat  be  he  wolde   hearts. 
bat  me  ded  him     Wi^-ute  beser  lage  nis  man  be  3escod  habbe. 
/Erndraces  of  bisser  lage  wer2  abel.     Seth.  enoc.  N6e.  and  swice     2  ms.  ber. 
gode  man.     Se¥e  bes  midcZenard  was  3estabeled  fram  ba  forme 
man  to  ba  latst  be  wrS  et  bes  wrldes  ende.  nas  tid  ne  tyme  ne  ne 
wrS.  bat  god  ne  send  gode  msenn  his  folc  forte  3ela%ie  to  his  rice. 
Ac  si  lage  sone  adiligde.  burh  unwreaste  leahtrum  and  manifald   This  law 

became  cor- 

senne.     per  efter  arerde  god  bas  lage  burh  moysen  be  heretoche   rilPte<i,  then 
of  his  folce  be  he  ba  secas.  and  wrate  his  him  self  in  stanene   Mosaic  law, 

>  >       J  which  in  its 

wax  bredene.  and  si  3eleste  sume  wile,  and  ber  of  were  larbawes  |,o™ubtg^me 
and   3ela:5ieres  Moises  and  aaron.  and  samuel.  and  fele  o^re. 
Swa  lage3  bat  si  alswa  swrS  abrea^.  and  adi^ede.  burh  unhersam-     3  or  lange. 
nesse.  wat  hit  com  to  ba  time  be  god  sende  be  halie  witi3e.  and  ^iseiHhe*8 
hi  ba  arerdon  mid  hare  write  burh  bes  halie  gastes  gife  ba  god      osaic  aw' 
lage.  and  rihtleceden  bat  folc  swase  hi  mihtew.  and  bodeden  ures 
hlafordes  to-cyme  ses  helendes  ihesu  cristes.  be  sceolde  his  a3en   and  foretold 

the  coming  of 

wille.  burh  his  gastes  3ife  in  ure  heorte  write,  and  don  us  mid   Christ, 
his  mihte  bat  stef  creft  ne  mihte.  and  an  besser  la^e  of  be  within, 
wer  la^ieres  mcche.      Eft  bine  fecc  and  bes  lare  and  lage  swrSc 

236  A    PARABLE. 

this  lure  and  law  greatly  cooled  through  manifold  sins,  and  frequently 
through  false  gods    that    each    nation   made   for   itself,   some   of  gold, 
some  of  silver,  of  wood,   and   of  stone,   and  turned   God's  praise   and 
honour  from   the  Creator  to   the   creature,    so   that  when   our  Saviour 
was   born    of  the   unspotted   maiden    Saint    Mary,    all   the    earth   Avas 
possessed  with   sin,  and   all   folk   went   into  the  devil's  mouth,   except 
a  very  few  from  whom  his  dear  mother  was  descended.    He  then  restored 
all  goodness  and  set  (established)  his  holy  laws,  and  gave  them  moreover 
might   and  strength,  through  the  gift  of  his  Holy  Ghost,  to  fulfil  his 
behests  and  to  follow  no  other  laws.     And  understand  how.     Three  cor- 
ruptions were  in  mankind  ere  the  advent  of  Christ.     Our  birth  was 
foul,   our  life  was   wretched,    and   our  death   horrible.      He  came  and 
brought  instead  (in  opposition)  three  things.     He  was  born  of  the  pure 
maid,  who  ever  remained  a  virgin ;  his  life  was  holy,  and  his  death  full 
of  mercy.      His  pure  birth  cleansed   our  foul  birth,   his  holy  life  set 
right  our  unholy  life,   his    meek  death   overcame  and  destroyed  alike 
our   sorrow   and    death.      This    is   the   fourth   law,    and   in    this   were 
messengers  and  preachers,  the  apostles  and  the  disciples ;  aud  after  our 
Saviour's  ascension  into  heaven,  the  apostles  and  their  younglings  (dis- 
ciples) ;  and  after  them  came  holy  men  and  the  head  men  (prelates)  that 
are  now  in  holy  church,  and   shall  be  until  doomsday.     Through  the 
gifts  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  as  our  Saviour  instructed  them,  they  (the 
apostles)   taught   the   people   many   things    for   their   advantage.     And 
this  is  the  fifth   law.       In    this   are  messengers   and   inviters,  that  is, 
archbishops,    bishops,    priests,    and    their    company.       But    though    we 
name  five  it  is  all  (one)  in  God's  will,  and  each  of  them  raiseth  up  and 
perfects  the  others.     Of  these  five  kinds,  and  of  their  apostles,  we  have 
(already)  spoken  to  you ;   of  the  folk,  we  say  that  they  come  constantly 
from  the  beginning  of  the  world  (for  as  many  as  are  dead  so  many  are 
come  to  the  city),  whether  friend   or  foe,  and  each  day  thickly  press 
on.      But  if  ye  have  understood  what  we  before  said   to  you,   at  the 
gate  they  are  discerned  and  there  they  are  separated.     The  gate  is  each 
man's  dying  day,  when  he  steps  out  of  this  life  into  the  other.     But 
we  also  told  you  that  if  he  were  a  friend  he  should  receive  his  morn- 
ing-meat,  so  that  the  better  he  might  await  the    greater  meat.      So 
is   it    here.      When    the    good    man,    that   hath   followed    God's   love, 
cometh   to    his    end,    assuredly,    without    delay,    there    come    the    holy 

AN    BISPEL.  237 

acolede  burh  manifead  fenne1.  and  hur  and  hur  burh  false  godes     >  wad  senne. 

be  selc  biode  ham  selfe  macede.  sume  of  golde.  sum  of  silure.  of 

treowe.  of  stane.  and  awente  godes  lof  and  wrhminte  fram  be 

sceappende  to  bare  3esceafte.  swa  bat  ba  ure  halende  wes  accenned   At  the  time 

of  bam  unwe?»mede  niede  sante  Marie,  al  se  middewnard  was  birth  a" tlie 
'  world  was 

mid  serine  begripe.  and  al  folc  3ede  \n  to  bes  diefles  mu^e.  butow  smitten  with 
wel  feawe  of  warn  his  lefe  moder  wes  istriened.  he  ba  arerd  alle  Christ 

restored  all 

godnisse.  and  sette  his  halie  lage.  and  bat  be  more  his.  3iaf  miht  goodness. 
and  strewcbe  burl2  be  gief  of  his  gaste  his  hesne  to  fulfor^ie.  ]>at  2  ?  burh. 
non  o^re  lase  ne  mihte.  and  understande^  hwu.     pri  ampres  There  cor- 

ruptions  of 

were  an  rnancyn  ser  his  to-cyme.     Ure  acenneng  wes   ful.  un3  mankind. 

lif  unwreast.  ur  deaft  grislic.  he  com  and  brochte  bri  bin[g]  ber 

a;en.  he  wes  acende  of  be  clene  mede.  be  efer  burh  lefede  mede. 

his  lif  was  halne.  his  dea^  ful   of  milce.  his  clene  acennende  How  healed 

....  °y  ('lir>st. 

clewsede  ure  rale  acenne?tde.  his  hali  lif  rihtlecede  ure  unwreaste 

lif.  his  admoded  dea^  ofer  com.  and  fordede  ure  soi^e  ami  3elice 

dea^.  bis  is  *  si  fierSe  lage.  An  bisser  were  a?rndraces  and  3ela:Sieres   The  messen- 
gers of  the 
ba  aposdes  and  be  leornmchihtes.  ber  efter  ures  helendes  upst^e   fourth  law. 

to  heuene.  ba  aposdes  and  hare  iunglenges  be[r]  efter  coirie  halie 

men  and  be  hafedmen  be  nu  beoft  in  halie  cyrce.  and  wrSe^  of4  <  ?  0S. 

domes  de^e.  burh  bes  hali  gastes  3ife.  and  al  swa  ure  helende  ham 

leorde.  marii3e  bing  ehten  ba  folce  to  freme.  and  bis  is  si  fifte  The  messen- 

lage.    An  bisser  beo^  bedeles  and  la^ieres  to  berie  archebisco/>es.  fifth  law. 

and  biscopes.  prestes.  and  hare  3egeng.     Ac  bah  we  fif  nsemmie.  Tiiese  five  are 

alle  hit  on  godes  wille.  and  elc  of  ham  3estren:S  and  fulfellb  o^re.  God's  pur. 


Of  beses  fif  ceben  and  of  hare  bedeles  we  habbe^  3eu  3esed.     Of 

be  folce  we  sigge^  bat  hit  cu?/ib  fastlice.  fram  middenardes  anginn 

alse  fele  alse  deade  beo^  alse  fele  beo^  to  berie  ic5me.  wat  frend. 

wat  fa.  and  elce  de3ie  bicce  bringe^.     Ac  3ief  3(3  habbe£  under-   At  the  gate 
..  .  .    *'ie  f°es  are 

stande  bat  we  3m  er  sede.  eter  gate  me  his  scyft.  and  ber  me  hi   distinguished 

to  3esceode:6.     Si  gate  bat  is  elces  mannes  endede'e.  bat  he  step^   friends. 

The  gate  is 

ut  of  bese  life  into  ban  o&re5.    Ac  we  sede  3ehw.  bat  3ief  he  frend   tlie  d»y  of 

'  '  each  man's 

were  me  sceolde  sief  h\m  his  mcr:e  mete  bat  he  be  bet  mihte   death- 

3  5MS.dd*bre. 

abide  bane  more  mete.    Swa  hit  is  here,  bat  se  gode  man  be  godes   Angels  come 

.  ...  .  for  the  soul 

lufe  haft  3efolged  to  is  ende  cu?nb.  witethce  wro-ut  m'antruce  ber  of  the 


eumcft  be  hali  engles  hvm  to.  and  jef  lia^S  ante  uniwasse  nVr  hit 

238  A    PARABLE. 

angels  unto  him,  and  if  he  hath  aught  unwashen,  either  it  shall  be 
washed  in  the  death-pain  in  which  he  here  suffers,  or  after  (death) 
with  a  slight  delay,  and  then  the  soul  is  led  to  the  festive  hall  ;  that 
is,  the  morning-meat,  the  bliss  that  he  hath  in  the  soul ;  for  ye  know  well 
that  no  holy  man  hath  his  perfect  bliss  ere  he  receive  again  his  body  at 
doomsday,  that  shall  be  the  perfect  meat  when  the  man  with  soul  and 
body  shall  receive  the  assurance  of  eternal  bliss.  And  what  happeneth  if 
it  is  an  enemy  that  cometh  to  the  gate  1  May  God,  through  his  great 
mercy,  let  us  never  experience  what  it  is.  But,  nevertheless,  if  he 
is  an  enemy,  wretched  man !  there  shall  be  at  hand  only  the  accursed 
ghosts  who  shall  roughly  receive  him  with  stern  blows.  As  many 
vices  and  sins  as  he  had  upon  him,  so  many  fiends  shall  he  there 
meet  to  receive  him  and  to  put  him  into  darkness  ;  again  on  doomsday 
shall  all  God's  enemies  be  cut  off  together  from  his  sight,  and  they 
shall  receive  then*  reward  that  long  shall  last.  Thus  hath  it  been, 
and  is,  and  shall  be  until  doomsday.  But  when  it  cometh  to  pass 
that  the  Lord  on  the  great  day  shall  come  to  see  both  friends  and 
foes,  then  shall  come  all  his  subjects  before  him,  where  he  sitteth 
with  his  beloved  company,  with  nine  orders  of  angels,  with  the  unspotted 
maiden  his  mother,  with  his  apostles,  with  the  high  fathers  (patriarchs), 
and  the  holy  prophets,  with  martyrs,  with  holy  confessors,  with  holy 
maidens,  with  all  those  that,  for  his  love,  cast  aside  the  goods  of  this 
world  and  lawfully  serve  him  here.  What  awe  and  what  dread  shall  there 
be  when  the  fire  comes  before  him  that  shall  burn  the  earth;  when  all 
the  earth  shall  quake;  when  the  stars  shall  fall;  when  the  sun  and  moon 
shall  darken  before  God's  brightness;  when  the  welkin  shall  vanish,  and 
when  the  sign  of  the  holy  rood  (cross),  with  the  spear  and  with  the  nails, 
shall  be  brought  forth  by  the  angels  !  When  the  angels  shall  quake, 
and  the  righteous  shall  sore  dread,  what  shall  the  sinful  do  who 
shall  see  there  his  righteous  judge,  whom  none  may  contradict  nor 
deceive  ?  He  himself  is  witness  and  judge.  What  shall  the  wretch 
do  who  seeth  above  him  his  Lord  whom  he  hath  displeased,  and  under 
him  hell's  mouth  open,  about  him  all  folk,  and  himself  openly  con- 
victed of  various  sins.  No  friend  may  there  help  another ;  each  shall 
have  enough  to  do  for  himself.  Then  shall  God  Almighty  say  unto 
them,  the  guilty  men,  "Ye  sinned  in  your  eternity,  and  ye  shall 
burn    in    my  eternity.      Ye  sinned   as  long  as  ye  lived,  and  ye  shall 

AN    BISPEL.  239 

wrS  3ewasse  i]>er  pine  of  be  deaSe  be  he  her  bahrS.  oSer  efter 

mid  e^elice  lette.  and  ban  lat  me  ba  sawle  to  merchestowe.  bat  and  take  it 

'  '  to  the  mirth- 

his  se  mor3emete  si  blisse  be  he  haS  an  bar  sawle.  bat  wite  3e  stead. 

wel.  nan  halege  na^  his  fulle  blisse  er  he  underfo  adomes  deie  his 

licame.  bat  wr?  se  fulle  mete,  ban  se  mann  mid  sawle  and  mid   The  full  meat 

'  '  is  the  assur- 

licame  underfangS  sicernesse  of  ecer  blisse.     And  wat  beliwnrS   a"ceofu,. 

°  *         eternal  bliss. 

hit  jief  he  fend  his  be  to  bare  gate  cumb  1  God  burh  his  mucele 
milce  ne  letes  us  nefer  fandie.  Ac  nabeles  3ief  he  fend  his  an 
unwreast  mann  ber  beoS  ami  jeredie.  be  weregede  gastes  be  hine 
uniredlice  underfange^  min  stiarne  swupen.     Alse  fele  unbeawes   Devils  shall 

°  l  '  meet  the 

alse  hade  upe  him  and  sennenn.  al  swa  fendes  he  ber  3emet.  hine   simier  aiid 

to  underfo.  and  to  don  hine  into  biesternesse.  oft  a  domes  d3ei   iut0  darkness- 

alle  godes  fend  simle  fram  his  3esec:Se  abroden  bienn.  and  hi  to 

hare  lean  ha?/i  be  lange  seel  3eleste.     pus  hit  lia^  ibi  and  is.  and 

wrS  oft  domesdei.     Ac  banwe  hit  ber  to  cumb  bat  se  hlaford  a  be   On  Doomsday 

'  '    '  '        all  shall  come 

mucele  deie.  cumb  forte  isi  and  frend  and  fend,  bann  cumb  all  before  God- 

his  underbiede  him  to-fore,  ber  he  sit  mid  his  derewrbe  3efered 

mid  ni3en  anglene  had.  mid  ber  unwemmed  meide  his  moder. 

mid  his  aposden.  mid  ba  hagefaderen.  and  bo  hali3e  witien.  mid 

martiren.  mi[d]  hali  confessorcn  mid  halie  meiden.  mid  al  ban  be 

ber  midenaixle  for  his  lufe  werpe^  abec.  and  lagelice  her  him 

benift.  wic  3eie.  wic  drednesse  wurS  ber.  ban  bat  fer  to  for  him 

abenrS  bat  middernad1.  ban  si  eor^e  alle  cwaced  ban  be  sterren     'sic. 

failed,  si  sunne  and  se  mone  abestre^  for  godes  brictnesse.  be   shaVfaii^the 

wlcne  to  ga^.  and  si  hali  rode  tacne  mid  be  spere  and  mid  be   m00n  shall 

neiles  burh  angles  beo^  forS  ibrocht.  baime  be  angles  cwacia¥.  and   God's  bright- 
to  richtwise  ham  adrede^.  wat  sceol  se  senfulle  don.  be  lsecg^ 

ber  his  richtwise  deme.  be  non  ne  maie  bechece.  non  beswice.  he 

his  him  selb  witnisse  and  deme.     Wat  sceol  se  wrecce  don.  be 

bufon  isef&  his  hlaford  be  he  3egremed  afe^.  under  him  helle 

mu$  open,   abuuten  him  all  folc.  hiwa  selfe  bi  sawdlice  senne 

beswapen.  ber  ne  mai  nwi  frend  o^re  helpe.  selc  had  innoh  to 

donne  an  him  selfe.     pan  seied  ham  god  be  gelty  mannen  ze   Gods  word 

y  &       _  r      °      J  _        ^         .    J       to  the  wicked. 

sene3eden.  an  3eur  ecenesse.  and  3e  scule  *birne  an  mire  ecenisse.    *[Foi.  58a.] 
3e  sene3den  alse  lange  alse  36  lefede  and  }e  scule  birne  alse  lowge 
as  ic  lefie.     Wite^  into  ece  fer.  be  is  3searced  mine  fo  and  his 

240  PUT   ON    THE    ARMOUR   OF    GOD. 

burn  as  long  as  I  live.  Depart  into  eternal  fire,  which  is  prepared 
for  my  foes  and  their  fellows."  Immediately  they  shall  depart  from 
his  sight,  and  then  at  once  shall  the  Lord  go  with  his  friends  to 
his  meat,  that  is,  to  his  pleasures,  as  is  said  in  holy  writ,  Delicie  mece 
sunt  esse  cum  filiis  hominum,  that  is,  "  My  delights  are  to  dwell 
with  the  sons  of  men."  But  we  said  to  you  a  little  before  that 
they  should  have  good  bread  and  wine,  and  seven  dishes  ;  they  shall 
have  the  bread  spoken  of  in  the  Gospel.  Ego  sum  pcmis  vivus  qui 
de  coelo  descmdit,  that  is,  "  I  am  the  living  bread  that  descended  from 
heaven,"  saith  our  Lord  ;  "  he  who  eateth  of  this  bread  shall  never 
die."  This  bread  was  made  of  a  grain  of  wheat,  as  he  also  said 
in  the  Gospel,  Nisi  granum  Jrumenti,  et  cetera.  This  corn  was  sown 
through  the  angel's  mouth  into  the  ear  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  in  the 
city  of  Nazareth.  This  corn  came  first  in  Bethlehem,  that  speaks 
to  us  of  bread ;  it  waxed  and  flowered  in  Judsea,  and  it  ripened 
in  Jerusalem,  and  the  wicked  folk,  the  Jews,  reaped  it,  and  placed 
it  on  the  cross  also,  as  between  two  millstones.  It  was  after- 
wards put  into  the  tomb  as  into  an  oven.  Thence  it  was  brought 
up  into  heaven  to  the  high  Lord's  table,  where  it  feedeth  angels 
and  mankind  for  ever,  and  this  is  their  bread.  Where  shall  we  find 
the  wine  1     Even  as  he  said,  Ego  sum  vitis  vera,  et  cetera. 



f\ar  lord  (master)  Saint  Paul,  who  is  teacher  of  the  Gentiles,  reminds 
"  and  informs  us  of  certain  weapons  to  be  wielded,  thus  saying, 
Induite  vos  armatura  dei.  No  man  taketh  up  a  weapon  except 
to  fight  therewith,  and  no  one  fighteth  except  with  his  enemies.  Let 
us  now  see  what  are  the  foes,  and  what  weapQns  we  shall  use  against 
them.  Each  Christian  man,  so  soon  as  he  steppeth  out  of  the  font, 
where  he  is  baptized  of  his  sins,  maketh  to  himself  three  foes  ;  for 
it  is  written,  Nemo  potest  duobus  dominis  servire — No  man  can  serve 
two  masters  who  are   at  enmity  together.     These  three  foes   are — the 

INDUITE    UOS    ARM  ATI"  RA    DEI.  241 

3egen[g]  Son  hi  wrSe^  abroden  of  his  3esecbe.     And  ban  sone1     '  ms.  fone. 

ge^  se  hlaford  mid  his  frenden  to  his  mete.  bat  his  to  is  esten. 

be  sei^  an  ban  hali  write  Delicie  niee  sunt  esse  cum  filiis  ho\\\\- 

num.  bat  is.  Mine  esten  beoS  wunian  mid  mannen  bearnen.     Ac   God*s  P,ea- 

'  sure  is  to 

we  [habbe^  3e-]  sed  31U  litl  her  bat  hi  sceoldew  abbew  god  brad  and   dwe11  with 
uin.  and  vii.  souden.  hi  sculen  habe  bat  brad  be  sei^  ibe  godspel.   men- 
Eqo  suva.  panis  uiuus  mii  de  celo  (/escendit.    pet  is.  Ic  am  cwuce   Cm'ist  is  the 

<J  1  *■  '  living  bread. 

bread  be  astah  fram  hefene.  se3:5  ure  helende.  Se  be  of  bese 
brad  ett.  ne  sterfeft  he  nefer.  pis  bread  was  imaced  of  ane 
hwete  corne.  al  swa  se  he  cwe^  yvSe  godspelle.  Nisi  gi'&num 
frumenti.  et  cetera,  bis  corn  was  3esawen  burh  bes  aengles  mu? 
into  ^es  meidenes  sere  Marie,  in  bare  burh  of  nazareth.  bis  corn 
com2  ferst  irme  bethleem.  bat  cwe$  us  of  breade.  hit  wex  and     2  Ms-  con- 


bleowu.  in  iudea.  hit  ripede  in  ierasalem.     Iudas  and  bat  leo^re   reminds  us  of 

1  _  '  bread. 

folc  hit  repen.  and  deden  hit  an  bar  rode  alswa  also  betwenen 
mclstanent.  Sede  hit  was  idon  into  ber  berien.  alswa  into  hofne. 
banen   hit  was   ibroht  up   into   heofene  to  bes  hahes  hlafordes   This  living 

'  l  '  bread  is  on 

horde,  ber  hit  fet.  and  envies,  and  mancinn  in  ecenisse.  and  bis   tlie  Ugh 

'  °  '         Lord's  table. 

is  hare  bread,  hwcr  sculc  we  win  finden  1     Al  swa  se  he  cwe^.    Christ  is  the 

true  vine. 

Ego  sum  ultis  uera.  et  cetera. 




r  hlaford  sanctes  paulus  be  is  beoden  lareaw.  us  maneS  [Foi.  586.] 

and  mene3e$  of  sume  wepne  to  uemene  bus  cwe^ende.  of  the 

•  .  ,  weapons  of 

Induite  uos  armatuxa  dei.     rl  an  man  ne  nenro  wepne  buto  to  the  christian 

fihten  mide.  ne  nawman  ne  fiht  buton  wrS  his  ifomenn.     Ute  we 

nu  isi  wice  bio^  ure  ifo.  and  wice  wepne  we  scule  nemen  a3enes 

ham.     JE\c  cristen  man  anon  se  steps  up  of3  be  funte  wer  he  3ms.  os. 

ifulled  his.  ipicches  he  mace^  him  bri  ifon.  for  ban  be  hit  is  Each  Chris- 

tian  man  hath 

iwrite.  Nemo  potest  duobus  dorainis  seruire.     Nan  ne  mai  twan  three  foes- 
hlaford c  be  wransehte  bien  samod  bowie.  bas  pri  ifon  be^.     Se 



devil  and  his  host,  the  second  is  this  earth,  the  third  is  very  near 
the  Christian  man,  that  is,  his  own  flesh.  These  three,  like  three 
robbers,  fight  against  each  believing  man  as  long  as  we  wander  in 
the  wilderness  of  this  world.  Therefore  said  the  holy  Job,  Militia 
est  vita  hominis  super  terrain — Knightship  is  man's  life  upon  earth. 
In  the  Devil's  school,  his  host  of  accursed  spirits  and  sins  and 
abominable  crimes  fight  against  us.  In  this  earth's  school  (army)  are 
both  prosperity  and  misfortune.  In  the  flesh's  school  are  evil  thoughts 
and  foul  lusts.  Of  the  first  speaketh  St.  Paul,  Non  est  nobis  coluctatio 
adversus  carnem  et  sanguinem,  et  cetera.  Of  the  second  speaks  St.  John 
the  Evangelist,  saying,  Nolite  diligere  mundum  nee  ea  que  in  mundo 
sunt.  Of  the  third  speaks  St.  Paul,  Caro  concupiscit  adversus  spiritum. 
Strong  are  these  foes  and  treacherous,  so  that  with  them  we  may 
not  make  peace  nor  fellowship  ;  either  they  overcome  us,  or  we  them. 
If  they  overcome  us,  they  take  from  us  neither  gold  nor  silver,  but 
our  bane  (death).  If  we  overcome  them,  we  shall  all  be  praised  as 
good  soldiers,  and  be  rewarded  with  a  high  reward.  But  he  who 
goeth  to  fight  without  a  leader  may  soon  come  to  mishap.  ;  Let  us  nowr 
see  who  shall  be  our  leader,  and  afterwards  what  shall  be  our  weapons. 
Our  leader  is  the  Holy  Ghost,  and  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  who  hath 
said,  Sine  me  nihil  potestis  facere.  Thou  oughtest  to  have  eight  kinds 
of  weapons,  which  are,  shield,  helmet,  habevgeon,  sword,  spear,  steed, 
two  spurs,  and  a  smart  staff.  What  shall  be  our  shield,  St.  Paul 
thus  tells  us,  In  omnibus  sumentes  scutum  fidei,  in  quo  2)0ssitis  om- 
nia tela  nequissimi  ir/nea  extinguere. 



Tyrant    appropinqxantes,    et    cetera.      The  holy   Gospel    saith    to    us 

that  lepers  and  sinful  men  approached  the  Saviour  and   desired 

to  hear  his  doctrine.     Then  the  Pharisees  and  the  Scribes  of  the  .Jewish 


forme  is  se  deofel.  and  his  i&'eng.     Se  crSer  bes  middennard.     Se  the  world,  the 

6      6                            >  tiesli,  and  tlie 

bridde  is  wel  nieh  be  c/'isten  men.  \>at  is  his  a3on  flesc.     pas  bri  deviL 

fihte^  agen  elcen  ileafml  man  alse  longe  se  we  rSese  westen  of 

besser  woruld  wandrrS.  alse  bri  reaferes.     per  for  sede  se  hali  ^^y are  Iilie 

'                                                                       '                                   *  robbers. 

iob.    Milicia  est  ztita  /iominis  super  terrain.    Cnihtscipe  is  mannes  (i)  the  devil's 

i.«                                   T                                          .                                     ^  school, 

hi  upen  eorSe.    In  bes  deofles  heriscole  fihte^  agen  us  his  iferred  (2j  the  world's 


3ewerged  gastes.  and  unbeawes.  and  unwraste  lahtres.     In  bes  (3)  the  flesh's 

middencardes  iscole.  sePSen  and  uniseFSen.     In  bes  flesces  iscole. 

euel  3ebanc  and  fule  lustes.     Of  be  formen  seie^  sanctus  paulws. 

Aron  est  nobis  coluctatio  aduersus  carneni  et  sanguinem.  et  cetei'a. 

Of  ban  o^ren  cweft  sanctus  Johannes  se  godspellere.  kuii1.  Nolite  'fkuef&nde. 

dUigere  raundum  nee  ea  qne  in  mundo  sunt.     Of  be  bridde  que& 

sanctus  pau^ws.  Caro  concupiscit  aduersus  spiritum.     S[t]range  Our  foes  are 

strong  and 

bie^  bes  ifo.  and  swice  wK  warn  we  ne  mu3e  gri^  ne  sihhe  macie.  treacherous. 

o^er  hi  ofer  cume^  us  o^er  we  him.     Gif  hi  us  ofercume^  ne  if  we  over- 
come them 

ceped  hi  of  hus  gold  ne  selfer  bute  ure  bane.     Gif  we  ofercumed  w« sllil"  1,e 

regarded  as 

heom.  we  scule  hien  imersed  alle  gode  cerapen  ami  imeaded  s°od  soldiers, 
mid  heahere  mede.     Ac  se  be  ge^  into  fihte  wi^-ute  heretoche. 
him  mai  sone  mislimpe.     Vte  we  nu  isi  wa  seel  beon  ur  here- 
toche. and  se^e  wice  ure  wepne  bie?i  scullle.     Ur  heretoche  is  se  Our  leaders 

1                                 J  are  the  1  hily 

haligost.   and  ure  laford  ihesu   crist  be  ser8.     Sine  me  nichil  Ghost  and 

'  Jesus  Christ. 

/>otestis  facere.      pu   ahst  to   habben  elite  wepnecin.   ba  beo%  Hght 

sceold.  helm  and  brenie.  swrd  and  spere.     Stede  and  twei  sporen.  necessary  to 

carry  on  this 

and  ane  smearte  3erd.       Hwic  scule  beon   ure    sceld.   sanctus  warfare. 
paulus    hus   ser5.   In  omnibus   sumentes  smtum  Juki,   in  quo 
possvtfe  omnia  tela  neqvissxmi  [tgnea]  actinguere. 



T^lrant  apprnpinquantes.  et  cetera,  bet  hali  godspell  us  ser6.  [F"0'-5'*.] 
L  J  bat  hi-refen  oww^synbulle2  men  3eneahlehton  ban  helende.  *j™f™  ^ 
and  woldan  his  lare  jehiran.  pa  cearodon  ba  sunder  hal^an  and 

sired  to  hear 

Christ's  hire  ; 

2  So  in  MS. 

244  soui/s  WARD. 

people  were  grieved,  because  the  Saviour  received  the  sinful  and  had 
fellowship  with  them.  Then  spake  the  Saviour  to  the  Pharisees  and 
Scribes  this  parable,  Which  of  you  having  a  hundred  sheep,  if  he  lose 
one  of  the  sheep,  does  not  leave  the  nine  and  ninety  in  the  wilder- 
ness, and  goes  seeking  the  one  that  is  lost  1  If  he  findeth  it  he 
beareth  it  on  his  shoulders  to  the  flock,  or  the  fold,  rejoicing.  When 
he  cometh  home,  he  inviteth  his  friends  and  neighbours  unto  him, 
and  saith,  Kejoice  with  me,  for  I  have  found  my  sheep  which  I  lost. 
I  say  unto  you  greater  joy  is  in  heaven  for  one  sinner  if  he  be  sorry 
for  his  sins  with  amendment,  than  fur  the  ninety  and  nine  righteous 
that  need  no  repentance. 



Qfi  sciret  paterfamilias  qua  hora  fur  venturus  esset ;  vigilaret  utique 
et  non  sineret  perfodi  domum  mam.  Our  Lord,  in  the  Gospel, 
teaches  us  through  a  parable  how  we  ought  warily  (cautiously)  to 
guard  ourselves  against  the  devil  of  hell,  and  from  his  devices.  "  If 
the  lord  (master)  knew,"  he  saith,  "  when  and  what  time  the  thief 
would  come  to  his  house,  he  would  watch,  nor  would  he  suffer  the 
thief  to  break  into  it."  This  house  which  our  Lord  speaketh  of  is 
man's  self  within  ;  the  man's  wit  within  this  house  is  the  house-lord 
(master  of  the  house),  and  the  untoward  wife  may  be  called  Will. 
Should  the  house  go  after  her  (obey  her)  she  bringeth  it  all  to  ruin, 
except  Wit,  as  lord,  chastise  her  for  the  better,  and  deprive  her  of 
much  of  what  she  would.  And  yet  would  all  her  household  follow 
her  everywhere  if  Wit  forbad  them  not ;  for  all  these  are  untoward 
and  reckless  servants,  unless  he  directs  them.  And  what  are  those 
servants  1  Some  are  without,  and  some  within.  Those  within  are 
the  man's  five  wits — sight,  hearing,  smelling,  tasting,  and  the  feeling 
of  each  limb.     These  arc  the  servants  under  Wit,  as  under  the  house- 

SAWLES    WARDE.  245 

ba  boceras  ber  he^en  beode.  for  San  be  se  lielende  under-feng  ba  "nd  the 

sinfullan.  and  ham  mid  imone  hafede.     Da  sede  se  helende  ba  Pharisees 

*  >  were  angry 

sunder  hahe  and  ba  bocere  bis  bispell.     Hwilc  eower  hefS  an  Wlthjesus- 

J  >  r  i  The  parable 

bu[n]dred  seeap.     Gif  be  fo[r]list  an  bara  sceape.  la  hune  forlet  of  the  Lost 
he  ne3on  and  bun  neo5ontie  a  westene  and  geS  secende  bat  an  be 
him  losede  1     Gif  be  hit  ban  jemet.  he  bit  bei-$  an  his  eaxlun  to 
bara  eowde.  oder  falde  blissiende.    pan  he  ham  cynrS  he  ijela^eS 
his  frend  and  nichi-bures  \\bn  to  and  cweS.     BlissiaS  mid  me 

fo[r]ban  be  ic  imete  mi  sceap  be  me  losede.     Ic  sege  eow  bat  Greater  joy 

mare  blisse  biS  an   hefene  be  anun   synfulle  man.  sif  be   his  over  one 

J  J  repentant 

svunen  mid  dedbote  bereuseS.  ban  him  si  be  nitron  and  bund  S!n,|er_than 

J  >  ~  over  ninety 

negontie  rihtwisen  be  ne  beofiaS  nanre  ded  bote.  ^d^r^*** 




EEE  m(!l NED:    SAWLES  WARDE.* 

i  sciret  paterfamilias  gua  horafu/r  uentwrus  essetf  vigilarct 

i'/i'/uo  el  non  sineret  perfodi  domum  suam.      Uyq  lauerd    Our  Lord 

teaches  us 

i  be  erodspel  teachefc  us  burh  abisne.  hu  we  alien  wearlicbe  to   how  to  guard 

r      o         i  '  ourselves 

biwiten  us  seolueu  wrS  be  unwiht  of  helle.  ant  wi?  his  wrenches1.   a^j?8t  the 
3ef  bes  lauerd2  wiste  he  serS.  hwenne  ant  hwuch3  time,  be  beof    >  sis.  wern- 
walde  cume  to  his  bus  i    he  walde  wakien.  ne  nalde  he  nawt    if  the  master 

•  v,.  -v  i     v    of  tne  house 

Hien  be  beof  forte  breoken  hire,     pis  bus  be  ure  lauerd  spekeft  knew  when 
'      >  ...  the  thief  were 

of '.  is  seolf  be  mon  inwrS  be  monnes  wit.     I  bis  hus.  is  be  huse  coming,  he 

'  would  ever  he 

lauerd.  ant  te  fulitohe  wiff  mei  beon  wil  ibaten.  bat  ga  be  bus   on  the  watch. 

.     The  house  is 

efter  hire  f  ha  diht  bit  al  to  wundre.  bute  wit  ase  lauerd  chasti   man's  wit 

(conscience) ; 
hire  be  betere.  ant  hi  neome  hire  much  el  of4  bat  ha  walde.  ant   the  wife  is 

'  '  will. 

tab  walde  al  hire  bird  folhin  hire  ouer  al  f  gef  wit  ne  forbude     2J-ehuse- 

.  ,  „    honde. 

ham.  for  alle  hit?  hecrS  untobene.  ant  rechelese  hinen  \  bute  2ef   „3ihwuch. 

4  ofte  of. 

he  ham  rihte.    Ant  hwuccbe  beoS  beos  hinen  '.  Suvnme  beoS  \rv6  The  servants 

under  her  are 

vten.  ant  su?/ime  wrS  in  nen.  beo°  wrS  vten  beoS.  be  monnes  fif  reckless. 

These  hinds 

wittes.     SihSe.   ant  henmjre.  smechunge.  ant  smeallunp-e.  ant  areounive 

°  wits. 

euch  limes  felunge.  beos  beoS  hinen  vnder  wit.  as  under  huse     5  ha. 

°      Y  « peos. 

*  Bodleian  MS.  34,  collated  with  Royal  MP.  17  A.  27. 

246  soui/s  WARD. 

lord ;  and  wheresoever  he  is  negligent,  there  is  none  of  them 
but  what  often  conduct  themselves  untowardly,  and  trespass  often, 
either  in  foolish  cheer  or  in  evil  deeds.  Within  are  his  servants  in 
so  many  divers  thoughts  to  please  well  the  house-wife  against  God's 
will ;  and  they  swear  together  readily  that  they  will  do  after  her 
will.  Though  we  hear  it  not,  we  may  feel  their  murmuring  and  their 
untoward  noise  until  Wit  comes  forth  and,  both  with  awe  (fear)  and 
love,  has  disciplined  them  for  the  better.  Never  is  his  house  well  guarded 
on  account  of  these  hinds,  when  that  he  is  asleep  or  goeth  anywhere 
from  home  (that  is,  when  man  forgetteth  his  wit)  and  letteth  them  be 
together.  But  it  behoveth  not  that  this  house  be  robbed,  for  there 
is  therein  the  treasure  that  God  gave  himself  for,  that  is,  man's  soul. 
For  to  break  this  house  after  (for  the  sake  of)  this  treasure,  that  God 
bought  with  his  death,  and  for  which  he  gave  up  his  life  on  the  cross,  there 
is  many  a  thief  about,  both  by  day  and  by  night,  invisible  ghosts  with 
all  wicked  devices  ;  and  against  each  good  virtue  that  guardeth  God's 
dear  chattel  in  this  house  under  Wit's  direction,  who  is  the  houselord, 
there  is  ever  its  (opposite)  vice  that  seeketh  entrance  about  the  walls  to 
murder  it  (the  soul)  therein.  The  head  thereof  is  the  fiend  (devil)  that 
heads  (is  master  of)  them  all  against  him  and  his  keys.  The  husband, 
that  is,  Wit,  guardeth  his  house  thus  : — Our  Lord  hath  given  him 
four  of  his  daughters,  which  are,  to  wit,  the  four  cardinal  virtues. 
The  first  is  called  Prudence,  and  the  second  is  called  Spiritual  Strength, 
and  the  third  is  Moderation.  Eighteousness  is  the  fourth.  Wit,  the 
husband,  God's  constable,  calleth  Prudence  forth,  and  maketh  her  door- 
keeper, so  that  she  should  warily  take  heed  whom  she  lets  in  and  out, 
and  that  she  may  behold  afar  off  all  that  are  coming,  those  that  are 
worthy  to  have  entrance,  or  to  be  excluded.  Strength  stands  next  her ; 
so  that  if  any  will  come  in  without  the  consent  of  Prudence  (Prudence 
being  unwilling),  Strength,  that  is  her  sister,  may  be  warned  thereof 
and  turn  them  out.  The  third  sister  is  Moderation  ;  he  (Wit)  maketh 
her  mistress  over  his  wilful  household,  of  which  we  have  pi'eviously 
spoken,  so  that  she  may  teach  them  moderation,  which  is  also  called 
measure,  the  meau  between  two  evils  (or  things)  ;  for  in  every  place  it  is 
a  virtue  to  observe  moderation  ;  and  she  cautioneth  them  all  that  none 
disobey  her  anywhere  through  excess  or  intemperance,  nor  go  beyond 
moderation.  The  fourth  sister,  Righteousness  (equity),  sitteth  highest 
as  judge,  and  beateth  those  that  offend,  and  crowneth  those  that  do 
well,  mid  doometh  each  one  his  doom   according  to  his   deserts.     For 

SAWLES    WARDE.  24:7 

lauerd.  ant  hwer.  se  he  is  3emeles  \  nis  hare  nan  be  ne  feared 
ofte  untoheliche.  ant  gulte^  ilome.  o^er  ifol  semblant '.  oder  in 

vuel  dede.     In  wrS  beo^  his  hinen.  in  se  moni  mislich  bone  to  These  hinds 

.  .  S8eli  to  please 

cwemen  wel  be  husewiff  a3ein  godes  wide,  ant  swerie%  soniet  thehouse- 

rea¥liche.  bat  efter  hire  hit  schal  *  gan.  bah  Ave  hit  ne  here  nawt '.  *  [Fo1-  76v°.] 

we1  mahen  ifelen2  hare  nurlr^3.  ant  hare  untohe  here,  a  bet  hit4  ' omitted- 

r  2MS.ibplen. 

cume  for&  ant  ba  wrS  eie.  ant  \vr6  luue  tuhte  ham  be  betere.  3mur^. 


Ne  bi$5  neau^/1  his  1ms  for  beos  hinen  wel  iwist.  for  hwon  bat  he  They  are  not 

'  '  to  be  tri^ted 

slepe.  o&er  ohwider5  fi-om  hame.  bat  is  hwen  mon  foi^et  his  wit.  bytheniaster. 

5  ohwider 

ant  let  ham  iwurSen.  ah  ne  bihoue^  hit  nawt.  bat  tis  hus  beo  fare- 

irobbet.  for  ber  is  inue  be  tre[sur]  bat  godd  3ef  him  seolf  fore,  bat  in  this  house 

is  monnes  sawle.  forte  breoke  bis  hus  efter  bis  tresor.  bat  godd  God's  trea- 
bohte  mid  his  dea¥.  ant  lette  lif  o  rode  :   is  moni  beof  a  buten 
ba  bi  dei   ant  bi  nibt.   vnseheliche  gasttes  wi^  alle  unwreaste 

beawes.  ami  aaein  euch  god  beaw.  be  biwite^S  ibis  hus  godes  deore  vice  seeks 

r    _  r  entrance  to 

castel6.  vnder  wittes  wissunge  bat  is  huse  lauerd.  is  eauer  hire  murder  the 

°      '  soul. 

unbeaw  forte  sechen  in  3ong  abute  be  wahes  to  a  murSrin  hire  6chatei. 

brinne.  bat  beaued  brof  is  be  feont.  be  meistre^S  ham  alle  aseines  Tiieheadof 

tliese  enemies 

him  ant  his  keis.  be  husebonde  bat  is  wit.  warned  his  hus  bus.  ^ the  devil- 
\re  lau'-z-d  haue^  ileanett  him  froure7  of  his  dehtren.  bat  beo^  to     rfowre. 

vnderstonden   be  fowr  beaued   beawes.    be  earste   is  warscbipe  Four  cardinal 

virtues  guard 

icleopet.  ant  te  ober  is  ihaten  gastelich  streng^e.  ant  te  bridde  is  this  treasure, 

mea^.  rihtwisnesse  be  feor$5e.    Wit  be  husbonde  godes  cunestable  Prudfnceis 

'  >  °  door-keeper. 

I'liupe^   war*schipe   for¥>.  ant  makrS   hire   durewart.    be    war-  *  [Foi.  77r°.] 
licbe  loki  hwam  ha  leote  in  ant  ut.  ant  of  feor  bihalde  alle  be 
cuminde.  hwuch  beo  wurSe  in3ong  to  habben  I  cfSer  beon  bistek- 

en  brute.     StrengSe  stont  nest  hire,  bat  3ef  ei  wide  in  '.    war-  strength 

stands  next. 

8chipes8  vn  bonkes.  warni  streng^e  fore,  bat  is  hire  suster  f  ant    80mitted. 

beo  hit  ut  warpe.  be  bridde  suster  bat  is  mea&  hire  he  make^  The  thir(I  is 

1        '        '  '  Moderation. 

meistre  oner  his  willesfule  hirS9  bat  we  ear  of  speken.  bat  ha     9  hinen. 

leare  ham  mete10,  bat  me11  meosure  hat.  be  middel  of  twa  uueles12.     n  omitted. 

for  bat  is  beaw  in  euch  stude  ant  tuht  forte  halden.  ant  hate35 

ham  alle  bat  nan  of  ham  a3ein  hire  f  nohwer  wid  vnmeo^  f  ne  ga 

oner  mete,  be  feorSe  suster  rihtwisnesse.  sit  on13  best  as  deme14.  The  fourth  is 

'  Equity. 

ami  beatc^S    beo    be  a3iilte¥.  ant    crunch    beo   be   wel   do¥.  ami 
demeft  euchan  his  dom  efter  his  rihte.  for  dirt1''  of  hire  nim<  ^  his16     "^8d' 

16  PIS. 

13  horn. 

14  demere, 

248  soui/s  WARD. 

dread   of  her,   this  household,  each   according  to   what  he   is,  keepeth 
watch   and  ward — the  eyes  theirs,  the  mouth   its,  the  ears  theirs,  the 
hands    theirs,    and    each    of   the    other   wits,    so  that   anent   them   no 
vice  shall  come  in.      When  this  is  thus  done  and   all  is  still  therein, 
Prudence,   that   is    ever  vigilant,  is    afraid   lest    some   prove   unfaithful 
and   fall   asleep   and   neglect  to  keep  watch,  and  she  sendeth  them  in 
a    messenger,  whom  she  knows  well,  come  from  afar,  for   to   frighten 
those   that    are   over   hardy   (confident)   and    those  that   are   negligent 
(reckless),  and  to  keep  them  more  vigilant.       He  is  received    in  and 
quickly  beheld  by  them  all  ;  for  he  is  lank   and  lean,  and  his  coun- 
tenance   is   deathly    and   black    and    livid,    and    each   hair    appeal's   to 
stand    erect   upon    his    head.       Prudence   bids    him   tell   before  (them) 
who  he  is,  and  whence  he  has  come,  and  what  he  seeks  there.     "  I  may 
not  speak  anywhere,"  he  says,  "  unless  I  have  good  audience  ;  therefore 
listen  to  me.     I  am  called  Fear,  and  am  the  messenger  of  death,  and 
reminder  of  death,  and  I  am   come   before   her   to  warn   you   of  her 
coming."     Prudence,  that  knows  best  how  to  beset  her  words  and  also 
her  works,  speaketh  for  them  all  and   asketh   whence  she  shall   come 
and  what  company  she  brings  with  her.      Fear  answers  her,   "  I  know 
not  the  time,  for  she  told  it  me  not ;  but  ever  be  watching  when  (she 
shall  come),  for  her  custom  is  to  come  by   stealth,  suddenly  and  un- 
expectedly,   when    one   least    expects.       Of   her   household,    concerning 
which  thou  makest  enquiry,  I  will  answer  :    she  alighteth  wheresoever 
she   comes  with  a  thousand   devils,   and  each  one  bears  a  great  book 
all  written  over  with  sins,  with  small  black  letters,  and  an  immense  fiery 
gleed-red  chain  for  to  bind  and  to  draw  into  the  midst  of  hell  whom- 
soever he   may  prove  guilty  through   his  book,  in  which   is  described 
each    sin    that    he    hath    wrought    with   will,    or  with    word,    or    with 
work,  in  all  his  lifetime,  except  he  have  previously  repented  of  it  with 
true    shrift    and    amendment."     And    Prudence    asketh    him,    "Whence 
comest  thou,   Fear,   admonition   (reminder)   of  death1?"     "I   come,"  he 
saith,  "from  hell."      "  From  hell,"  saith  Prudence;   "and  hast  thou  seen 
hell  ?"     "Yea,  truly,"  saith  Fear,  "often  and  frequently."     "Now  then," 
saith  Prudence,   "upon  thy  troth   tell  us  truly   what  hell  is  like,   and 
what  thou  hast  seen  therein."     "And  I  will,  blithely,"  saith  Fear,  "upon 
my   troth ;    nevertheless,   not   according  as  it   really   is,   for  no  tongue 
may  tell   that,   but  as  far  as  I   may  and    can    I   will    discourse   thereof. 

SAWLES    WARDE.  2-1-9 

hir^S  euch1  efter  bat  he  is  warde  to2  witene3.  be  elmen  bare,  be  muS   Each  watch 

'  '  baa  Ins  proper 

his.  be  earen  hare,  be  hondon  hare,  ant  euch4  alswa5  of  be  obre   duties. 

r  r  A  .      .         '  omitted. 

\vitc  bat  onont  him  ne  schal  nan  un-beaw  cuinen  iN.      As  bis  is     * 3  omitted. 

'  '  i  ■>  euclian. 

ido  bus.  ant  is  al  stille  brinne  i   warschipe  bat  aa  is  waker  is    65 al »"? as- 
offearet  lest  sum  for  truste  him.  ant  feole  o  slepe.  ant  forseme  his   Prudence 

sends  a  mes. 

warde.  ant  send  ham.  in  a  sonde,  bat  ha  wel  cnaweS.  of  feorren   sengertothe 

'  house  to 

icumen.  forte  offeareu  beo  be  beoS  *  ouer  hardi.  ant  beo  be  3eme-  "i°Quste  lts 

lese  beo^t    balden  ham  wakere.  he  is  underuoii  in.  ant  swi^e  *|Foi.77v°.] 

bihaldeu  of  ham  alle.  for  lone  he  is.  ant   leane7.  ant  his  leor  from  afar, 

dea^lich.    ant   blac    ant  elheowet.   amit  euch  her    bunched   bat  to  behold, 

stout  in  his  heaued  up8  f  warschipe  hat  him  tellen9  biuoren.10  hwet  been  erased 

bcfoiv  leane. 

he  beo  ant  hweonene  be  comme  ant  hwet  be  ber  seche.       JS  e     *  euh  er  in 

his  heauet 

mei  icb  he  ser8.  nohwer  speoken.  bute   icb   habbe    god    lust  f   punched  bat 
lustnrS  me  benne.  fearlac  icb  batte.  ant  am  dea^es  sonde,  ant     B  to  telle. 

.....  10  hiuoren 

deaSes  munegunge  ant  am  icumen  bmore  hire  to  warnm  ow  of  ham. 
hire  cume.  warschipe  bat  best  con  bisetten  hire  wordes.  ant  ec   Fear,  the6 
hire  werkes  i   spekeS   for  bam  alle.   ant  freineS  hweonene   he   Death." 
cume.  out  bwuch  bird  ha  leade.  fearlac  hire  ontswereS.     Icb  nat 
nawt   be   time  i    for  ha  ne  seide  hit  me  nawt  ah   eauer  loki¥   Death,  he 

'  Bays,  is  com- 

hwenne.   for  hire  wune   is  to  cumen   hi  stale  ferliche  ant  un-   ing suddenly, 

mundlunge  hwen  me  least  weneS.  of  hire  bird  bat  tu  easkest 

Ich  be  ondswerie.  ha  lihtefcS  hwer  Be  ha  eauer  kimeS  wis  a  busent  withathou- 

sa;/d  devils, 

deoflen.  ant  euch  an  bereS  a  gret  hoc  al  of  sunnen  iwriten  wrS 

swarte  smeale  leattres.  ant  an  unrude  raketehe  gled  read  of  fure.   ^^^^^ 

forte  binden  ant  to  drahen  in  to  in  warde  belle,  bwuch  se  he 

mei  preoouin  burh  his  hoc  bat  is  on  euch  sunne  enbre*uedtn.  bat    *  [Fn>-78r°.] 

he  wiS  wil.  o^er  wrS  word,  o^er  wrS  were,  wrahtte  in  al  his  lif 

srSe.  bute  bat  he  haueS  i-bet  earbon  wi$  soS  schrift.  ant  wrS12     12  cger. 

deadbote.  ant  warschipe  hire  easkeS.     Hweonene13  cumest  tu14     13hweonne. 

1  .  u  MS.  to. 

fearlac  dea^es15  munegunge.     Ich  cume  he  sev6  of  belle.    Of  belle  Fear  says  he 

ha  seiS  warschipe.  ant  hauest  tu  isehen  belle  I    %e  serS  fearlac  beiL 
witerliche.   ofte.   ant  ilome.      Nu  ser5  benne  warschipe  for  bi  **  es' 

troupe  treoweliche  tele  us  bwuch  is  belle,  ant  hwet  tu  hauest  Prudence 

bids  him 

isehen  to'in.  ant  ich  he  serS  fearlac  omi  trew^e  bluSeliche.  nawt   describe  the 

'  place  of  tor- 

tah  efter  bat  hit  is.  for  bat  ne  mei  na  tumre  tellen10.  ah  efter  bat   inent 

.  .  TJ  .         ";  omitted. 

ich  mei  ant  con  I  ber  towart  ich  chulle  readien17.   Helle  is  [  wid]  \\r6     l7  rodien. 

250  SOUL'S    WARD. 

Hell  is-  wide  without  measure,  aud  deep  and  bottomless  ;  full  of  incom- 
parable fire,  for  no  earthly  fire  may  be  compared  therewith  ;  full  of 
stench  intolerable,  for  no  living  thing  on  earth  might  endure  it ;  full 
of  unutterable  sorrow,  for  no  mouth  may,  on  account  of  the  wretched- 
ness and  of  the  woe  thereof,  give  an  accouut  of  nor  tell  about  it.  Yea, 
the  darkness  therein  is  so  thick  that  one  may  grasp  it,  for  the  fire 
there  gives  out  no  light,  but  bliudeth  the  eyes  of  them  that  are  there 
with  a  smothering  smoke,  the  worst  of  smokes.  And  nevertheless  in 
that  same  black  darkness  they  see  black  things  as  devils,  that  ever 
maul  them  and  afflict  and  harass  them  with  all  kiuds  of  tortures  ; 
and  tailed  drakes,  horrible  as  devils,  that  devour  them  whole  and 
spew  them  out  afterwards  before  and  behind ;  at  other  times  they 
rend  them  in  pieces  and  chew  each  gobbet  of  them,  and  they  after- 
wards become  whole  again,  such  as  they  previously  were,  to  undergo 
again  such  bale  without  recovery,  and  full  well  they  see  themselves  very 
horrible  and  dreadful ;  and  to  increase  their  pains  the  loathsome  hell- 
worms,  toads,  and  frogs  that  eat  out  their  eyes  and  nostrils,  and  adders  and 
water-frogs,  not  like  those  (that  we  see)  here,  but  a  hundred  times  more 
horrible,  sneak  (creep)  in  and  out  at  the  mouth,  ears,  eyes,  navel,  and 
at  the  hollow  of  the  breast,  as  maggots  in  putrid  flesh,  ever-yet  (always) 
thickest.  There  is  shrieking  in  the  flame,  and  chattering  of  teeth  in  the 
snowy  waters.  Suddenly  they  flit  from  the  heat  into  the  cold,  nor  ever  do 
they  know  of  these  two  which  is  worse  for  them,  for  each  is  intolerable. 
And  in  this  marvellous  mingling  the  latter  through  the  former  tor- 
menteth  the  more.  The  fire  consumes  them  all  to  dead  coals  :  the  pitch 
boileth  them  until  they  are  altogether  melted,  and  revives  them  anon  to 
undergo  again  all  that  same  and  much  worse,  ever  without  end.  And 
this  same  wanhope  (despair)  is  their  greatest  torment,  that  none  have 
never  any  more  hope  of  any  recovery,  but  are  sure  of  every  ill.  to 
continue  in  woe,  world  without  end,  ever  in  eternity.  Each  chokes  the 
other,  and  each  is  another's  torment,  and  each  hateth  another  and  himself 
as  the  black  devil ;  and  evep-  as  they  loved  them  the  more  in  this  world, 
so  the  more  shall  they  hate  them  there.  And  each  curseth  another, 
and  gnaws  off  the  other's  (arms),  cars,  and  nose  also.  I  have  begun  to 
tell  of  things  that  I  am  not  able  to  bring  to  any  end,  though  I  had 
a  thousand  tongues  of  steel,  and  told  until  they  were  all  worn  out.     But 

SAWLES    WA11DE.  251 

ute  met.  ant  deop  wrS  ute  grunde.  ful  of  brune  uneuenlieh1.  for  IIe11  is  >'"- 

1  °  measurably 

ne  mei  nan  eorSlich  fur  euenin  ber  towart.  ful  of  stench  unbole-  b"ttomiess 

lich.  for  ne  mahte  in  eorSe  na  cwic  binge  hit  bolien.  ful  of  sorhe  anduimtter- 

uutalelich.  for  ne  mei  na  mivS  for  wrecchedom  ne  for  wa  i  rikenin  &*le  sorrow; 

1  unwerilich. 

hit2  ne  tellen.    Se3  bicke  is  brinne  be  bosternesse  i  ]>at  me4  hire  mei  3  omitted- 

grapin.  for  bat  fur.  ne  seue^  na  liht.  ah  blent  ham  be  ehnen.  be  4  omitted- 

o      l  r  r  I  The  darkness 

ber  beoS  wrS  a  smorSrinde  smoke  smeche  forcuSest.  ant  tah  ibat  *j*ere  ma>' be 

ilke  swarte  beosternesse  swarte  binges  ha  iseo^  as  deoflen  bat  a  smothering 

r  *      °  '  smoke  blinds 

ham  meallrS  ant  denied  aa  ant  drecche^  wrS  alles  cunnes  pinen.  the  e.ves  of 

*  the  damned. 

ant  iteilede  draken  grisliehe  ase5  deoflen  be  forswolheS  ham  ihal.  Devils  beat 

the  wretched 

ant  speowe^  ham  *eft   ut  biuoren   ant  bihinden.  o^er   hwile  souls. 

5  as  be. 

torende^  ham  ant  to   cheoweS  ham    euch   greot.  ant   heo    eft  *[Foi.78v°.] 

iwurSe^  hal.  to  a  swuch  bale  bute  bote,  as  ha  ear  weren.  ant  ful  afterwards 
wel  ha  i  seo$  ham  to  grisle  ant  to  grure.  ant  to  echen  hare  pine, 

be  la^e  helle  wunnes.  tadden  ant  froggen.  be  freote^  ham  ut  te  }n  h?}] are  , 

'  ft*  1  horrible  toads 

ehnen.   ant  te  nease.   gristles,   ant  snike^  in.  ant  ut  neddren.  il,!f-  {rogs' 

o  which  gnaw 

ant  eauraskes6.  nawt  ilich  beose  her  '.  ah7  hundret  srSe  grisluker  J01^ieked 

et  11m?.  ant  et  earen.  ed  ehnen.  ant  ed  neauele.  ant  ed  te  breoste  feaureskes. 

'  an. 

holke  as  mea^en8  iforrotet  flesch  eaue/'gete  bickest.  ber  is  remuwge9  I  ™e  delS- 

&        '  >  »  9  ms.  ren- 

ibe  brune.  ant  to^es  hechelunge  ibe  snawi  weattres.  ferliche  ha  ninge- 

flutter  from  be  heate  '.   in10  to  be  chele.     Nen  neauer  nutcn  ha  of  10  "omitted. 

beos  twa  i  hwe^er  ham  bunched  wurse.  for  erSer  is  unbolelich.  alternately 

..„,.,  tv-  torment  them. 

ant  ibis  terhche  mong  be  Leatere  burh  be  earre  derue*  be  mare. 
bat  fur  ham  forbearne^  al  to  colen  calde.  bat  pich  ha»i  forwalle^ 

a^et  ha  beon  for  mealte.  ant  eft  acwikie^12  anan  to  drehen  al  bat  12acwick- 

_  eneS. 

ilke  f    ant  muchedeale  wurse  a  \\v6  uten   ende.     Ant  tis   ilke  And  worst  of 

unhope  is  ham  meast  pine,  bat  nan  naue^  neauer  mare  hope13  of14  despair. 

nan  a  couerunge.  Ah15  aren  sikere  of  euch  uuel  to  burh  leasten  iwa  15  ^  aa<  e  ' 

from  world  in  to  worlde  aa  on  echnesse.     Euch  abrusmeS  o%er.  ^!eCtJ.hed  soul 

ant  euch  is  o^res  pine.       Ant   euchan  heated   o^er.   cent  him  0*her  Jjd 

seoluen  as  *be  blake  deouel.  ant  eauer  se  ha  i  bis  world  luueden  the  devil. 

ham  mare  i  se  ha  ber  heatie^  ham  swrSere.  ant  erSer  cursed  o^oer.  _,'-Fo''  '9l'0•-' 

'  Ihey  curse 

ant  fret  of  be  o^res  earen16.  ant  te1"  nease  alswa.     Ich  habbe  ^^he,. 

bigunne  to18  tellen  of  bing  bat  ich  ne  mahte  nawt  bringe  to  eni  16°deres 

o  1      o    r  o  earm.  earen. 

ende.  bah  ich  hefde  a  busent  tungcn  of  stele  ant  table  a^et  ha  ,'« f"^"6'1' 

werew  alio  forwerede.    Ah  benched  nu  her19  burh  hwuch  be  measte  19hwer. 

252  soui/s  ward. 

think  now  by  this  what  the  greatest  pain  is  ;  for  the  least  pain  is  so  hard, 
that  had  a  man  slain  both  m}'  father  and  mother,  and  all  the  remnant  (end) 
of  my  kin,  and  done  to  me  all  the  shame  and  the  harm  that  a  living  man 
might  endure,  yet  if  I  saw  this  man  in  the  least  pain  that  I  see  in  hell  I 
would,  if  it  might  be,  endure  a  thousand  deaths  to  rid  (release)  him  out 
thereof,  so  horrible  and  piteous  is  that  sight  to  behold  ;  for  though  there 
were  never  any  other  pain,  except  to  see  the  wretched  spirits  and  their 
horrible  forms  •  to  look  on  their  grim  and  dreadful  faces,  and  to  hear  their 
roaring,  and  how  they  in  scorn  reproach  and  upbraid  each  other  with  their 
sins ;  this  infamy,  and  the  horror  of  them,  would  be  immeasurable  pain  ; 
and  moreover  to  endure  and  to  bear  their  immense  blows  with  steel  mallets, 
and  with  their  awls  (hooks)  gleed-red,  and  their  buffetings,  as  though 
it  might  be  a  pilch-clout,  each   one  toward   the  other  in  divers  pains. 
O  hell,  death's  house,  abode  of  woe,  of  dread,  and  of  groaning ;  horrid 
home,  and  hard  dwelling  of  all  miseries ;  city  of  bale,  and  the  abode  of 
every  bitterness,  thou  most  loathsome  land  of  all,  thou  dark  place,  filled 
\\  ith  all  dreariness  !  I  quake  with  dread  and  fear,  and  each  bone  quivereth 
within  me,  and  each  hair  bristles  up  at  the  thought  of  thee  ;  for  there  is 
no  voice  between  the  damned  but  woe  me  !  woe  is  me  !  and  woe  is  thee  ! 
and  woe  is  thee  !     And  woe  they  cry,  and  woe  they  have  ;  nor  shall  they 
ever  have  any  lack  of  whatever  is  woeful.     It  were  well  for  those  that 
earn  (merit)  this  abode  through  any  temporary  bliss  here  in  this  world 
that  they  were  never  born.      By  this  ye  may  somewhat  understand  what 
hell  is  like,  for,  of  a  truth,  I  have  seen  therein  a  thousand  times  worse 
(than  I  have  told  you).     And  from  thence  cometh  death  with  a  thou- 
sand devils  hitherward,  as  I  have  said  ;  and  I  came  thus,"  quoth  Fear, 
"  for  to  warn  you  thereof,  and  to  tell  you  these  tidings."     "  Now,  Lord 
God  !"  quoth  Prudence,  "guard  and  preserve  us,  and  direct  and  advise  us 
what  we  ought  to  do,  and  that  we  may  be  the  more  cautious  and  vigilant 
to  keep  ourselves  safe   on  each  side  under  God's   wings.     If  we  well 
guard  and  keep  our  house  and  God's  dear  treasure  that  he  has  entrusted 
to  us,  let  death  come  whenever  he  will,  we  need  not  be  in  dread  of  her  nor 
of  hell ;  for  our  death  will  be  precious  to  God,  and  entrance  into  heaven. 
Of  this  treacherous  world,  or  of  her  false  bliss,  let  us  never  take  any  heed, 
for  all  that  is  on  the  earth  is  but  a  shadow  ;  for  all   turneth  to  nought 


pine  beo  I  for  be  leaste  pine  is  se  heard  bat  hefde  a  mon  i  slein  l  w°uid  suffer 

'  r  '  a  thousand 

ba  mi  feader.  ant  mi  moder  ant  al  be1  ende  of2  mi  cun.  ant  i  do  deaths  to 

'  deliver  the 

me  seoluen  al  be  scbeome  ant  te  bearm  bat  cwic  mon  mabte  latched  soul 

'  >  from  the  least 

bolien.  ant  ich  isehe  bes  mon  i  be  ilke3  leaste  pine,  bat  icb4  iseh  \h<me\\  he'' 

in  belle  i   Icb  walde  3ef  bit  mabte  beon.  bolien  a  busent  cleaves  my  ^""  "" 

to  a  rudden  bim  ut  brof.  swa  is  be  silvSe  grislicb  ant  reow&ful  S4°!^Sf^' 

to  bibalden.  for5  bah  neauer  nere  nan  o£er  pine  bute  to  i  seon  "  omitted- 

'  l  It  wouldlienii 

eauer  be  unseli  gastes.  ami,  bare  g/isliche  schape.  biseon  on  bare  topeasur.ibie 

'  ~  o  I  pain  only  to 

grimfule.  ant  grurefide  nebbes.  ant  beren  hare  rarunge.  ant  hn  tortures''!?  ti 

ha  wrS  hokeres  edwiteS  ant  up  breideS  eucb  an  his  sunnen.  bis6  d™ned- 

1  re  wi$ 

seheriSlac  ant  te  grure  of  ham  were  unimete  pine  c.    ant  hure 

bolien  ant  a  beoren  hare  unirude7  duntes  wi^  mealies  istelet.  ant  7  unrude. 

wrS  hare  eawles  gled  reade  hare  dustlunges.  as  bah  hit  were 

a  pilche  clut   eucban   towart    (vSer   imislicbc  pinen.       0  belle  Ohellaboae 

of  woes, 

dea^es  has.   wununge  of  wauunge.  of  gi'ure  ant  of  granunge. 

heatel   "ham.  ant  heard  wan.  of  alle  wontrea^es.  buri  of  bale.  *[Foi.79v°. 

ant  bold  of  eauer  eucb  bitternesse8.  bu  latest  lont  of  alle.  bu  dorc  B  bold  eauer 

'  '  euch  bitter- 

stude  ifullet  of  alle  dreorinesses.     Icb  cwakie  of  grisle9.  ant  of  nesse  to  of- 

I  quake  and 

irrure.  ant  eucb  ban  seboke^1"  me.  cmteach  her  me  rue£n  up  of     bi  quiver  when 

°  1  r  1  think  of     • 

munegun^e.  for  nis  ber  na   steuene  bitubhe  be  fordemde  bute  thee! 

*  19  grissen. 

wumme.  ant  wa  is  me.  and  wa  beo  be.  ant  wa  beo  be.  wa  ha  10  sorheft. 

11  rune'S  (<"" 
seie^.  ant  wa  ha  habbe$  ne  of  al  bat  eauer  wa  is  f  ne  schal  ham  ruue"S). 

12  for. 

neauer  wontin.  be  swucb  wununge   of  earned,  for  ei  bwilinde  Tiiere  is  never 

blisse  her  o  worlde  :   wel  were  him  3ef13  bat  he  neauer  ibore  there  of  ail 

that  is  8or- 

nei-e.  bi  bis  yz.  maben  sumdel  witen  hwuch  is  belle,  for  i  wis  ich  rowfui. 
habbe  brin  isehen  a  busent  srSe  wurse.  ant  from  beonne  kime^ 

dea^  wi^  a  busent  deoflen  biderwart  as  ich  seide.  ant  ich14  com  '"omitted. 

bus  t[u<y6  fearlac  forte  warnin  ow  fore '.   ant  tellen  ow  beos15  wanTyou  of 
tidinges.     JNv  lauerd  godd  q««#S  warschipe  wardi  us  ant  werie.     i^ls  I'lou^i 

ant  ribte  us.  ant  reade  hwet  us  beo  to  donne.  ant  we  beon  be16  J?rer*s!  '   . 

i  Tlie  advice  of 

warre  ant  wakere  to  witen  us  on  euch  half  under  godes  wengen.  r 

3ef  we  wel  werie^  ant  witeS  ure  bus  ant  godes  cleore  tresor  bat 

he  haue^  bitaht  us  f  cume  dea^  hwen  be  wule17.     Ne  burue  we  17  na  eauer 


now^er  beon  of  dred  for  hire,  ne  for  belle,  for  ure  dea^  brS  deore 

godd  ant  m-2ong  in  to  heoueue.  of  beos  fikelinde  world  '.   ne  of  Trust  not  tIli3 

° °       *  '  false  world. 

bire  false18  blisse  :  ne  neome  we  neauer  3eme.  for  al  bat  is  on  eor^e.  18  fahe. 

16  omitted. 

254  soui/s  WARD. 

except  that  dear  treasure,  God's  precious  fee,  that  is  entrusted  to  us  to 
be  kept  safely.  I  have  therefore  sore  care,  for  I  see,"  saith  Prudence, 
"  how  the  devil,  with  his  host,  as  a  raging  lion,  goeth  about  seeking 
eagerly  how  he  may  devour  it  (God's  treasure) ;  and  thus  I  may," 
saith  Prudence,  "  guard  you  against  his  enmity  (malice)  and  his  devices, 
but  I  may  not  guard  you  against  his  strength  (violence)."  "  Do  now  tell 
us,  sister  Prudence,"  quoth  Strength,  "  what  befalleth  to  thee,  and  warn 
us  of  his  wiles  ;  for  of  all  his  strength  we  have  not  any  dread  ;  for  his 
strength  prevails  not,  except  wheresoever  he  finds  them  poor  and  weak, 
unwarned  (unguarded)  by  true  belief.  The  apostle  saith, '  Resist  the  devil 
and  he  will  flee  forthwith.'  Should  we  then  flee  from  him  1  Nay  ! 
Is  not  God  our  shield,  and  all  our  weapons  are  of  his  dear  grace  1  and 
God  is  on  our  side,  and  standeth  by  us  in  battle.  If  he  shooteth  towards 
me  with  the  wealth  and  bliss  of  the  world,  with  the  delights  of  the 
fleshly  lusts,  I  might  care  somewhat  for  these  soft  (nesh)  weapons  ; 
but  no  hard  things  may  terrify  me,  nor  may  any  harm  nor  any  loss 
make  my  heart  false,  nor  impair  my  belief  toward  him  that  gives  me  all 
my  strength  (powers)."  "  For  it  behoves  me,"  quoth  Moderation,  "  both 
for  the  severity  of  harm  and  for  lack  of  bliss,  to  have  dread  and  care 
(sorrow)  ;  for  many,  on  account  of  the  too  great  hardship  of  woe  that  they 
suffer,  forget  our  Lord,  and  nevertheless  more,  through  softness  (pros- 
perity) and  the  lusts  of  the  flesh,  become  ofttimes  reckless.  Between  hard 
and  soft — between  woe  of  this  world  and  too  much  joy — between  much 
and  little,  in  every  earthly  thing,  the  middle  way  is  the  golden  (one).  If 
we  hold  to  it,  then  go  we  safely,  nor  need  we  fear  death  or  the  devil. 
Whatever  may  be  of  hardships  I  dread,  but  not  of  softness  (prosperity) ; 
for  no  weal  nor  fleshly  lusts  nor  bodily  pleasure  may  cause  me  to  overstep 
the  middle  (mean)  of  measure  and  of  moderation."  Righteousness  (Equity) 
speaks  now  and  says,  "  My  sister  Prudence,  that  hath  wit  and  discerneth 
between  good  and  evil,  and  knoweth  in  everything  what  is  to  be  chosen 
and  to  be  shunned,  adviseth  us  and  teacheth  us  for  to  take  little  heed  to 
perishable  things,  and  to  keep  prudently  those  that  shall  last  for  ever,  and 
saith,  as  she  truly  saith,  that  through  ignorance  she  may  not  sin,  and  yet 
she  is  not  so  confident  about  the  strength  of  the  devil,  but  esteems  her- 
self weak  though  she  have  much  power ;  and  the  eyes  of  us  all  deem 
her  to  be  powerless,  as  to  herself,  to  withstand  his  devices,  and  she  acts 

SAWLBS    WARDE.  255 

nis  bute  as  a  schadewe  '.  for  al  wurSeS1  *to  noht  bute  bat  deore  *[Foi.80r°.] 

.  .  T  ,  '  wurchc'S. 

tresur  godes  deorewurSe  feb  bat  is  us.  bitaht  to  witeue.     ten  i  can  guard 

.  .  i-i  t-1.1.  you  against 

habbe  beruore  sar  care  tor  ich  lseo  seiS  warschipe  nu  be  unwniht  wiles  of  the 

i'ii  devil. 

wiS  bis  ferd  ase  linn  iburst.  yetiS2  abuten  lire  hus  sechmdeJ  3eorn-  2ge$. 

.  .        >s.  /«  3  sechinde  in 

belie  bu  be  bit  forswolhe.  ant  tis  ich  mei  sera  warschipe  warnm  3ong. 

ow  of  bis  laS  ant  for  bis  wrenches,  ah  ich  ne  mei  nawt  a3eines 

his  strengSe.     JJo   nu  qwoS   strengSe.  warschipe  suster  bat  te 

limpet  to  be  ant  warne  us  of  his  wiheles.  for4  of  al  his  strengSe  *from  for  to 

1  i  nawiht 

ne  drede  we  nawiht.  for  nis  his  strengSe  noht  wurS  bute  hwer  omitted. 
se  he  ifindeS  eSeliche.  ant  wake  unwarnede  of  treowe  bileaue. 
be  apostle  seiS.  Etstont.  }>en  feont.  ant  he  fliS  anan  riht.  schulde 
we  Jienne  fleon  him  '.    3enis  godd  ure  scheld.  ant  alle  beoS  ure 

wepnen  of  bis  deore  grace,  ant  godd  is  on5  ure  half,  ant  stont  bi  5  on  ont- 

us  ifehte.  sef  he  schute  towart  me  wiS  weole  ant  wunne  of  be  strength  says 

3  _  that  she  fears 

world.  wiS  este  of  flesches  lustes.  of  bulliche  nesche  wepnen  ich  only  worldly 


mahte  carien  summes   weis.   ah   ne  mei   me   na   j>ing  heardes 

offearen.  ne  nowcin.  ne  na  wone°  falsi  min  heorte  ne  wursi  mi  6  ms.  wodo. 

bileaue  towart  him  bat  seueS  me  alle  mine  strenr>-Sen.     L  or  ba  Moderation 

'         J  fears  worldly 

me  ah.  quote  meaS.  ant  for  heart"  of  nowcin.  ant  for  wone  of  poverty  and 

*  hardships. 

wunne  dreden.  ant  carien  for  moni  for  to  muchel  heard  of  wa  riiard. 
bat  he  dreheS.  foi^et  ure  lauenl.  ant  ma  bah  for  nesche  ant  for 

flesches  licunge  for  *  3erneS  ham  ofte.  bituhhen  heard  ant  nesche.  *  [Foi.  80v».] 

bituhhe  wa  of  J)is  world  ant  to  muche  wunne.  bituhhe  muchel  between  two 

.  .  .tii  -it  e  extremes  is 

ant  lutel  is  in  euch  worldlich  bing  be  middel  wei  3iildene.  3et  we  the  golden 


hire  haldeS  Jjenne  gawe  sikerliche  ne  berf  us  nowSer  for  deaS  ne 
for  deouel  dreden.  hwet  se  beo  of  heardes  ne  drede  ich  nawiht 

nesches  for  ne  mei  na  wunne.  ne  na  flesches  licunge  ne8  licomlicb  8  ne  of. 

este  bringe  me  ouer  be  midel  of  mesure.  ant  of  mete.     Xliht-  Equity  praises 

o  I  the  words  of 

wissnesse  spekeS  nu.     Mi  suster  ha  seiS  warschipe  be  haueS  wit.  Prudeuce- 

ant  schad  bituhhe  god.  ant  uuel.  ant  wat  hwet  is  in  euch  ]nng 

to  cheosen  ami  to  schunien '.  readeS  us  ant  leareS  forte  3eme 

lutel  alle  fallinde  }>ing.  ant  witen  warliche  beo  be  schulen  a  lesten. 

nut  seiS  as  ha  soS  seiS  b«<  burh  unweotenesse9  ne  mei  ha  nawt  9llllwit- 

i         r  nesse. 

sunegin.  ant  tah  nis  nawt  siker  of  be  unwihtes  strengde  as  j>eo 

pe  halt  hire  wac  J?ah  ha  beo  muche  wurS.  ant10  ure  aire  ehnen  10to. 

demeS  hire  unmihti  onont  hire  seoluen  to  etstonden  wiS  his. 

256  soul's  ward. 

as  the  wise  (do).  My  sister  Strength  is  very  bold,  and  saith  that  no  hard- 
ships may  frighten  her  ;  but  yet  she  would  not  trust  on  her  own  weapons, 
but  on  God's  grace,  and  that  I  deem  to  be  right  and  wisdom  so  to  do. 
My  third  sister,  Moderation,  speaketh  of  the  middle  path,  between  right 
and  left,  that  few  can  observe ;  and  saith,  that  in  prosperity  (softness) 
she  is  bold,  and  hardships  may  terrify  her,  and  therefore  boasteth  she 
of  no  confidence,  and  doth  as  the  wise  (do).  My  business  is  to  act  and 
to  decide  equitably ;  and  I  deem  myself  so  that  I,  through  myself, 
may  do  it  (sin)  not ;  for  all  the  good  that  we  have  here  is  of  God.  Now 
it  is  right,  then,  that  we  deem  ourselves  ever  weak  to  guard  and  to  keep 
ourselves  in  safety,  or  to  hold  fast  any  good  without  God's  help.  The 
righteous  God  will  that  we  deem  ourselves  poor  and  low,  though  we  be 
never  such,  for  then  he  deemeth  us  of  much  worth  and  good,  and  esteems 
us  as  his  daughters.  For  though  my  first  sister  is  aware  of  each  evil,  and 
my  second  sister  is  strong  against  everything  injurious,  and  my  third 
(sister  is")  temperate  in  all  kinds  of  pleasures,  and  I  act  and  decide  rightly ; 
except  we  be  mild  (meek)  with  all  this,  and  esteem  ourselves  weak,  God 
may  rightly  condemn  us  for  all  this,  through  our  pride,  and  therefore  is  it 
a  right  doom  (decision)  that  we  for  all  our  good  thank  Him  alone." 
Wit,  the  husband,  God's  constable,  hears  all  their  words,  and  thanks  God 
earnestly  with  very  glad  heart  for  so  rich  a  loan  as  are  these  sisters  his 
four  daughters,  that  he  hath  lent  him  as  a  help  to  guard  well  and  protect 
his  castle  and  God's  precious  fee,  which  is  enclosed  therein.  The  wilful 
housewife  keeps  herself  quiet ;  and  all  that  household,  that  she  was  accus- 
tomed to  draw  after  her,  turn  then  faithfully  to  Wit,  their  lord  (master), 
and  to  these  four  sisters.  For  a  while  Prudence  again  speaketh,  and  saith, 
"  I  see  a  messenger  coming,  very  glad  in  cheer,  fair  and  joyful,  and  lovely 
attired."  ''Let  him  in,"  saith  Wit  ;  "if  God  will,  he  bringeth  us  glad 
tidings,  and  that  we  have  much  Deed  of,  for  Fear,  death's  messenger, 
hath  with  his  (tidings)  terrified  us  very  much  withal."  Prudence  lets 
him  in,  and  he  greeteth  Wit  the  lord  and  afterwards  all  the  household 
with  a  laughing  cheer  ;  and  they  return  him  his  greeting,  and  all  are, 
it  seems  to  them,  relieved  and  gladdened  by  his  appearance  ;  for  all  the 
house  shineth  and  shimmereth  (glistens)  with  his  light.  He  asketh 
them  if  they  would  like  to  hear  him  a  while.     "Yea,"  quoth  Righteous- 

SAWLES    WARDB.  257 

twnies  ant  de^  ase  be  wise.     Mi  suster  strengfce  is  swrSe  bald,    strength  is 

praised  for 

ant  sei^  bat  nawiht  heardes  ne  mei  hire  offearen.  ah  bah  ha  ne  trusting  in 
trust  nawt  on  hire  ahne  wepnen  f  ah  de^  o  godes  grace  ant  bat  i  pa«  ha. 
ich  demi  riht  ant  wisdom  to  donne.      Mi  bridde  suste?"  mea^   and 


spekeS  of  be  middel  sti.   bituhhe  riht  ant  luft  bat  hit  cunnen   for  not  being 

'  too  confident. 

halden.  *ant  sei¥>  i  nesche  ha  is  bald,  ant  heard  mei  hire  offearen.   *  [Fol  81rt)  -. 
ant  for  bi  ne  3elpe:5  ha  of  na  sikernesse  ant  de^  as  be  wise.     Mi   Equity's 

advice  to  the 

meoster  is  to  do  riht  forte  demen  ant2  ich  deme  me  seolf  bat  ich   three  sisters. 

burl)  me  ne  do  lilt  nawt  i  for  al  bat  god  is  of  godd  bat  we  her  ant  riht  fon 

habbefc.     Nu  is  riht  benne  bat  we  demen  us  seolf  eauer  unmihtie 

to  werien  ant  to  witen  us  ofter  ei  god  to  halden  wi^  ute  godes 

helpe.     pe  rihtwise  godd  wule  bat  we  demen  us  seolf  e^eliche 

ant  lahe.     Ne  beo  we  neauer  swucche  f   for  benne  denied  he  us 

muche  wurS.  ant  gode  ant  halt  for  his  dehtren.  for  bah  mi  forme 

suster  war  beo  of  euch  uuel.  ant  min  o^er  strong  beo  to  jeines 

euch  nowcin  f  ant  mi  bridde  mea^ful  in  alles  cunnes  estes  '.  ant 

ich  do  riht  ant  deme.  bute  we  wftS  al  bis  milde  beon  ant  meoke  f 

ant  halden  us  wake,  godd  mei  mid  rihte  fordemen  us  of  al  bis 

burh  ure  prude,  ant  for  bi  is  riht  dom  bet  we  al  ure  god  bonkin 

him  ane.      W  iit  be  husebonde  godes  cunestable  here1?)  alle  hare   Wit  thanks 

'  °  God  for  the 

sahen  ant  bonked  god  seorne  wvS  swi^e  glead  heorte  of  se  riche   Joan  of  the 

'  °        <*  °  three  sisters. 

lane  as  beo£  beos  sustren  his  fowr  dehtren  bat  he  haue^  ileanet 
him  on  helpe  forte  wite  wel  ant  werien  his  castel.  ant  godes 
dcorewurSe  feh.  bat  is  biloke  brinne.  J?e  willesfule  husewif  halt 
hire  al  stille.  ant3  al  bat  bird  bat  ha  wes  i  wunet  to  dreaien4  efter     *\>a 

,  .  ,  A  dreien. 

hire  f  turned  *  ham  treowliliche  to  wit  hare  lauenl.  ant  to  beos  *  j-Fol  81v0.] 
fowr  sustren.     Vmben  ane  stunde  speke^  eft  warschipe.  ant  sei^   Prudence 

announces  the 

ich  iseo  a  sonde  cumen  swide  gledd  icheret.  feier  ant  freolich   coming  of 

°  another 

ant   leofliche    aturnet.  let   him   in   sei^   wit  3ef  godd  wule  he   messeneer. 
bringe^  us  gleade  tidinges.  ant   bat  us  were  muche  neod.  for 
fearlac  dea^es  sonde  haueS  wrS  his '.   offearet  us  swrSe  mid  alle. 
warschipe  let  him  in.  ant  he  gret  wit  ben  lauerd.  ant  al  bats  bird     5his. 

.  ,  .  iivi'       i  •  w'10  gladdens 

seo^en.  wre  lahhmde  chere.  ant  ha  3elde;5  lnm  his  gretunge.  ant  them  ail  by  his 
beo^  alle  ilihtet  ant  igleadet  ham  bunched  of  his  on-silvSe.  for  al 
bat  hus  schine^.  ant  schimme^i  of  his  leome.  he  easke^  ham  G  ^ef    6  omitted, 
ham  biluuefc  to  heren  him  ane  hwile.  3e  q«o^  ha  rihtwisnesse. 


258  soul's  ward. 

ness,  "  it  pleaseth  us  well,  and  it  is  well  and  right  that  we  listen  to  thee 
attentively."  "Hearken  now  then,"  he  saith,  "and  truly  understand  that 
I  am  the  messenger  of  mirth,  and  the  admonition  of  eternal  life,  and 
am  called  the  '  Love  of  Life,'  and  I  come  straight  from  heaven  where  I 
have  seen  now  and  oft  before  the  bliss  that  no  man's  tongue  may  tell  of. 
The  blessed  God  saw  you  terrified  and  somewhat  cast  down  through  what 
Fear  told  you  of  death  and  of  hell,  and  hath  sent  me  to  gladden  you,  not 
because  that  it  is  not  all  truth  that  he  hath  said,  and  that  shall  all  evil 
men  experience  and  find  (true).  But  ye,  with  the  help  of  God,  need  not 
fear  anything,  for  he  that  sitteth  on  high  is  your  help,  and  he  is  the 
all-ruling  one  who  hath  you  in  his  keeping."  "Ah  !"  saith  Prudence, 
"welcome  Love  of  Life  ;  and  for  the  love  of  God  himself,  if  thou  ever 
saw  him,  tell  us  somewhat  of  him  and  of  his  eternal  bliss."  "Yea,  truly," 
quoth  Love  of  Life,  the  messenger  of  mirth,  "  I  have  seen  him  oft,  yet 
not  as  he  is,  for  against  (compared  with)  the  brightness  and  the  light  of 
his  countenance  the  sun-gleam  is  dark  and  seemeth  a  shadow ;  and  there- 
fore I  was  not  able  to  look  toward  nor  behold  the  gleam  of  his  counte- 
nance, except  through  a  bright  mirror  between  me  and  him,  that  shielded 
my  eyes.  So  have  I  often  seen  the  holy  Trinity,  Father,  Son,  and  Holy 
Ghost,  three  and  indivisible.  But  only  for  a  little  while  was  I  able  to 
endure  the  gleam,  but  somewhat  (longer)  I  was  able  to  behold  our  Lord 
Jesu  Christ,  God's  Son,  that  redeemed  us  on  the  cross — how  he  sits 
blissful  on  the  right  hand  of  his  Father,  who  is  almighty,  and  ruleth  in 
that  eternal  life  without  cessation.  So  marvellous  is  his  beauty  that  the 
angels  are  never  satiated  in  beholding  him.  And  moreover  I  saw  plainly 
the  places  of  his  wounds,  and  how  he  showeth  them  to  his  Father,  to  make 
known  how  he  loved  us,  and  how  he  was  obedient  to  him  who  sent  him 
thus  to  redeem  us,  and  he  (Christ)  beseecheth  him  ever  for  mankind's 
heal  (salvation).  After  him  I  saw  on  high,  above  all  heavenly  (hosts), 
the  blessed  Virgin  his  mother,  called  Mary,  sitting  on  a  throne  so  very 
bright,  adorned  with  gems,  and  her  face  so  joyful  that  every  earthly 
light  is  darkness  in  comparison  with  it.  There  I  saw  how  she  entreats 
her  precious  Son  so  earnestly  and  so  inwardly  (truly)  for  those  that  serve 
her,  and  he  grants  her  blithely  all  that  she  beseecheth.  When  I  could 
no  longer  endure  that  light,  I  looked  towards  the  angels  and  archangels 

SAWLES    WAHDE.  259 

wel  us  biluueft  hit.  ant  wel  is  riht  bat  we  be  IrSeliche  lustnin. 

MercnrS  nu  benne  he  serS.  ant  seornliche  understonde^.  [I]ch  am  He  nays  that 

lie  is  called 

murSes  sonde,  ant  munegunge  *  of  eche  lif.  ant  Hues  luue  i  haten  L°ve  of  Life, 

0       °  and  comes 

ant  cume  riht  from  heouene  bat  ich  habbe  isehen  nu  ant  ofte  straight  from 

i  lieaven. 

ear  be  blisse  bat  na  monnes  tunge  ne  mei  of  tellen.  be  iblescede     l  munege. 

godd  iseh  ow  offruhte.  ant  sumdel  drupnin'2  of  bat  fearlac  talde     ^durcnin. 

of  dea&  ant  of  helle.  ant  sende  me  to  gleadien  ow.  nawt  for  bi 

bat  hit  ne  beo  al  so^  bat  he  seide.  ant  bat  schulen  alle  uuele 

fondin.  ant  ifinden.     Ah  $e  wiS  be  fulst  of  godd  ne  bunie  na 

bi?ig  dreden  for  he  sit  on  *heh  bat  ia  ow  on  helpe.  ant  is  al  *  [Foi.  82r».] 

wealdent  bat  haueS  ow  to  witene.     A  serS  warschipe  welcume  Prudence 

'  x  beseeches  hira 

liues.  luue.  ant  for  be  luue  of  godd  seolf  sef  bu  eauer  sehe  him  f  t0  tel1  fheD1 

i  o  ■>       s  somewhat  of 

tele  us  sumhwet  of  him.  ant  of  his  eche  blisse.  $e  iseo$  qitod  h««rend0f 

liues  luue  f  Murhdes  sonde.     Ich  habbe  isehen  him  ofte  nawt 

tah  alswa  as  he  is '.    for  ajein  be  brihtnesse  ant  te  liht  of  his 

leor.  be  sunne  gleam  is  dose,  ant  bunched  aschadewe3.  ant  for  bi     3  bunched 

dose,  ant  aa 

ne  mahte  ich  nawt  a3ein  be  leome  of  his  wlite  lokin  ne  bihalden  i  aschadewe. 
bute  burh  a  schene  schawere4  bituhhe  me  ant  him  bat  schilde    4schadewe. 

mine  ehnen.     Swa  ich  habbe  ofte  isehen  be5  hali  bruwnesse6.  ™e  Lo,ve,of 

'  '  Life  tells  how 

feader   ant  sune.  ant  hali  gast.  breo  an  unto-dealet.  ah  lutle  H0^xr*^ty 
hwile  ich  mahte  bulie  be  leome.  ah  suwmes  weis  ich  mahte  bi-     5  him.  j>0. 

balden  ure  lauerd  ihesu  cWst  godes  sune  bat  bohte  us  o  rode.  neg°* ; run" 

Hu  he  sit  blisful7  on  his  feader  riht  half  bat  is  al  wealdent  rixleS  and  the  son  of 

'  God  sitting  at 

i  bat  eche 8  lif  bute  linnunge.  se  unimete  feier  f  bat  te  engles  ne  Mie,  J *£** s 
beo$  neauer  ful  on  him  to  bihalden.  ant  set  ich  iseh  etscene9  be    'wundeifui. 

J  >8  riche. 

studen  of   his  wunden.  ant  hu  he  schaweS  ham  his  feader  to    '**« 


cufcen  hu  he  luuede  us  ant  hu  he  wes  buhsum  to  him  be  sende 
him  swa  to  alesen  us  ant  biseche^  him  a  for  mowsuranes  heale. 

Lifaer  him  ich  iseh  on  heh  ouer  alle  heouenliche  be  eadi  meiden  i saw,  he  says, 

.  .  .the  holy 

his10  moder  marie  i-nempnet  sitten  in  *  a  trone  se  swi^e  briht  wid  Maiden,  his 

1  mother, 

3immes  i-stirret.  ant  hire  wlite  se  weoleful11.  bat  euch  eorSlich  t'"'!1?^"  a„ 
liht  f  is  beoster  be  IV]  o  2eines.  bear  ich  iseh  as  ha  bit  hire  deore    l°a»<- 

.  .  .  .  *  [Fol.  82v°.] 

wurSe  sune  se  jeornliche.  ant  se  inwardliche  for  beo  bat  hire     "meinfui. 

serurS.  ant  he  hire  jetted  blideliche  al  bat  ha  bi  seche^.     Pet  angels' and 
liht  ba  ich  ne  mahte  lengre  bolien12f  Ich  biseh  to  be  engles  ant     i2namareof 

to  be  archangles  ant  to  be  oSre  J  be  beoS  buuen  ham.  iblescede13  ""££"' 

260  soul's  ward. 

and  to  the  others  that  are  above  them,  blessed  spirits  who  are  ever  before 
God  and  ever  serve  him,  and  sing  ever  unweariedly.  Nine  hosts  there 
are,  but  how  they  are  ordered  and  severally  placed,  one  above  the  other, 
and  each  one's  duties,  would  be  long  to  tell.  So  much  mirth  I  had  of  the 
sight  that  I  was  unable  for  a  long  while  to  look  elsewhere.  After  them  I 
looked  towards  the  patriarchs  and  the  prophets,  who  make  such  mirth 
because  they  are  now  in  that  same  land  of  bliss,  which  they  had  afar  wept 
for  previously  on  earth,  and  they  see  now  all  that  become  verified  which 
they  had  long  before  prophesied  of  our  Lord,  as  he  had  showed  them  in 
spiritual  vision.  I  saw  the  Apostles  (that  were)  poor  and  low  on  earth, 
filled  and  possessed  all  with  extraordinary  blisses,  sitting  on  thrones,  and 
all  that  is  high  in  this  world  under  their  feet,  ready  to  judge,  in  the  day 
of  doom,  kings  and  kaisers,  and  all  kindreds  of  all  kinds  of  nations.  I 
beheld  the  martyrs  and  their  marvellous  mirth,  who  suffered  here  tortures 
and  death  for  our  Lord,  and  esteemed  lightly  all  kinds  of  harms  and 
earthly  torments  as  compared  with  the  bliss  to  come  that  God  manifested 
to  them  in  their  hearts.  After  them  I  beheld  the  assembly  of  confessors, 
who  lived  in  good  life  and  died  holy,  that  shine,  as  do  the  stars,  in  the 
eternal  bliss  and  see  God  in  his  glory,  who  hath  wiped  all  tears  from  their 
eyes.  I  saw  the  shining  and  bright  company  of  the  blessed  maidens  most 
like  to  angels,  and  most  participating  with  them  in  their  blisses  and  joys  ; 
who  living  in  the  flesh  surpass  the  laws  of  the  flesh  and  overcome  nature, 
who  lead  a  heavenly  life  on  earth,  and  so  they  win  their  mirth  and  their 
bliss.  The  beauty  of  their  features,  the  sweetness  of  their  song,  no  tongue 
may  tell.  All  sing  who  are  there,  but  their  song  none  may  sing  but  they. 
So  sweet  a  smell  followeth  them  whithersoever  they  go,  that  one  might 
live  ever  by  the  sweetness.  Whomsoever  they  intercede  for  is  certainly 
saved  ;  for  at  their  prayers  God  himself  ariseth,  who  sitting  heareth 
all  the  other  saints."  "  Very  much,"  quoth  Prudence,  "  pleaseth  us  what 
thou  sayest ;  but  now  thou  hast  so  well  spoken  of  every  order  of  the 
blessed  severally,  say  to  us  somewhat  now  what  bliss  is  common  to  all 
alike."  And  the  Love  of  Life  answereth  her,  "  The  common  bliss  is 
sevenfold — length  of  life,  wisdom  and  love,  and  because  of  the  love  a 
gladness  without  measure  (bounds),  pleasant  songs  of  praise,  lightness  (or 
swiftness),  and  security  is  the  seventh."     "  Though  I,"  saith  Prudence, 

SAWLES    WARDE.  261 

gastes  be  be<y?>  a  biuore  godd  ant  serurS  him  eauer.  ant  singed 

a  unwerjeS.     Nihe  wordes  ber  becrS.  ah l  hu  ha  becrS  i-ordret  nil,e  hosts  of 

'  angels, 

ant  sunderliche  isette.  be  an  buue  be  o^re.  emit  euchanes  meoster  iant. 

were  long  to  tellen.    Se  muche  murhSe  ich  hefde  on  hare  on 

sifrSe  f  bat  ne  mahte  ich  longe  hwile  elles  hvvider  lokin.     Lifter 

liam  ich  iseh  towart  te  pofriarches.  ant  te  \rrophetes  be  makied  and  the  holy 

patriarchs  and 

swuch  murh^e  bat  ha  aren  nu^e  i  \>at  ilke  lont  of  blisse  \>at  ha  prophets. 

hefden  of  feor  igret  ear2  on  eorSe  ant  seo^  nu  al  bat  iso^et.  bat  2  igrerSet. 
ha  hefden  longe  ear  icwiddet  of  ure  lauerd  as  he  hefde  ischawed 

ham  igastehch  silrSe.     Ich  iseh  be  apostles  poure3.   ant  lah  on  I  saw  also  the 

.  e        •  ...  Apostles 

eorSe.  millet  ant  bnoten  al  of  unimete  blisse  sitten  i  trones.  ant  sitting  on 


al  under  hare  uet  bat  heh  is  i  be  worlde.  $arowe  forte  demen  i  be  3  \>at  poura 
dei  of  dome  kinges  ant  keiseres.  ant  alle  cunreadnes4  of  alle     ^"'redes. 

cunnes   ledenes.     *  biheolt  te  Martyrs,   ant  hare   unimete  1  beheld  the 


murl&e  be  boleden  her  pinen.  ant  deaft  for  ure  lauerd.  ant  liht-  *[Foi.  83r°.] 
liche  talden  to  alles  cunnes  neowcins.  ant  eorSliche  tintreohen 
a3eines  be  blisse  bat  godd  in  hare  heorte  schawede  ham  to  cumene. 

.Lifter  ham  ich  biheolt  be  cunfessurs  hird  be  liueden  igod  lif.  ant  the  holv 

'  '  confessors, 

haliche  deiden.  be  schine^  as  do^  steorren  ibe  eche  blissen.  ant 

seo^5  godd  in  his  wlite  bat  hailed  alle  teares  iwipet  of  hare  elmen.     « iseo'S.  iseh  hut  schene.  ant  bat  brihte  fen*eden  of  be  eadi  meidnes  and  the  holy 

company  of 

ilikest   towart    engles.    ant   feolohlukest    wi£    ham    blissin    ant  virgins. 

gleadien.  be  libbinde  iflesche  ouerga^  flesches  lahe  ant  ouercumefc 

cunde  be  leaded  heouenlich  lif  in  eorSe  as  ha  wunie^  hare  mui'lrSe. 

ant  hare  blisse.  be  feierlec  of  hare  wlite.  be  swetnesse  of  hare 

song  f  ne  mei  na  tunge  tellen.    Alle  ha  singed  be6  ber  beo^.    Ah  6 from  be  to 

.  '  singen  omit- 

hare  song  ne  mahe  nane  buten  heo  singen.     Se  swote  smal  ham  ted. 

folhe^  hwider  se  ha  wended,  bat  me  mahte  libben  aa  bi  be  swot- 

nesse.  hwam   se  heo  biseche^  fore  f    is  sikerliche  iborhen.  for  Whomsoever 

.  .  they  intercede 

a3em   hare  bisocnen '.    godd  him  seolf  arise^  bat  alle   be   o^re  for  is  saved. 

halhen 7  sittende  ihere^.    owiSe  wel  qticr6  warschipe  like^  us  bat  7  be  waiden. 

tu  seist.    Ah  nu  bu  hauest  se  wel  isei^  of  euch  a8  setnesse  f  of  be  8  euchan  to. 
seli  sunder-lepes  sumhwet  sei  us  nu  hwuch  blisse  is  to  alle  iliche 

meane  f  ant  Hues  luue  hire  ondswere^.      *pe  imeane  blisse  is  *[F°'-83v°.] 

seouenfakj.  leng^e  of  lif.  wit.  ant  luue.  ant  of  be  luue  a  gleadunge.  the  bliss  " 

wrS-ute  met  murie.  loft  song,  ant  lihtschipe.  ant  sikernesse.  is  in  heaven. 

262  soul's  ward. 

"  understand  somewhat  of  this,  thou  must  reveal  this  more  plainly,  and 
explain  to  these  others."  "And  it  shall  be  so,  Prudence,"  saith  Love  of 
Life,  "  as  thou  desirest.  They  live  ever  in  a  splendour  that  is  sevenfold 
brighter  and  clearer  than  the  sun,  and  ever  in  a  strength  to  perform, 
without  any  toil,  all  that  they  wish,  and  evermore  in  a  state,  in  all  that 
ever  is  good,  without  diminution,  without  anything  that  may  harm  or 
ail,  in  all  that  is  ever  soft  or  sweet.  And  their  life  is  the  sight  of 
God  and  the  knowledge  of  God,  as  our  Lord  hath  said.  '  That  is  eternal 
life,'  he  said,  '  to  see  and  know  the  true  God  and  him  that  he  hath  sent, 
Jesus  Christ  our  Lord,  for  our  redemption.'  And  they  are  therefore,  like 
him,  in  the  same  form  that  he  is,  for  they  see  him  as  he  is,  face  to  face. 
They  are  so  wise  that  they  know  all  God's  counsels,  his  mysteries,  and 
his  dooms  (judgments),  which  are  secret  and  deeper  than  any  sea  dingle. 
They  see  in  God  all  things,  and  learn  concerning  all  that  is  and  was  and 
ever  shall  be,  what  it  is,  why  and  whereto,  and  whereof  it  began.  They 
love  God  without  measure,  because  they  understand  how  he  hath  done 
by  them,  through  his  great  goodness,  and  how  they  ought  to  requite  his 
precious  mercy,  and  each  one  loveth  another  as  much  as  himself.  So 
glad  they  are  of  God  that  all  their  bliss  is  so  great  that  no  mouth 
may  make  mention  of  it,  nor  any  speech  discourse  of  it.  Because  that 
each  one  loveth  another  as  himself,  each  one  hath  of  another's  good 
(bliss)  as  much  joy  as  of  his  own.  By  this  ye  may  see  and  know  that 
each  one  severally  hath  as  many  joys  as  they  are  many  in  number  ; 
and  each  of  these  same  joys  is  to  every  one  as  great  a  joy  as  his 
own  in  particular.  Yet  above  all  this,  since  each  one  loveth  God 
and  then  all  the  others  more  than  himself,  the  more  glad  are  they  of 
God['s  bliss],  without  any  ailing  (grief),  and  that  of  all  the  others  than 
of  his  own  joy.  Take  heed  now  then,  if  the  heart  of  no  one  is  ever 
able  to  contain  in  herself  her  own  special  joy,  so  marvellously  great  is 
the  one  bliss,  how  shall  she  accept  so  many  and  so  great  blisses? 
Therefore  our  Lord  said  to  those  that  had  pleased  him,  Intra  in  gaudium 
Domini  sui — 'Go,'  quoth  he,  'into  thy  Lord's  bliss.'  Thou  must  go 
therein  altogether  and  be  altogether  possessed  therein,  for  in  thee  may  it 
in  nowise  enter.     Thereof  they  pi-aise  God,  and  ever  unwearied,  ever 



1  godes  runes. 

be  seoue^e.  bah  ich  J>is  aev6  warschipe  sumdel  understonde  '.  bu 
most  unwreo  j>is  witerluker  ant  openin  to  jjeos  o^re.  ant  hit 
schal  beon  serS  Hues  luue  warschipe  as  bu  wilnest.     ila  liuieS  a  They  live  in  a 

1  >  glory  seven 

in  awlite.  bat  is  brihtre  seoueualS.  ant  schenre  ben  be  sunne.  ant  Jj™8^^ 

eauer  in  a  streng^e  to  don  buten  euch  swine  al  bat  ha  wulleS. 

ant  eauer  mare  in  a  steal  in  al  bat  eauer  god  is  wrS  ute  wonunge. 

wi¥  uten  euch  bing  bat  mahe  hearmin1  o^er  eilin.  in  al  bat  eauer    '  hearm. 

is.  softe  o^er  swote.  ant  hare  lif  is  godes  sihSe.  ant  godes  .  .  .  .2     2  a  wofd 

°  erased  liere 

cnawlechunge  as  ure  lauerd  seide.  bat  is  quod  he3  eche  lif  to  seon  '"  MS-  .„ 

°  '  x  3  he  seixS. 

ant  cnawen  sod  godd.  ant  him  bat  he  sende   ihesu   cHst   ure  Eternal  life 
lauerd  to  ure  alesnesse  ant  beo^  for  )>i  ilich  him  ibe  ilke  wlite  sight  of  God. 

Khe  is.  for  ha  seo^  him  as  he  is.  nebbe  to  nebbe.     Ila  beo^  se  They  know  an 
Gods  secret 

wise  beet  ha  witen  alle  godes  reades.  his  runes  ant  his  domes4  be  counsels. 

r  ...  <  godes  ri 

derne  beo^.  ant  deopre  ben  eni  sea  dingle,  ha  seo^  igodd  alle  bing.   ant  ins 

1        '  .  reades. 

ant  witen  of  al  bat  is  ant  wes  ant  eauer  schal  iwurden.  hwet 

hit  beo.  hwi.  ant  hwerto  ant  hwer  of  hit  bigunne5.     Ha  luiiie^   They  love 

God  without 

god  wrS  ute  met.  for  bat  ha  understonde^  hu  he  haue'S  bi  ham   measure. 

.  5  biginne. 

idon  jmrh  his  muchele  godlec  ant  hwet  ha  ahen  his  deorewurde 

milce  to  3elden.  ant  euch  an   luue^   o^er  ase  much  el  as  him 

seoluen.     be  gleade  ha  beo^  of  godd  '.  bat  al  is  hare  blisse.  se 

muchel  *  bat  ne  mei  hit  munne  na  rau?,  ne  spealie  na  speche  for  *  [Fo1-  84r°-J 

b\  bat  euchan  luueft  o^er  as   him   seoluen.     Euchan  haue^  of 

odres  god  ase  muche  murlvSe  as  of  his  ahne6.  bi  bis  3e  mahen     6  ,as  him 

°  '        J  seoluen. 

seon  ant  witen.  bat  euchan  haue^  sunderlepes  ase  feole  glead- 

schipes  f  as  ha  beod  monie  alle.  ant  euch  of  be  ilke  gleadschipes 

is r  to  eauer  euch  an  ase  muche  gleadunge '.  as  his  ahne  sunderliche.     '  beo'S. 

3et  ouer  al  J>is.  hwen  euchan  luue^  godd  mare  j>en  him  seoluen. 

ant  ben  alle  be  odre  i  mare  he  gleade^  of  godd  \vv6  uten  ei  et-   Each  ,oves 

'  r  o  o  other  better 

lunge8  }>en  of  his  ahne  gleadunge.  ant  of  alle  be  o^res.     Neome^  tt,an  bimseif. 

....  B  e'  eilung. 

nu  jjenne  3eme  3ef  neauer  anes  heorte  ne  mei  in  hire  [und] 9  9  ms.  torn, 
eruon  hire  ahne   gleadunge   sunderliche    [iseide.    so  unim]ete 

muchel  is  J>e10  anlepi  blisse.  bat  ha  nime^  i[n]  hi  [re]  jms  monie.  10ben. 

ant  bus  muchele.  for  bi  seide  ure  lauerd  to  beo  be  him  hefden  ic-  The  bliss  is  so 

*m  '         '  great  that 

wemet.    Intra  in  gaudiuwi.  et  cetera.    Ga  qua6  he  in  to  bi  lauerdes  tbey  go  into 

x  '  it — it  cannot 

blisse11.  bu  most  al  gan  }>rin.  ant  al  beon  bigotten  J>rin  for  in  be  ne  enter  them- 
mei  hit  nanesweis  u  neomen  in.  her  of  ha  herieS  godd  ant  singed     a  0  niue 

264  soul's  WARD. 

alike  joyful,  they  sing  tins  song  of  praise,  Bead  qui  habitant,  &c. — 
Blessed  are  those,  0  Lord,  who  dwell  in  thine  house  ;  they  shall  praise 
thee,  world  without  end.  They  are  all  as  light  and  as  swift  as  the  sun- 
gleam  that  shooteth  from  east  unto  west  as  thine  eyelid  openeth  and 
shutteth  ;  for  wheresoever  the  spirit  will  be  there  is  the  body  at  once 
without  delay,  for  nothing  may  withstand  them,  for  one  is  mighty 
enough  to  do  all  that  he  desires,  yea,  to  make  heaven  and  earth  quake 
with  one  of  his  fingers.  Sure  they  are  of  all  this  life,  of  this  wit,  of 
this  love,  and  the  joy  thereof,  and  of  this  bliss,  which  shall  never  more 
become  less  or  be  impaired,  nor  come  to  an  end.  This  little  I  have 
said  of  what  I  saw  in  heaven,  but  neither  saw  I  all,  nor  of  what  I 
saw  can  I  tell  the  half."  "Truly,"  quoth  Prudence,  "well  we  understand 
that  thou  hast  been  there  and  truly  hast  spoken  thereof,  according  to 
thy  sight  ;  and  well  is  him  that  is  prudent  and  takes  forethought  how 
he  may  best  keep  his  house,  in  which  is  God's  treasure,  against  God's 
enemy  who  warreth  ever  against  it  with  immorality,  for  that  shall 
bring  him  thither  where  he  shall  participate  and  enjoy  all  that  thou  hast 
spoken  of,  and  a  hundredfold  more  of  bliss  without  any  sorrow."  Quoth 
Strength,  "  Since  it  is  so,  what  may  separate  us  from  the  God  and  hold 
us  back  then  ]  I  am  confident  in  God  that  neither  life  nor  death,  nor 
woe  nor  weal,  shall  separate  us  and  his  love.  But  all  this  he  hath 
prepared  for  us,  if  we  as  true  treasurers  guard  well  his  treasure  which 
is  entrusted  to  us  to  be  kept,  as  we  shall  full  well  under  his  wings." 
Quoth  Prudence,  "  Cast  out  Fear,  our  foe ;  it  is  not  right  that  one  house 
hold  these  two  :  for  where  Mirth's  messenger  is  and  true  love  of  eternal 
life,  Fear  is  a  fugitive."  "  Now,  Fear,  go  out,"  quoth  Strength,  "  thou 
shalt  no  longer  remain  in  our  quarters."  Quoth  (Fear),  "  Now  what  I 
have  said  I  have  said  all  for  your  good,  and  though  it  was  not  pleasant, 
yet  my  tale  was  not  less  true  nor  less  needful  to  you  than  that  of  Mirth's 
messenger,  though  it  may  not  be  so  delightful  nor  so  pleasant."  (Quoth 
Moderation),  "Each  of  you  hath  his  time  to  speak,  nor  is  the  talc  of  either 
of  you  to  be  shunned  (disregarded)  at  its  proper  time.  Thou  warnest  of 
woe,  he  telleth  of  weal.  Much  need  is  there  that  we  should  attentively 
listen  to  both  of  you.  Flit  (depart)  now,  Fear,  while  the  Love  of  Life  is 
herein.  Bear  with  even  heart  the  doom  of  Righteousness,  for  thou  shalt 
full  blithely  be  received  herein,  as  often  as  Love  of  Life  ceaseth  to  speak. 



a  un  werget  eauer  iliche  lusti  in  bis  loft  songes.  as  hit  iwriten  is.    The?  Iiave 

o  r  o  great 

Beati  qui  habitant,  et  cetera.     Eadi  beoS  beo  lauerd.  be  ibin1  1ms   anTifve'in 
wunieS  ha  schulen  herien  be  from  [worlcle  into  worlcle].     Ila   purity. 
beoS  alle  ase  li[hte  ant  as  swifte  as  be  sunne]  gleam  be  sc[heot     ' in  *"3- 
from  est  into  west,  ase  bin]  *ehe-lid  tuneS  ant  opened  for  hwer  *  [Foi.  84v°.] 
se  eauer  be  gast  wule  be  bodi  is  anan  riht  wrS  ute  lettunge.  for 
ne  mei  ham  na  bing  a3eines  etstonden.  for  euch  an  is  al2  mihti     2as. 
to  don  al  pat  he  wule.  3c  makie  to  cwakien  heouene  ba  ant  eorSe 
wi?  his  an  finger,     ibikere  ha  beoS  of  al  bis  of  bulli  lif.  of  bulli 
wit.  of  bulli  luue  ant3  gleadunge  brof.  ant  of  bulli  blisse.  bat  hit     3a- 

.  Happy  is  he 

ne  me  neauer  mare  lutlin  ne  wursin.  ne  neome  nan  ende.  bis  lutle    who  keeps 

safe  God's 

ich  habbe  iseid  of  bat  ich  iseh  in  heouene  ah  nower  neh  ne  neh   treasure. 

'  TTTT  ^',8  W01US  °f 

ich  al.  ne  bat  3et  bat  ich  [iseh.  ne]  ne  con  ich  half4  tellen.     yij  iter-   Prudence. 

[liche  quoS]  warschipe.  wel  we  understondeS  bat  tu  hauest  ibeo 

bear  ant  soS  hauest  iseid   trof.  efter  bi  sihSe.  ant  wel  is  him 

bat  is  war.  ant  bisiS  him  hu  he  mahe  beast  balden  his  hus  bat 

godes  tresor  is  in  a3eines  godes  unwine  be  weorreS  ber  to  wart 

a  wiS  unbeawes.  for  bet.  schal  bringen  him  bider  as  he  schal.  al 

bis  bat  tu  hauest  ispeken  of  an5  lmndret  siSe  mare  of  blisse  buten     5ant. 

euch  bale6  folhin  ant  ifinden.      QnaS  strengSe  hwen  hit  swa  is  f    Strength 

S3.ys  Hint 

hwet  mei  tweamen  us  from  godd  ant  hald[en  us  beonne.  ih]  am   "c0parat^thtm 
siker  ine  godd.  \bat  ne  schal  lif  ne  deS  f  ne  wa]  ne  wunne  nowSer   fr"m  i'0*1, 

0  L'  J  6  wio  uten 

[to  dealen  us  ant  his  luue.  ah  al  bis]  us  haueS  igarc7[ket  3ef  we  as   baiesrS. 
treowe  tresures  witeS  wel  his  tresor  bat  is  bitaht  us  to  halden.    34  ends  here, 
as  we  schulen  ful  wel    under  his  wengen.      WarpeS  ut  quoS    Prudence 

1  proposes  that 

warschipe  f   farlac  ure  fa.  nis  nawt  riht  bat  an  hus  halde  beos   Fear  sl>011,d 

1  '  '  be  aist  out. 

tweien.  for  ber  as  murSes  sonde  is  1  ant  soS  luue  of  eche  lif. 
farlac  is  fleme.  nu  ut  quoS  strenSe  farlac  ne  schaltu  na  lenge?-e 
leuen  in  ure  ende.  nu  qvtoS  ich  seide  for  god  al  bat  ich  seide.  ant 
bah  hit  muri  nere  nes  na  lessere  mi  tale  ben  wes  murlrSes  sondes 
ne  unbihefre  to  ow.  bah  hit  ne  beo  so  licwurSe  ne  icweme. 
EiSer  of  ow  haueS  his  stunde  to  speokene.  ne  nis  mcker  noSres    Moderation 

addresses  the 

tale  to  schunien  in  his  time,   bu   warnest  of  wa.   he  telleS   of  two  mes- 

'  sengers. 

wunne.  muche  neod  is  bat  me  ow  ba  3eornliche  hercni.  Flute 
nu  farlac  bah.  hwil  Hues  luue  is  herinne.  ant  bole  wiS  efne 
heorte  be  dom  of  rihtwisnesse.  for  bu  schal [t].  ful  bliSeliche  beon 

266  soul's  ward. 

Now  is  Will  the  housewife  quite  still ;  and  she  who  erewhile  was  so 
wilful,  is  now  wholly  subject  to  the  direction  of  Wit,  who  is  the  husband. 
And  all  the  household  keep  themselves  still,  who  were  wont  to  be  un- 
toward, and  to  do  after  the  will  of  their  mistress,  and  not  after  Wit ; 
they  listen  now  to  his  lore,  and  each  one  endeavours  to  do  what  befalleth 
him  to  do,  through  these  two  messengers  whom  they  have  heard,  and  as 
the  four  sisters  have  taught  in  addition  thereto,  for  against  each  vice's 
entrance  is  ward  to  be  kept  and  guarded  faithfully.  Thus  ought  each  man 
to  think  often  and  frequently,  and  with  such  thoughts  to  arouse  his  heart, 
which  in  negligent  sleep  forgetteth  its  soul's  heal,  after  (the  words  of) 
these  two  messengers,  and  from  the  sight  of  hell  to  look  to  the  bliss  of 
heaven — to  have  fear  of  the  one  and  love  to  the  other,  and  to  lead  himself 
and  his  hinds,  that  is,  all  his  limbs,  not  after  (that  which)  Will,  the  un- 
toward mistress,  and  his  (own)  lust  teacheth,  but  after  what  Wit  desireth, 
who  is  the  husband  that  disciplines  and  instructs,  so  that  Wit  should 
ever  go  before  and  teach  Will  after  him  to  perform  all  that  he  ordains 
and  commands  to  be  done ;  and  with  the  four  sisters,  which  are  the  four 
cardinal  virtues,  Prudence,  Strength  in  God,  Moderation,  and  Kighteous- 
ness,  to  guard  God's  treasure,  that  is,  his  own  soul  in  the  house  of  the 
body,  from  the  thief  of  hell.  Such  thoughts  make  a  man  to  flee  all  vices 
and  inflame  his  heart  towards  the  bliss  of  heaven,  which  may  our  Lord 
give  us  through  his  holy  mercy,  that  with  the  Father  and  the  Son  and 
the  Holy  Ghost  reigneth  in  trinity  ever  without  end.     Amen  ! 

Par  seinte  charite  pray  a  pater  noster  for  John  who  wrote  this  book  ! 

Whoso  hath  read  this  writing 

And  Christ  hath  so  (thereby)  prospered  him, 

I  pray,  par  seinte  charite. 

That  ye  pray  often  for  me 

A  Pater  noster  and  Ave  Maria  ; 

That  I  may  so  lead  my  life 

And  well  please  our  Lord, 

In  my  youth  and  in  my  old  age, 

That  I  may  yield  my  soul  to  Jesus  Christ.     Amen. 


under-fon  in  as  ofte  as  Hues  luue  stinted1  forto  spekene.    JNv  is    'Ms.stutteS. 

wil  bat  husewif  al  stille.  bat  er  wes  so  willesful.     Al  ituht  efter 

wittes  wissunge  bat  is  husebonde.  ant  Al  bat  hird  halt  him  stille.   The  whole 


bat  wes  i-wunet  to  beon  fulitohen  ant  don  efter  wil  hare  lefdi.   now  become 

subject  to  Wit. 

Ant  nawt  efter  wit  f  lustne^  nu  his  lare.  ant  fonde^  euer  euchan 
efter  bat  him  limped  to.  burh  jjeos  twa  sonden.  bat  ha  i-herd 
habbe^.  ant  bat  fowr  sustren  lerden  bruppe  for  euch  unbeawes 
insong  his  warde  te  witene.  ant  te  warden  treowliche.     I?vs  ah   Each  man 

J      °  should  attend 

mon  te  benchen  ofte  Ant  ilome.     Ant  wrS  bulliche  bohtes  awec-  t0  tne  words 

'  '  >  of  the  two 

chen  his  heorte.  be  islep  of  jemeles  forget  hire  sawle  heale.  efter  messengers, 

beos  twa  sonden.     From  helle  sihSe  biseon '.   to  be  blisse  of 

heouene.     To  habben  farlac  of  bat  an  f  luue  toward  bat  o^er. 

ant  leaden  him  ant  hinen.  bat  beo^  his  limen  alle.  nawt  efter 

wil  be  untohe  lefdi  ant  his  lust  leare^.  ah  efter  bat  wit  wule  bat 

is  husebonde  tuhten  ant  teachen   bat  wit  ga  euer  biuore  ant 

teache  wil  efter  him.  to  al  bat  he  dihte^  ant  dermrS  to  donne. 

ant  wr5  be  fowr  sustren  f  J»er  fore  be  fowr  heued  J>eawes.  War- 

schipe.  StrencSe  in  godd.  Ant  Me£.  Ant  Rihtwisnesse.  witen  godes 

treosor  bat  is  his  ahne  sawle.  ibe  hus  of  be  bodi  f  from  be  beof  of  and  euard  his 

>  '  '  '      '  soul  from  the 

helle.  bulli  boht  make^  mon  te  fleon  alle  unbeawes  ant  ontent  his   thief  of  hel1- 
heorte  toward  be  blisse  of  heouene.  bat  ure  lauerd  3eue  us  burh 
his  hali  milce  bat  wrS  be  feder.  ant  e  sune  a?it  e  hali  gast  rixUVS 
in  jjreo  had  a  buten  ende.     AMEN. 

Par  seinte  charite  bidden  a  pater  noster  for  iohan  bat  }>eos  boc   Pray  a 

W?"<lt.  for  John  who 

H  wrote  this 

wa  se  bis  writ  haue^  ired.  book, 

Ant  crist  him  haue^  swa  isped. 

Ich  bidde  par  seinte  charite. 

pet  3e  bidden  ofte  for  me. 

Aa  pater  noster.  ant  aue  marie. 

pet  ich  mote  bat  lif  her  drehen.  so  *hat  '»e 

'  may  lead  a 

Ant  ure  lauerd  wel  icwemen.  sood  Hfe  here 

and  yield  his 

I  Mi  juhe'Se  ant  in  min  elde. 
pet  ich  mote  ihesu  crist  mi  sawle  3elden.] 

soul  to  Christ 
at  death. 




Tesu,  sweet  Jesu,  my  love,  my  darling,  my  Lord,  my  Saviour,  my  honey- 
'-*  drop  (nectar),  my  balm !  sweeter  is  the  remembrance  of  thee  than 
honey  in  the  mouth.  "Who  is  there  that  may  not  love  thy  lovely  face  1 
what  heart  is  there  so  hard  that  may  not  melt  at  the  remembrance 
of  thee  1  Ah  !  who  may  not  love  thee,  lovely  Jesu  1  For  within 
thee  alone  are  all  the  things  united  that  ever  may  make  any  man 
worthy  of  love  to  another.  Beauty,  and  lovesome  face,  flesh  white 
under  clothing  make  many  a  man  the  leather  and  the  more  to  be 
beloved.  Gold  and  treasures  and  wealth  of  this  world  cause  some 
to  be  beloved  and  praised.  Others  (are  loved)  for  their  generosity  and 
liberality,  that  prefer  graciously  to  give  than  niggardly  to  withhold. 
Some  (are  loved)  for  their  wit  and  wisdom  and  worldly  prudence,  and 
others  for  might  and  strength,  (so  as)  to  be  distinguished  and  brave 
in  fight  for  to  maintain  their  rights.  Some  are  loved  for  their  nobility 
and  highness  of  birth,  others  for  virtue,  and  politeness,  and  faultless 
maimers.  Some  for  kindness,  and  meekness,  and  goodness  of  heart 
and  deed ;  and  yet,  above  all  this,  nature  causes  friends  of  kin  to  love 
one  another.  Jesu,  my  precious  darling,  my  love,  my  life,  my  beloved, 
my  most  worthy  of  love,  my  heart's  balm,  my  soul's  sweetness,  thou 
art  lovesome  in  countenance,  thou  art  altogether  bright.  All  angel's  life 
is  to  look  upon  thy  face,  for  thy  cheer  is  so  marvellously  lovesome  and 
pleasant  to  look  upon,  that  if  the  damned  that  well  (boil)  in  hell 
might  eternally  see  it,  all  that  torturing  pitch  would  appear  but  a 
soft  warm  bath  ;  for,  if  it  might  be  so,  they  had  rather  well  (boil) 
evermore  in  woe  and  evermore  look  upon  that  blissful  beauty,  than 
be  in  all  bliss  and  forego  the  sight  of  thee.  Thou  art  so  sheen  (bright) 
and  so  white,  that  the  sun  would  be  pale  if  it  were  compared  to  thy 
blissful  countenance.  If  I  then  will  love  any  man  for  fairness  (beauty) 
I  will  love  thee,  my  dear  life,  mother's  fairest  son.      Ah,  Jesu,  my 

Jje  wohunge  of  use  lauerd.  269 



r  Titus  1).  18. 

Thesu  swete  ihesu.  mi  dru£.  mi  derling.  mi  drihtin.  mi  healend. 
-*-  mi  huniter.  mi  haliwei.  Swetter  is  munegunge  of  be  ben 
mildeu  o  mu?e.  Hwa  ne  mei  lime  bi  luueli  leor  1  Hwat  herte 
is  .swa  hard  bat  ne  mei  to-melte  i  be  munegunge  of  be  1  Ah  hwa 
ne  mei  luue   be  luueliche  ihesu  1  for  inwrS  be  ane  arn  alle  be   Jesus  p°s- 

'  '        sesses  all  the 

binges  igedered  bat  eauer  muhen  maken  ani    mow    luuewurSi   v**Mte* 

'      °  °  '  whicb  make 

to  o^er.  feiruesse  and  lufsum  neb.  fiesch  hwit  under  schrud  makes   h™  ?'ortny 

of  being 

moui  mon  beo  luued  te  ra^er.  and  te  mare.     Summe  gold  and  loved" 

°  The  qualities 

Gersum  and  ahte  of  bis  worlde  makes  luued  and  heried.     Sume  f    for  *****  °"e 

*  may  be  loved. 

fredoni  and  largesce  bat  leuer  is  menskli  to  3iuen  ben  cwedli  to 

wi$  halde.      Summe  f  wit  and  wisdom  arid  3apschipe  of  werlde. 

Summe  f    maht  and  strewgSe  to   beo  kid  and  kene  ifiht    his 

riht  for  to  halde.     Summe  f   noblesce.  and  hehnesse  of  burSe. 

Summe  i   beaw.   and  hendeleic  and  lastelese*  lates.     Summe  f    *[FoU2n>.] 

menske  and  mildeschipe  and  debonairte  of   herte  and   dede. 

And  3ette  ouer  al  bis  f  kinde  makes  sibbe  frend  euchan  to  luuew 

o^er.       Nu    mi   derewur^e    druS.    mi    luue.    mi,  lif.    mi    leof.    Christ  is 

.  .  ...  beautiful  and 

mi  luueleuest,  mi  heorte  haliwei.  mi  sawle  swetnesse.    pu  art   bright. 

lufsum  on  leor.  bu  art  al  schene.  al  engles  lif  is  ti  neb  to  bihalden. 

for  bi  leor  is  swa  uuimete  lufsum  and  lusti  on  to  loken  i  bat  %if 

be  forwariede  bat  wallen  in  helle   mihtew   hit  echeliche  seon  f 

al  bat  pinende  pik.  ne  walde  ham  bunche  bote  a  softe  bekinde 

ba^.  for  }if  hit  swa  mihte  beon'.   leuere  ham  were  eauer  mare 

in  wa  for  to  welle  and  o  bat  welefule  wlite  eauer  mar  to  loken  f 

yen  in  alle  blisse  beora,  and  forgan  bi  silrSe.     pu  art  swa  schene   The  sun  pales 

,  ,.,,  ii'ct-  .,  before  him. 

and  swa  hwit :  bat  te  suDne  were  dosk  311  hit  to  bi  blisfule  bleo 
mihte  beo  euenet.  pa  3if  bat  iwile  animon  for  feirnesse  luue  f 
luue  iwile  be  mi  leue  lif,  moder  sune  feirest.     A  ihesu  mi  swete 


sweet  Jesu,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  But  now 
I  will  choose  rny  lemman  (beloved)  for  wealth,  for  everywhere  with 
chattels  one  may  buy  love.  But  is  there  any  one  richer  than  thou, 
my  beloved,  that  reignest  in  heaven,  thou  that  art  the  renowned  kaiser 
that  hast  created  all  this  world  1  for  as  the  holy  prophet  David  says, 
"  The  earth  is  the  Lord's  and  all  that  fills  it,  the  world  and  all  that 
lives  therein ;"  heaven  with  the  mirths  and  the  immeasurable  blisses, 
all  is  thine,  my  sweet  one,  and  all  (this)  thou  wilt  give  me,  if  I 
love  thee  aright.  I  cannot  give  my  love  to  any  man  for  (the  sake 
of)  a  sweeter  possession.  I  will  hold  then  to  thee,  my  beloved,  and 
love  thee  for  thyself,  and  for  thy  love  forsake  all  other  things  that 
might  draw  and  turn  my  heart  from  thy  love.  Ah !  Jesus,  sweet  Jesu, 
grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  But  what  is  wealth 
and  world's  weal  worth  without  freedom  (liberality) 1  And  who  is  more 
free  than  thou,  for  first  thou  didst  make  all  this  world  and  didst 
put  it  under  my  feet,  and  didst  make  me  lady  over  all  thy  creatures 
that  thou  didst  create  on  earth,  but  I  miserably  lost  it  through  my 
sins.  Ah  !  lest  I  should  lose  all  thou  gavest  thyself  for  me,  to  deliver 
me  from  (hell-)pain.  If  I  will  love  then  any  one  for  liberality,  I 
will  love  thee,  Jesu  Christ,  most  free  beyond  all  others  ;  for  other 
liberal  men  give  these  external  things,  but  thou  didst  give  thyself 
for  me,  (so)  that  thou  couldst  not  withhold  thy  own  heart's  blood. 
A  dearer  love-token  gave  never  any  lemman  (beloved)  to  another. 
And  thou  that  gavest  me  first  all  thyself,  thou  hast  promised  me, 
my  beloved,  the  gift,  all  to  myself,  to  reign  on  thy  right  hand,  crowned 
with  thyself.  Who  is  then  more  generous  than  thou  1  who,  for  largess, 
is  better  worthy  of  being  beloved  than  thou,  my  dear  life  1  Ah  !  Jesu, 
sweet  Jesu,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  But  largess 
is  worth  little  when  wisdom  is  lacking.  And  if  that  I  will  love  any 
man  for  wisdom,  there  is  none  wiser  than  thou,  that  art  called  the 
wisdom  of  thy  father  in  heaven  ;  for  he  through  thee,  that  art  wisdom, 
created  all  this  world  and  ordereth  it  and  divideth  it,  as  it  seem- 
eth  best.  Within  thee,  my  dear  love,  is  hidden  the  hoard  of  all 
wisdom,  as  the  book  bears  witness.  Ah  !  Jesus,  sweet  Jesu,  grant  that 
the  love  of  thee  may  be  all  my  delight.  But  many  a  man  through 
his  strength  and  bravery  also  makes  himself  beloved  and  esteemed. 
And  is  any  so  hardy  as  thou  art?  Nay;  for  thou  alone  dreadedst 
not  with  thy  own  dear  body  to  fight  against  all  the  awful  (terrible) 
devils  of  hell  )  that  whichever  of  them  is  least  loathsome  and  horrible, 


ihesu  leue  bat  te  luue  of  be  beo  al  mi  likinge.     Bote  nu  iwile  for  a  man  is 

'  '  °  loved  for  his 

ahte  lefmow  chese  for  aihwer  wr5  chatel  raon  mai  luue  cheape.   riches. 

Ah  is  ani  ricchere  ben  bu  mi  leof  bat  rixles  m  heuene.  bu  art   Christ  is 

.  .  .      richer  than 

kid  keiser  bat  al  bis  werkl  wrahtes.  for  as  te  hali  prophete  dauid   any  man. 

cwiddes.  drihtines  is  te  eorSe.  and  al  bat  hit  fulles  werld  and 

al  bat  trin  wune^.     Heuene  wK  be  murines  and  ta  unimete 

blisses.    Al  is  tin  mi  sweting.  and  al  bu  wilt  3iue  me  3b0  i  be  riht 

luuie.    Ne  mai  i  na  man  3iue  mi  luue  to  swettere  bi3ete.    Halde 

iwile  ba  to  be  mi  leof  for  be  self  luue  be  seluen.  and  for  bi  luue 

\eten  alle  o^re  bi»ges  bat  min  herte  fram  bi  luue  mihte  drahe 

and  tumen.     A  Ihesu  swete  ihesu  leoue  bat  te  luue  of  be  beo  al 

mi  likinge.     Bote  *hwat  is  ahte  and  weorldes  wele  wurS  wrS-    *[FoU28a.] 

ute»  fredom  ]  And  hwa  is  fren*e  ben  bu  1  For  first  bu  mades  al  bis   Christ  is  to 

'         '  be  loved  for 

werld  and  dides  hit  under  mine  fet.  and  makedes  me  lauedi    his  liberality. 

ouer  alle  bine  schaftes  bat  tu  schop  on   eorSe.     Bote  Ich  hit 

rewli  fordide  burh-hut  mine  sunnes.     Ah  lest  ine  al  forlesede  bu 

3ef  be  seluen  for  me  to  lese  me  fra  pine  pewne  3if  i  ani  wile  for  He  gave  him- 

largesce  luue '.  luue  iwile  be  ihesu  crist  largest  ouer  o^re.     For  sinners, 

oftre  largemen  3iuen  bise  uttre  binges,  bute  bu  swete  ihesu  for  me 

3ef  be  seluen.  bat  tin  ahne  heorte  blod  ne  cu^es  tu  wrS-halde.   and  withheld 

not  his  heart's 

Derre  druri  ne  3ef  neauer  na  lefmon  to  o^er.     And  tu  bat  erst  w°«i. 

me  3ef  al  be  seluen  f  bu  hafdes  me  heht  mi  lefmon  to  be  3iue 

al  me  seluen.  to  rixlen  o  bi  rihthond  crunet  wio"  be  seluen.    Hwa 

is  ta  largere  ben  bu.     Hwa  for  lai'gesce  is  betere  wur^  to  beo 

luued  ben  bu  mi  luue  lif.     A  ihesu  swete  ihesu  leue  bat  te  luue 

of  be  beo  al  mi  likinge.     Bote  largesce  is  lutel  wurg  ber  wisdom   Christ  is  to 

be  loved  for 

wontes.     And  3if  bat  iwile  amnion  luue  for  wisdom  i   nis  nan   his  wisdom. 

wisere  ben  bu  bat  art  wisedom  cald  of  bi  fader  in  heuene.    For 

he  burh  be  bat  wisdom  art  al  bis  world  wrahte  and  dihte^  hit 

and  deale^  as  hit  best  semeS.     Inwi^  be  mi  leue  lif  is  hord   He  is  the 

hoard  of  all 

of  alle  wisedom  hid  as  te  bok  witnesses.     A  ihesu  swete  ihesu   wisdom. 

leue  bat  te  luue  of  be  beo  al  mi  likinge.     Bote  moni  man  burh 

his  stre?^g:6e  and  hardischipe  ek  makes  him  luued  cmd  3erned. 

And  is  ani  swa  hardi  swa  artu  ?  Nai.  for  bu  be  ane  dreddes  nawt   Christ  is  to 

be  loved  for 

wr5  bin  anre  deore  bodi  to  fihte  a3aines  alle  be  ahefulle  deueles  his  bravery. 
of  helle.  bat  hwuch  of  ham  swa  is  lest  la^eliche.  and  grureful. 


if  he  might,  such  as  he  is,  show  himself  to  man,  all  the  world  would 
be  afraid  to  behold  him  alone,  for  no  man  may  see  him  and  remain 
in  his  wits,  unless  the  grace  and  the  strength  of  Christ  embolden  his 
heart.  Thou  art  moreover  herewith  so  immensely  mighty  that,  with 
thy  precious  hand  nailed  on  the  rood,  thou  boundest  the  heli-dogs, 
and  bereftest  them  of  their  prey  which  they  had  greedily  grasped,  and 
held  it  fast  on  account  of  Adam's  sin.  Thou  keen  (brave)  renowned 
warrior  (champion)  robbedst  hell- house,  and  deliveredst  thy  prisoners, 
and  broughtest  them  out  of  the  house  of  death,  and  leddest  them  with 
thyself  to  thy  jewelled  (gemmed)  bower  (hall),  the  abode  of  eternal 
bliss  ;  wherefore  of  thee,  my  beloved,  was  it  truly  said,  "  The  Lord 
is  mighty,  strong  and  keen  (brave)  in  battle."  And  therefore  if  a  stal- 
worth  lemman  please  me,  I  will  love  thee,  Jesu,  strongest  over  all,  so 
that  thou  mayest  fell  the  strong  foes  of  my  soul  ;  and  that  the  strength 
of  thee  may  help  my  great  weakness,  and  thy  boldness  embolden  my 
heart.  Ah  !  Jesus,  sweet  Jesu,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  may  be  all 
my  delight.  But  noble  men  and  gentle  and  of  high  birth  often  obtain 
the  love  of  women  at  a  very  small  cost,  for  oftentimes  many  a  woman 
loses  her  honour  through  the  love  of  a  man  that  is  of  high  birth  ; 
then,  sweet  Jesu,  upon  what  higher  man  may  I  set  my  love  1  where 
may  I  a  more  gentle  (noble)  man  choose  than  thee,  that  art  the  king's 
son,  that  wieldest  this  world,  and  art  king  equal  with  thy  father,  king- 
over  kings  and  lord  over  lords  ]  and  yet  with  respect  to  thy  manhood 
born  thou  wast  of  Mary,  a  maiden  meekest  of  mood  (mind)  ;  child  of 
royal  birth,  of  king  David's  kin,  of  Abraham's  race.  No  higher  birth 
than  this  is  there  under  the  sun.  I  will  love  thee,  then,  sweet  Jesu,  as 
the  most  gentle  (noble)  life  that  ever  lived  on  earth,  and  also  because 
in  all  thy  life  never  was  any  vice  found,  my  dear  faultless  beloved  one  ; 
and  that  came  to  thee  of  (thy)  birth  and  of  (thy)  nurture,  because 
thou  didst  ever  dwell  in  the  court  of  heaven.  Ah  !  my  pi-ecious  lord  ; 
so  gentle  (noble),  and  so  gracious  ;  suffer  me  never  to  settle  my  love 
on  chui'lish  things,  nor  to  desire  earthly  things  nor  fleshly  things  in 
preference  to  thee,  nor  to  love  against  thy  will.  Ah !  Jesus,  sweet  Jesu, 
grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  Meekness  and  mildness  (hu- 
mility) make  a  man  everywhere  to  be  beloved ;  and  thou,  my  dear  Jesus, 
for  thy  great  meekness  was  compared  to  a  lamb,  because  anent  all  the 
wrong  and  the  shame  that  thou  sufferedst,  and  anent  all  the  woe  and  the 
painful  wounds,  thou   never  openedst  thy  mouth   to  grudge  (murmur) 

j>E  WOHUNGE  OF  UltE  LAUERD.  273 

mihte  he  swuch  as  he  is  to  nionkin  him  scheawe :'  al  be  world 

were  offeard  him  ane  to  bihalde  for  ne  mihte  na  mow  him  seo 

and  in  his  wit  wunie.  bute  3if  be  grace  *and  te  strengSe  of  *[Foi.i28&.] 

crist  baldede  his  heorte.  bu  art  3ette  her  wrS  swa  unimete  mihti 

bat  wrS  bi  deorewurSe  houd  nailet  on  rode '.   bu  baud  ta  belle   Thou  didst 

'  '  .  .  bind  the  hell- 

dogges.  and  reftes  ham  hare  praie  bat  tai  hefden  gi'edihche   dogs, 

gripeq  and  helden  hit  faste  for  adames  sunne.  bu  keue  kidde 

kempe  robbedes  helle  bus.  lesedes  tine  prisuns  and  riddes  ham   and  harriedst 

hell's  house, 

ut  of  cwalm  bus  and  leddes  ham  wi^  be  self  to  bi  3immede  bur. 
bold  of  eche  blisse.  forbi  of  be  mi  lefmon  was  so^liche  quiddet. 
Drihti[n]  is  mahti  strong  and  kene  ifihte.  And  for  bi  jif 
me  likes  stalewurSe  lefmon f  luue  iwile  be  ihesu  strongest  ouer  therefore  i 

'  °  will  love  thee 

alle.  bat  bi  maht  felle  mine  starke  sawle  fan.  and  te  strengSe  of  as  a  staiwwth 

'        '  °  lemmati. 

be  helpe  mi  muchele  waenesse.  and  hardisohipe  of  be  balde  min 

herte.     A  ihesu  swete  ihesu  leue  bat  te  luue  of  be  beo  al  mi 

likinge.      Ah   noble  men  and  gentile   and  of  heh  burSe  ofte   Noble  men 

.  •,  .       Ina.v  'nl.v 

winnen  luue  lihtliche  cheape.  for  ofte  moni  wnmmon  letes  hire   women's  love 

mensket  burh  be  luue  of  wepmon  \at  is  of  heh  burSe.   benne 

swete  ihesu  up  o  hwat  herre  mon  mai  i  mi  luue  sette.  bwer  mai  i 

gentiller  mon  chese  ben  be  bat  art  te  kinges  sune  bat  tis  world   i  cannot 

'  '      '  b  r  _  choose  a 

wealdes.   and  kino:  and  euene  wi^  bi  fader,   king  ouer  kinges   nobler  one 

6  '  °  °         thantliee, 

lauerd  ouer  lauerdes  And  3ette  onont  ti  rnonhad  born  bu  wes 

of  marie  meiden  mildest  o  mod.  kine  beam  of  burSe.  of  daurSes   child  of  royal 

.  ,,irtn. of 

kin  be  king,  of  Abrahames  streone.     Hehere  burSe  ben  bis  nis   David's  kin. 

nan  under  sunne.     Luue  iwile  be  ba  swete  ihesu  as  te  gentileste   i  win  love 

'       '  ,  °  thee  as  the 

lif  bat  eauer  liuede  on  eor^e.  alswa  for  in  al  bi  lif  neauer  na   noi.iestthat 

'  '  ever  lived. 

leaste  nes   ifunden.   mi   deore  lefmon  lasteles.   and  tat  com  be 

of  burSe.  and  of  foster  alswa.  bu  bat  eauer  wunedest  i  be  hurd 

of  heouene.     *  A   mi  deorewurSe  dnrS  swa  gentile  and  swa    *  [Foi.  129.] 

hende.  ne  bole  me  neauer  mi  luue  nohwer  to  sette  o  karlische 

binges,  ne  eor^li  bing  ne  fleschli  a3aines  tc  3erne  ne  luue  a3ain 

bi  wille.     A  ihesu  swete  ihesu  leue  bat  te  luue  of  be  beo  al  mi 

likinge.     Meknesse  and  mildschipe  makes  mon  eihwer  luued.    Meekness  and 


emd  tu  mi  leue  ihesu  for  bi  mikle  meknesse  to  lamb  was  euenet.   cause  a  man 

'  to  be  loved. 

For  a3aines  al  be  woh  and  te  schome  bat  tu  boledest.  and  a3aines 
al  be  wa  and  te  pinfule  wundes  i  neauer  ne  opnedes  ti  mu^ 



against  it ;  and  yet  the  shame  and  the  wrong,  that  the  sinful  each 
day  do  unto  thee,  thou  sufferest  meekly ;  nor  dost  thou  take  vengeance 
(upon  us)  immediately  after  our  sins,  but  long  awaitest  (our)  repentance 
through  thy  mercy.  Since  thy  goodness  may  cause  thee  everywhere  to 
be  beloved,  therefore  is  it  right  that  I  love  thee  and  leave  all  others 
for  thee,  for  thou  hast  shown  great  mercy  towaixl  me.  Ah !  Jesu,  sweet 
Jesu,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  But  because  friends 
of  kin  naturally  love  one  another  thou  shroudedst  thyself  with  our 
flesh  ;  tookest  man  of  her  flesh,  born  of  a  woman.  Thy  flesh  took  of  her 
flesh  without  commerce  of  man  ;  took  fully,  with  that  same  flesh,  man's 
nature  to  suffer  all  that  man  may  suffer,  to  do  all  that  man  doth, 
except  sin  alone  ;  for  thou  hadst  neither  sin  nor  ignorance.  Then 
against  nature  goes  each  man  who  loveth  not  such  a  kinsman,  and 
leaveth  (all  others).  Seeing  that  truer  love  ought  to  be  amongst 
brethren,  thou  becamest  man's  brother  of  one  father,  with  all  those 
that  sing  Pater  noster  in  purity  ;  but  thou  [art  a  son]  through 
nature  (and  we  through  grace),  and  man  of  that  same  flesh  that  we 
bear  on  earth.  Ah !  whom  may  he  love  truly  who  loveth  not  his 
brother  ;  then  whosoever  loveth  not  thee  is  a  most  wicked  man. 
Now,  my  sweet  Jesu,  I  have  left  for  thy  love  flesh's  kinship,  and 
yet  born-brothers  have  cast  me  aside,  but  I  reck  of  nothing  whilst  1" 
hold  thee,  for  in  thee  alone  may  I  find  all  friends.  Thou  art  to  me 
more  than  father,  more  than  mother.  Brother,  sister,  or  friends,  none 
are  to  be  esteemed  as  anything  in  comparison  with  thee.  Ah  !  Jesu, 
sweet  Jesu,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  Thou 
then  with  thy  beauty,  thou  with  thy  riches,  thou  with  thy  liberality, 
thou  with  wit  and  wisdom,  thou  with  thy  might  and  strength,  thou 
with  nobleness  (of  birth)  and  graciousness,  thou  with  meekness  and 
mildness  and  great  gentleness,  thou  with  kinship,  thou  with  all  the 
things  that  one  may  purchase  love  with,  hast  bought  my  love  ;  but 
above  all  other  things  thou  makest  thyself  worthy  of  love  to  me, 
through  those  hard  horrible  injuries,  and  those  shameful  .wrongs  that 
thou  didst  suffer  for  me.  Thy  bitter  pain  and  thy  passion,  thy  shai'p 
death  on  the  rood,  rightly  tells  upon  all  my  love,  and  challenges 
(claims)  all  my  heart.  Jesus,  my  life's  love,  my  heart's  sweetness, 
three  foes  fight  against  me,  and  yet  may  I  sore  dread  for  their  blows ; 
and  it  behoves  me,  through  thy  grace,  prudently  to  guard  myself  against 
the  world,  my  flesh,  and  the  devil.     The  world    endeavours   to  make 


to  grucchen  ajaines.  and   sette  be  schome  and  te  woh  bat  te  Thou  en- 

°  °  '  '  durest  all  the 

sunefule  of  be  world  euch  dai  don  bef  mildeliche  bu  bo] est  hit.    wrongdoing 

!  >  '       '  of  man, 

ne  wrekes  tu  be  nawt  sone  after  ure  Gultes  Bote  longe  abides 
bote  bui'h  ut  ti  milce.  penne  bi  deboneirschipe  mai  make  be 
eihwer  luued.  and  for  bi  is  riht  bat  i  luue  be.  and  leaue  alle  o^re  therefore  will 

'  >  '  1  leave  all 

for  be.  for  muchel  bu  liaues  ti  milce  toward  me  scheawed.     A   °tliers  for 

>  >  thee. 

ihesu  swete  ihesu  leue  bat  te  luue  of  be  beo  al  mi  likinge.     Bote 

for  bi  bat  sibbe  frend  kindeliche  euchan  luues  o^er  f  bu  schruddes  Kinsmen  love 

'     '  '  one  another ; 

te  wi$  ure  flesch.  nam  of  hire  flesch  mon  born  of  wu»tmon 

bi  flesch  nam  of  hire  flesch  wrS  ute?i  meane  of  wepmow.  nam  thou  art  of 

our  kin, 

wr5  bat  ilke  flesch  fulliche  mownes  cunde  to  bolen  al  bat  mon 
mai  bole.  Don  al  bat  mon  de^  wr5  utew  sunne  ane.  for  sumie 
and  unwitschipe   ne  hafdes  tu  now^er.     penne  asaines  kinde  wherefore  we 

■*■  should  leave 

GaS  hwa  bat  swuche  kinsemow  ne  luueS  and  leue^.     And  for  a,"  otheis  for 

'  thee. 

bi  bat  trewere  luue  ah  beo  imong  bre^re  bu  mownes  broker 
bicom  of  an  fader  wi$  alle  boa  bat  cleneliche  singen.  Pater 
nosier.  Bute  bu  burhut  kinde.  and  we  burhut  grace,  and  mon 
of  bat  ilke  flesch  bat  we  beren  on  eorSe.  A.  hwam  mai  he  luue 
treweliche  hwa  ne  luues  his  broker.  pemie  hwa  se  be  ne  luues  f 
he  is  mon  unwreastest      Nu   mi  swete  ihesu.  leaued   haue   i  J  liave  left 

all  for  thee. 

for  bi  luue  flesches  sibnesse*  and   3ette  borne  brefcre  hauen    *[FoLi89&.] 
me  forwurpen.   bote  ne  recches   me  na   bing  hwils  bat   i   be 
halde.  for  i  be  ane  mai  ich  alle  frewd  findew.  bu  art  me  mare  Thou  art 

more  to  me 

ben  fader,  mare  ben  moder.     Broker  suster.   o^re  frend  nam  than  an  my 

r  .  r  kin. 

uawiht  a3aines  te  to  teller.  A  ihesu  swete  ihesu  leue  bat  te.  &c. 
penne  bu  wvS  bi  fairnesse.  bu  wrS  richesce.  bu  wi$  largesce.  bu 
wi^  wit  and  wisdom,  bu  wi$  maht  and  strewgSe.  bu  wrS  no- 
blesce  and  hendeleic.  bu  wr&  meknesse  and  mildeschipe  and  mikel 
debonairte.  bu  wrS  sibnesse.  bu  wrS  alle  be  binges  bat  man  mai 
luue  wrS  bugge  J  haues  mi  luue  chepet.    Ah  ouer  alle  o^re  bi«ges  Thou  hast 

caused  me  to 

makes  te  luuewurSi  to  me  ba  harde  atele  hurtes.  ba  schomeliche  love  thee 

through  thy 

wohes  bat  tu  boledes  for  me.  bi  bittre  pine  and  passiun.  bi  derue  Pain  and  i>as- 
dea^  o  rode  telles  riht  in  al  mi  luue.  caleneres  al  mi  heorte.   death  °" the 

°  cross. 

Ihesu  mi  Hues  luue.  min  herte  swetnesse.  bre  fan  fihten  a3aines 
me.  and  $et  mai  ich  sare  for  hare  duntes  drede.  and  bihoues 
burh  bi  grace  3apliche  to  wite  me.  be  werld  mi  flesch.   be  deouel. 


me  its  slave ;  my  flesh  to  make  me  a  whore  ;  the  devil,  through  these 
two,  to  draw  me  to  hell.  Fearful  I  was  myself,  and  sorrowful,  and 
nigh  down-fallen  (dejected),  and  my  foes  hold,  so  blustering,  and  so  keen 
(fierce),  that  when  they  saw  me  so  weak  and  so  fearful  and  so  yielding 
towards  them,  the  more  they  assaulted  me  and  weened  to  have  made 
me,  wretch,  all  their  own,  and  had  indeed  made  (me  so),  had  not 
(thy)  help  been  the  nearer  to  me.  They  grinned  for  gladness  each 
one  toward  the  other,  as  mad  wolves  that  rejoice  over  their  prey.  But 
thereby  I  understand  that  thou  wilt  have  me  for  thy  beloved  (lemman) 
and  for  thy  spouse,  so  that  thou  didst  not  permit  them  fully  to 
rejoice  over  me,  nor  altogether  to  have  cast  me  into  shame  and  sin, 
and  thereafter  into  (everlasting)  torment.  But  where  the  bale  (danger) 
was  greatest  of  all,  there  was  succour  nearest.  Thou  beheldest 
all  this,  and  thou  also  sawest  that  I  was  unable  to  stand  against  their 
wilful  wiles  through  wisdom  or  strength  that  was  in  myself,  but  nearly 
had  I  fully  yielded  to  all  my  three  foes.  Thou  earnest  to  help  me,  under- 
tookest  to  fight  for  me,  and  riddest  (deliveredst)  me  from  the  sorrow 
of  death's  house,  and  the  pain  of  hell.  Thou  baddest  me  behold 
how  thou  foughtest  for  me,  that  I  may  not  be  afraid  of  worldly  po- 
verty, nor  shame  of  wicked  men's  mouth,  guiltlessly,  nor  sickness  of 
my  body,  nor  bodily  pain,  when  I  behold  how  thou  wast  poor  for 
me,  how  thou  wast  disgracefully  and  shamefully  treated  for  me,  and 
at  the  last,  with  torturing  death,  hanged  on  the  rood.  Jesu,  my 
life's  love,  rich  art  thou  as  Lord  in  heaven  and  earth,  and  yet  thou 
becamest  for  me  poor,  destitute  and  wretched.  Poor  wast  thou  born 
of  the  maiden,  thy  mother,  for  in  thy  birth-time  in  all  the  city  of 
Bethlehem  thou  foundest  not  house-shelter  wherein  thy  tender  child's 
limbs  might  rest,  but  (wast  born)  in  a  wall-less  house  in  the  middle  of 
the  street.  Poor  thou  wast,  wrapped  in  rags  and  clouts,  and  coldly 
lodged  in  a  beast's  crib.  But  as  thou  grewest  older  thou  becamest  even 
poorer  ;  for  in  thy  childhood  thou  hadst  the  breast  (paps)  for  thy 
food,  and  thy  mother  was  ready  when  thou  yearnedst  for  the  breast  ; 
but  when  thou  becamest  older,  thou,  that  feedest  the  fowls  in 
(their)  flight,  fish  in  the  flood,  and  people  on  the  earth,  suffer- 
edst  for  lack  of  meat  many  a  sharp  (pang  of)  hunger,  as  clerks 
indeed  read  in  the  Gospel  ;  and  thou  that  wroughtest  the  heaven 
and    earth,   and    all   this   world,  hadst   not  in   all   this  world   of  thine 

)>E  WOHUNGE  OF  UltE  LAUERD.  ^7 

pe  world  to  make  me  bewe.     Mi  flesf  to  make  me  hore.     pe  My  foes,  the 

'I  world,  flesh, 

deuel  burh  ut  bise  twa  to  drahe  me  to  helle.     Arh  ich  was  w^ll*!^1devi1' 

meself  and  wah  and  neh   dune   fallen,    and  mine  fan  derue.  j^f^nd 

swa  bucchede  and  swa  kene  bat  hwew  bai  sehen  me  swa  wak  over  me ; 

and   swa   forkuhande  and  buhande  toward  ham.    bei   swrSre 

sohten  uppo  me.  and  wenden  of  me  wrecche  kaue  maked  al 

hare   alien   and  hefden   forso^e   maked.    nere   kelpe   nere    be 

nerre.     pai  grennede   for   gladschipe   euchan   toward   o^er   as  they  rejoiced 

°  ox  over  me  <as 

wode  wulues  bat  faine^  of  hare  praie.     Bote  ber  burh  under-  wild  beasts 

>  *  '         '  over  their 

stonde  i  bat  tu  wult  haue  me  to  lefmon  and  to  spwse.  bat  tu  P'ey, 

ne  boledes  ham  noht  fulli  fainen  of  me.   and  alle  gate  haue 

wurpen  me  in  schome  and  in  sinne.  and  ter  after  in  to  pine. 

Bote   ber   be   bale  was  aire  meast.    swa  was   te   bote   nehest. 

pu  biheld    al   bis  and  tu   allegate    seh   bat    ine    mihte    stonde   but  thou  saw- 

*  '  °  '  est  my  wcak- 

ajain  hare  *wilfulle  crokes  burh  wit  o^er  streng^e  bat  wes  \n   ness> 

me  seluew.     Bot  neh  hefde  i  fulliche  buhed  til  alle  mine  bre 

fan.  bn  com  me  to  helpe.  feng  to  fihte  for  me.  and  riddes  me   and  didst 

>  I  O  fight  for  me. 

fram  dea^es  hus  sorhe  and  pine  of  helle.  pu  biddes  me  bihalde 
hu  bu  faht  for  me.  bat  i  pouerte  of  worlde  ne  schome  of  wicke 
monnes  mu?  for  uten  mine  Gulte.  ne  secnesse  of  mi  bocli.  ne 
flesches  pine  drede.  hwew  bat  i  bihalde  hu  bu  was  poure  for 
me.  hu  bu  was  schent  and  schomet  for  me '.  and  atte  laste  wrS 
pineful  dea^  henged  orode.     Ihesu  mi  Hues  luue  riche  ar  tu  as   Tll0u  thtat 

1  ~  wast  rich 

lauerd  in  heuene  and  in  eorSe.  and  tah  poure  bu1  bicom  for  me.   awst  become 

*  J  poor  for  me, 

westi  and  wrecched      Poure   bu   born  was   of  be   meidew   bi     '  ms.  bi. 

moder.  for  beraie  ibi  burS  tid  in  al  be  burh  of  belleem  ne  fant 

tu  hus  lewe  ber  bine   nesche  childes  limes  i?zne  mihte  reste. 

Bot  in  a  waheles   hus  imiddes  be   strete.      Poure  bu   wundere,  and  wast  born 

'  '  in  a  wall-less 

was  irattes  and  i  clutes  and    caldeliche  dennet  in   a  beastes  house> 
cribbe.     Bote  swa  bu  eldere  wex  f  swa  bu   pourere  was.     For 
i  bi  childhad    hafdes   tu   be  pappe  to    bi  fode.   and   ti    moder 
readi  hwew  bu  pappe  3erndes.     Bote  hwew  bu  eldere  was.  bu   The  older 
bat  fuhel   ofluht.    fisch   iflod   folc   on  eorSe   fedes '.    b^des  for  grow  the 

'  '  poorer  thou 

wone  of  mete  moni  hat  hungre  as  clerkes  witerliche  in  god-  becamest. 
spel  reden.    and  tu   bat  heuene  and  eorSe  and   al   bis  werld 
wrahtes.  nauedes  m  al  bis  werld  hwer  bu  o  bin  alien  bi  heaued 


own  where  thou  mightest  rest  thy  head  ;  but  both  young  and  older 
always  thou  hadst  (not)  wherewith  thou  mightest  cover  thy  bones. 
But  at  the  last  (period)  of  thy  life,  when  thou  for  me  so  piteously 
didst  hang  on  the  rood,  thou  hadst  not,  in  all  this  world,  wherewith 
thou  mightest  cover  and  hide  thy  blissful  bloody  body.  And  so  my 
sweet  beloved  one,  poor  thou  thyself  wast ;  and  thou  choosest  the  rather 
to  be  poor,  for  poverty  thou  didst  love,  and  poverty  didst  teach 
(enjoin)  ;  and  thou  hast  given  perpetually  thy  everlasting  bliss  to  all 
those  that  willingly  endure,  (wholly)  cleanly  for  thy  love,  hardships 
and  poverty.  All !  why  should  I  be  rich  and  thou,  my  beloved,  so 
poor  1  Therefore,  sweet  Jesu  Christ,  will  I  be  poor  for  thee,  as  thou 
wast  for  the  love  of  me,  so  that  I  may  be  rich  with  thee  in  thine  eternal 
bliss  ;  for  with  poverty  and  with  woe  shall  weal  be  purchased.  Ah  ! 
Jesu,  sweet  Jesu,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  But 
poverty  with  honour  is  easy  to  be  endured ;  but  thou,  my  beloved, 
wholly  for  my  love,  with  all  thy  poverty  was  shamefully  ill-treated  ; 
for  how  often  they  said  to  thee  shameful  words,  and  hateful  scoffings  ; 
which  it  would  take  long  to  tell  them  all  !  But  much  shame  thou  didst 
suffer  when  thou,  that  never  didst  sin,  was  taken  as  an  untrue 
(traitor),  brought  before  sinful  men,  those  heathen  hounds,  by  them  to  be 
doomed,  thou  that  art  the  judge  of  (all)  the  world.  There  thou,  the 
saviour  of  mankind,  wast  shamefully  condemned  (to  death),  and  the 
murderer  was  released  from  the  doom  (sentence)  of  death  ;  for,  as  it 
is  written  in  the  Gospel,  they  all  cried  after  the  manner  of  mad  wolves, 
"  Hang,  hang  that  traitor  Jesus  on  the  rood  ;  hang  him  on  the  rood, 
and  release  to  us  Barabbas ;"  a  thief  was  that  Barabbas  that  had 
seditiously  killed  a  man  in  the  city.  But  more  shame  thou  didst 
endure  when  that  the  sinful  men  spat  in  thy  face.  Ah,  Jesu !  who 
might  endure  more,  Christian  or  heathen,  than  when  one  spitteth  in 
scorn  upon  his  beard  1  And  thou,  in  thy  pleasant  face,  in  that  love- 
some  cheer  (countenance)  didst  endure  such  shame ;  and  yet  for  the 
love  of  me  it  all  seemed  honour  to  thee,  so  that  thou  mightest  with 
that  spittle,  that  so  besmeared  thy  face,  wash  my  soul  and  make 
it  white  and  shining  and  seemly  in  thy  sight.  And  therefore  thou 
biddest  me  think  upon  this.  Scito,  Quoniam  propter  te  sustinui  op- 
probium  :  operuit  confusio  faciem  mea/m.  —  Understand,  thou  sayest, 
and  heartily  think  that  I,  for  the  love  of  thee,  didst  endure  shame 
and  scorn,  and  shameful  spitting  of  unworthy  ribalds ;  the  heathen 
hounds  covered  my  face  for  thee.     As  though  he  should  say,   "  Dread 


mibtes  reste.     Bote  ba$e  3ung  and  eldre  alle  Gate  bu  hafdes 

hwer  bu  mihtes  wrilie  bine  banes.     Ab  atte  laste  of  bi  lif  bwen   Even  when  on 

'  '  tlie  cross  thou 

bu  for  me  swa  rewliche  hengedes  on   rode,  ne  hafdes  in  al  bis   nadst  no 

»  °  *         covering  for 

world  hwer  wrS  bat  blisfule  blodi  bodi  bu  mibtes  bule  and  huide.   tt^  body- 

and  swa  mi  swete  lefmon  poure  bu  be  self  was.  and  te  poure1  bu    l  ms.  bome. 

raSeste  cheas.  pouerte  bu  luuedes.  pouerte  bu  tabtes.  and  5iuen 

bu  baues  ecbeliche  bin  endelese  blisse.  til  alle  bat  cleuli  for  b\ 

luue  mesaise  and  pouerte  wilfulliche  bolien.    A  bu  scbulde  i  beo   How  should  i 

'  then  be  rich 

riche.  and  tu  mi  leof  swa  poure  f  for  bi  swete  *ihesu  crist  wile  i   and  thou  so 

*  '  poor ! 

beo  poure  for  bef  as  tu  was  for  be  luue  of  me.  for  to  beo  riche    *[Foi.i30&.] 
wiS  be  i  pin  eche  blisse.  for  wrS  pouerte  and  wrS  wa  scbal  mo»i 
wele  buggen.     A  ihesu  swete  ibesu  leue  bat  te  &c.     Bote  po- 
uerte wrS  menske  is   eaS  for  to  bolien.     Ah  bu  mi  lef  for  mi   For  my  sake 

thou  wast 

luue  wi*5  al  b'\  pouerte  was  schomeliche  heaned.  for  hu  mon  be   shamefully 

ofte  seide  schomeliche  wordes  and  haSfule  hokeres.  long  weren 

bit  al  to  telle?*.     Bote  mucbe  schome  bu  boledes.  hwew  bu  bat 

neauer  su?*ne  didesf    was  taken   as  untreowe.     Broht  biforen 

sinfule  men  ]>a  heaSene  hundes  of  ham  to  beo  demct.  \>at  demere 

art  of  werlde.     per  bu  bote  of  mon  kiu  schomeliche  was  denied,   doomed  to 

'  death,  and 

and  te  monquellere  fra  deSes  dom   was  lesed.      For   as   i   be  '»»is  on  the 

A  *        cross  as  a 

godspel  is  writen.  alle  bai  crieden  o  wode  wulues  wise   Heng  traitor. 

heng  bat  treitur  ihesus  on  rode.     Heng  him  o  rode,  and  lese  us 

Baraban.  was  tat  barabas  a  beof  bat  wrS  tresun  i  be  burb  bafde  a 

mow  cwelled.  bote  mare  schome  bu  Jjoledes  hwen  bat  te  sunefule 

men  i  bi  neb  spitted.     A  ihesu  hwa  mibte  mare  bolen  cristen  On  thy  beard 

'  they  spat, 

oSer  heaSen  f  ben  mon  him  for  scbendlac  i  be  beard  spitted. 
And  tu  i  bi  welefulle  wlite.  i  bat  lufsume  leor  swuche  schome 
boledes.     And  al  be  menske  buhte  for   be  luue  of  me.   bat  tu  and  with  that 

'  '  »  '  '  spittle  thou 

mihtes  wrS  bat  spatel  bat  swa  biclarted2  ti  leor  wascbe  mi  sawle. 
and  make  bit  bwit  and  scbene  and  semlike  i  bi  sihte.  and  for  bi 
bu  biddes  me  her  up  on  benche.  Scito,  juoniawi  propter  te  sus- 
tinui  oprobrium  ojiermt  confusio  faciem.  meam.  Vnderstond  bu 
seist  and  berteliche  benke  bat  i  for  be  luue  of  be  bolede  schome  and 
bismere.  and  schomeliche  spatelmg  of  unwurSi  ribauz  ba  heaSene 
hundes  hilede  mi  neb  for  be.     As  tah  he  seide.  ne  drcd  tu  nawt 

didst  wash 
my  soid  white 
and  clean. 
2  MS.  biclar- 


thou  not  therefore  to  endure  for  me  worldly  shame,  although  guilt- 
less." But  shame  above  shame  thou  didst  endure  when  thou  wast 
hanged  between  two  thieves,  as  though  one  might  say,  "  He  is  more 
than  thief,  and  therefore  as  their  (chief)  master  he  hangs  between 
them."  Ah  !  Jesu,  my  life's  love,  what  heart  is  there  that  may  not 
break  when  he  thinketh  hereof;  how  thou,  that  art  the  honour  of 
all  mankind,  and  the  remedy  for  all  bales  (sorrows),  didst  endure 
such  shame  for  to  honour  mankind.  They  speak  often  of  wonders 
and  of  marvels,  divers  and  manifold,  that  have  befallen,  but  this  was 
the  greatest  wonder  that  ever  befell  on  earth.  Yea!  wonder  above 
wonders,  that  that  renowned  kaiser,  crowned  in  heaven,  creator  of 
all  creatures,  in  order  to  honour  his  foes,  would  hang  between  two 
thieves  !  Ah  !  Jesu,  sweet  Jesu,  thou  that  wast  shamefully  treated 
for  love  of  me,  grant  that  the  love  of  thee  be  all  my  delight.  Sufficient 
were  poverty  and  shame,  without  other  torments  ;  but  it  seemed 
never  to  thee,  my  life's  love,  that  thou  mightest  fully  purchase  my 
friendship  whilst  life  lasted  thee.  Ah  !  a  dear  bargain  hadst  thou  in 
me  ;  never  was  so  unworthy  a  thing  bought  so  dearly.  All  thy  life 
on  earth  was  in  affliction  for  my  sake,  ever  longer  the  more  so. 
But  before  thy  death  so  infinitely  thou  wast  afflicted  and  so  sorely, 
that  thou  didst  sweat  red  blood  ;  for,  as  St.  Luke  saith  in  the  Gospel, 
thou  wast  in  so  great  an  affliction  that  the  sweat,  as  drops  of  blood, 
ran  down  to  the  earth.  But  what  tongue  may  tell,  what  heart  may 
think,  for  sorrow  and  for  ruth,  of  all  the  buffets  and  the  grievous 
blows  that  thou  didst  suffer  in  thy  first  capture,  when  that  Judas 
Iscariot  brought  the  hell-bairns  (children  of  hell)  to  take  and  to  bring 
thee  before  their  princes  ;  how  they  bound  thee  so  cruelly  fast  that 
the  blood  was  wrung  out  at  thy  finger-nails  (as  saints  believe),  and 
led  thee  sorrowfully  bound,  and  struck  harsh  blows  on  thy  back  and 
shoulders,  and  before  the  princes  buffeted  and  beat  thee  ;  how  after- 
wards before  Pilate  thou  wast  bound  naked  and  fast  to  the  pillar,  so 
that  thou  mightest  nowhere  turn  (wrench  thyself)  from  the  blows.  There 
thou  wast,  for  love  of  me,  with  knotty  whips  beaten,  so  that  thy  lovely 
body  might  be  torn  and  rent  asunder ;  and  all  thy  blissful  body  streamed 
in  one  blood-stream.  Afterwards  on  thine  head  was  set  the  crown 
of  sharp  thorns,  so  that  with  every  thorn  the  red  blood  poured  out 
from  thine  holy  head.  Afterwards  also  wast  thou  buffeted  and  struck  on 
the  head  with  the  sceptre  of  reed,   that  was  previously  in  thine  hand 


for  be  of  me  to  boh?  schome  of  worlde  wr5  ute  bine  Gulte.     Bote 

schome  ouer  schomes  *  boledes  tu  hwew  bu  wes  henged  bituhlie     *  [Foi.  131.] 

twa  beofes.     As  hwa  se  seie.  He  bis  is  mare  ben  beof.     And  for   He  was  hung 

between  two 

bi  as  hare  meister  he  henges  ham  bituhhen.     A  ihesu  mi  Hues    thieves,  as  if 

he  were  the 

luue  hwat  herte  ne  mai  to  breke  hwew  ha  herof  benches  hu   greatest  maie- 

'  factor. 

bu  bat  menske  art  of  al  mon  kin.  of  alle  bales  bote,  mow  for  to 
menske  swuch  schome  boledes.  Mon  spekes  ofte  of  wundres 
and  of  selcuSes  bat  misliche  and  monifald  hauew  bifallera.  bote 
bis  was  te  measte  wunder  bat  eauer  bifel  on  eorSe.  3a  wunder   was  not  tins 

the  greatest 

ouer  wundres  bat  tat  kidde  keiser  cruned  in  heuene.  schu])pere   ofa11 


of  alle  schaftes.  for  to  mensken  hise  fan.  walde  he»ge  bituhlie 

twa  beoues.     A  ihesu  swete  ihesu  bat  tu  wes  schewt  for  mi  luue 

leue  bat  te  luue  of  be  &c.     Inoh  were  poutrte  and  schome  wr5 

ute?i  o'Sre  pines  bote  ne  buhte  be  neauer  mi  Hues  luue.  bat  tu 

mihtes  fulliche  mi  frendschipe  buggen  hwils1  be  lif  be  lasted     '  ms.  hwiif. 

A.  deore  cheap  hefdes  tu  on  me.  ne  was  neauer  unwurSi  bing 

chepet  swa  deore.     Al   bi  lif  on  eor^e  wes  iswink  for  me  swa    ah  thy  Ufa 

.  ,  was  in  sorrow 

lengre  swa  mare     Ah  bifore   bin   ending  swa  unimeteliche  bu    for  my  sake, 
swanc  and  swa  sare  bat  reade  blod  bu  swattes  for  as.  seint  luk    Thou  didst 

.       .  .  .  sweat  drops 

sero  1  be  godspel.  bu  was  1  swa  Strang  a  swing  bat  te  swat  as    of  blood  in 

blodes  dropes  eorn  dune  to  be  eorSe.     Bute  hwat  tunge  mai  hit   agony 

telle,   hwat   heorte   mai  hit  benche  for  sorhe   and  for  reow¥e 

of  alle  ba  buffetes  and  ta  bali  duntes  bat  tu  boledest  i  bin  earst 

niminge  hwew  bat  iudas  scharioth  brohte  ba  helle  bearnes  be  to 

taken  and  bringen  biforew  hare  princes,  hu  ha  be  bundew  swa    The  Jews  so 

bound  tliee 

*hetehfaste  bat  te  blod  wrang  ut  at  tine  finger  neiles  as  halhes    that  the  wood 

gushed  out  at 
bileuen  and  bundew  leaden  rewn  and  dintede  unrideli  o  run-   thy  ringer 

to     nails. 

and  o   schuldres.    and  bifore    be   princes   buffeted  and  beten.    *LFoi.  1316.J 

SrSen   bifore   pilat  hu  bu  was  naket  bundew  faste  to  be  piler. 

bat  tu  ne  mihtes  nowhwider  wrenche  fra  ba  duntes.  ber  bu  wes 

for  mi  luue  wift  cnotti  swepes  swungen  swa  bat  ti  luueliche  lich    Thou  wast  so 

scourged  that 

mihte  beo  to  torn  and  to  rent,  and  al  bi  blisfule  bodi  streamed   the  wood 


on  a  Girre  blod.     SrSen  o  bin  heaued  wes  set  te  crunc  of  scharpe   from  tliy 

'  *         body. 

bornes.  bat  wftS  eauriche  born  wrawg  ut  te  reade  blod  of  bin 
heali  heaued.  Si¥en  3ft  te  buffetet  and  to  dunet  i  be  heaued 
wi*  be  red  3erde  bat  te  was   ear  \n  honde  3iuen  be  on  hoker- 


given  thee  in  scorn.  Ah  !  what  shall  I  do  now  1  Now  my  heart  may 
break,  my  eyes  flow  all  with  water.  Ah  !  now  is  my  beloved  doomed 
to  die.  Ah  !  now  they  lead  him  forth  to  mount  Calvary  to  the  place 
of  execution.  Ah,  lo !  he  bears  his  rood  upon  his  bare  shoulders  ; 
and  would  that  those  blows  had  struck  me  with  which  they  battered 
and  thrust  thee  quickly  forward  toward  thy  doom  !  Ah  !  beloved,  how 
they  follow  thee ;  thy  friends  sorrowfully  with  lamentation  and  sorrow, 
and  thy  enemies  mockingly  in  scorn  and  to  bring  trouble  on  thee.  Ah  ! 
now  they  have  brought  him  thither.  Ah  !  now  they  raise  up  the  rood, 
and  set  up  the  accursed  tree.  Ah  !  now  they  strip  my  beloved.  Ah ! 
now  they  drive  him  up  with  whips  and  with  scourges.  Ah  !  how  can 
I  live  for  grief,  seeing  my  beloved  upon  the  cross,  and  his  limbs  so  drawn 
asunder  that  I  may  tell  each  bone  in  his  body.  Ah !  how  do  they  now 
drive  the  iron  nails  through  thy  fair  hands  into  the  hard  rood,  [and] 
through  thy  gracious  feet.  Ah  !  now  from  those  hands  and  feet  so  lovely, 
streams  the  blood  so  ruefully.  Ah  !  now  they  offer  my  beloved,  that 
saith  he  thirsts,  eisel,  sourest  of  all  drinks,  mixed  with  gall,  that 
is  the  bitterest  thing  (two  bale-drinks  in  blood-letting,  so  sour  and 
so  bitter),  but  he  drank  not  of  it.  Ah !  now  sweet  Jesu,  yet  in 
addition  to  all  thy  woe  they  increase  it  by  shame  and  mockery, 
they  laugh  thee  to  scorn  where  thou  hangest  on  the  rood.  When 
thou,  my  lovely  beloved,  with  outstretched  arms,  hangedst  on  the 
rood,  it  was  rueful  to  the  righteous,  but  laughter  to  the  wicked.  And 
thou,  before  whom  all  the  world  might  dread  and  tremble,  wast  a 
laughing-stock  and  a  mockery  to  the  wicked  folk  of  this  world.  Ah  ! 
that  lovely  body  that  hangest  so  sorrowfully,  so  bloody,  and  so  cold  ! 
Ah  !  how  shall  I  now  live,  for  my  beloved  dies  now  for  me  upon  the 
dear  cross.  He  hangs  down  his  head  and  his  soul  departs.  But  it 
seems  to  them  that  he  is  not  yet  fully  tormented,  nor  will  they  let  the 
sorrowful  body  rest  in  peace.  They  lead  forth  Longius  with  the  broad 
sharp  spear.  He  pierces  his  side,  cleaves  the  heart,  and  there  comes 
flowing  out  of  the  wide  wound  the  blood  that  redeemed  [us]  and  the 
water  that  washed  the  world  from  guilt  and  from  sin.  Ah  !  sweet  Jesu, 
thou  openest  for  me  thy  heart,  that  I  may  know  (thee)  truly  and  read 
therein  true  love-letters,  for  there  I  may  openly  see  how  much  thou 
lovedest  me.  With  wrong  should  I  refuse  thee  my  heart,  since  thou 
hast  bought  heart  for  heart.  Lady,  mother,  and  maiden,  thou  didst 
stand  here  full  nigh  and  sawest  all  this  sorrow  upon  thy  precious   son. 


ringe.  A  hwat  schal  i  nu  don  1  Nu  min  herte  mai  to  breke. 
min  ehne  flowen  al  o  water.  A  nu  is  mi  lefmow  demd  for  to 
deien.     A  nu  mo»  ledes  him  forS  to  munte  caluarie  to  be  cwalm   Thou  wast 

a  •  i  ■  iii  led  to  mount 

stowe.     A  lo  he  beres  his  rode  up  on  his  bare  schuldres.  and  Calvary, 
lef  ba  duntes  drepew  me  bat  tai  be  dunchen  and   brasten  be 
forSward  swrSe  toward  ti  dom.     A  lefmow  hu  mo«  follies  te.   amidst  the 

weeping  of 

bine  frend  sariliche  wrS  reining  and  sorhe.  bine  fend  hokerliche   thy  friends 

and  the  scorn 

to  schome  and  wundrew  up  o  be.     A  nu  haue   bai  broht  him   oft,)y 


bider.     A  nu  raise  bai  up  be  rode.     Setis  up  be  warh  treo.     A 

nu  nacnes  mo?i  mi  lef    A.  nu  driuen  ha  him  up  wK  swepes  and  Vp  the  cross 

they  drove 

wi^  schurges.     A  hu  Hue  i  for  reow^e  bat  seo  mi1  mi  lefmow  thee  with 

'  whips  ; 

up  o  rode,  and  swa  to  drahen  hise  limes  bat  i  mai  in  his  bodi     i?nu. 
euch  ban  teller.     A  hu  bat  ha  nu  driuen  iruene  neiles  burh  bine 
feire  hondes  in  to  hard  rode  burh  bine  freoliche  fet.     A  nu  of  ba 

hondew  and  of  ba  fet  swa  luueli.  streames  te  blod  swa  rewli.  into  thy 

hands  and 

A  nu  bedew  ha  mi  leof  bat  serS  bat  him  bristes '.   aisille  surest  feet  they 

'  '  '  drove  the  iron 

aire  drinch  menged  wi¥>  galle  bat  is  bing  bittrest.     Twa2  Bale  nai,s- 

•  1_       •      1   1        11         •  7  •  •  2    ^IS-  ®WB" 

drinch  l  blodletmg  swa   sur  and  swa   bittre.  bote  ne  drinkes  They  gave 

he  hit  noht.     A  nu  swete  ihesu.   5et  up  on   al  bi  wa  ha  eken  todriX85"" 

schome  and  burner,  lahhen  be  to  hokere  ber  bu  o  rode  hengest.  gall. 
bu  mi  luueliche  lef  ber  bu  wi^  strahte  *  earmes  henges  o  rode  f     *[Foi.  132.] 

was  reowfte  to  rihtwise.  lahter  to  be  lu^ere.     And  tu  bat  al  be  They  mocked 

.  at  thy  suffer- 

world  fore  mihte  drede  and  diuere  i  was  unwreste  folk  of  world  ings. 

to  hoker  lahter.     A  bat  luuelike  bodi  bat  henges  swa  rewli  swa 

blodi  and  swa  kalde.     A  hu  schal  i  nu  Hue  for  nu  deies  mi  lef  Thy  spirit 


for  me  up  o  be  deore  rode  ?  Henges  dun  his  heaued  and  sendee 

his  sawle.     Bote  ne  binche  ham  nawt  3et  bat  he  is  fill  pinet.  ne  but  thy  body 

bat  rewfule  deade  bodi   nulen   ha   nawt  friSie.     Bringen  for$  in  peace, 

longis  wr5  bat  brade  scharpe  spere.     He  buries  his  side  cleues  Longiuswith 

a  spear 

tat  herte.  and  cumes  flowinde  ut  of  bat  wide  wunde.  be  blod  bat  pierced  thy 

bohte.  be  water  bat  te  world  wesch  of  sake  and  of  sunne.     A 

swete  ihmi  bu  oppnes  me  bin  herte  for  to  cnawe  witerliche  and  Open  thou 

...  my  heart  to 

m  to  reden  trewe  lime  lettres.  for  ber  i  mai  openlich  seo  hu  know  thee 


muchel  bu  me  luuedes.  WrS  wrange  schuldi  be  min  heorte 
wearnen  si^en  bat  tu  bohtes  herte  for  herte.  Lauedi  moder  and 
meiden  bu  stod  here  ful  neh  and  seh  al  bis  sorhe  vpo  bi  deore- 


Thou  wast  inwardly  martyred  within  thy  motherly  heart  when  thou 
sawest  his  heart  cloven  asunder  with  the  spear's  point.  But,  lady, 
for  the  joy  that  thou  hadst  of  his  resurrection  the  third  day  there- 
after, grant  me  to  understand  thy  sorrow  and  heartily  to  feel  some- 
what of  the  sorrow  that  thou  then  hadst ;  and  that  I  may  help  thee 
to  weep  because  he  so  bitterly  redeemed  me  with  his  blood,  so  that 
I,  with  him  and  with  thee,  may  rejoice  in  my  resurrection  at  dooms- 
day, and  be  with  thee  in  bliss.  Jesus,  sweet  Jesu,  thus  thou  foughtest 
for  me  against  my  soul's  foes ;  thou  didst  settle  the  contest  for  me 
with  thy  body,  and  madest  of  me,  wretch,  thy  beloved  (lemman)  and 
spouse.  Thou  hast  brought  me  from  the  world  into  the  bower  of 
thy  birth,  enclosed  me  in  thy  chamber  where  I  may  so  sweetly  kiss 
and  embrace  thee,  and  of  thy  love  have  spiritual  delight.  Ah  !  sweet 
Jesu,  my  life's  love,  with  thy  love  hast  thou  redeemed  me,  and  from 
the  world  thou  hast  brought  (taken)  me.  But  I  now  may  say  with 
the  Psalmist,  Quid  retribuam  domino  pro  omnibus  quae  retribuit  mihi — 
Lord,  what  may  I  recpiite  thee  for  all  that  thou  hadst  given  me  !  What 
may  I  suffer  for  thee  for  all  that  thou  didst  endure  for  me  !  But  it 
is  needful  for  me  that  thou  be  easy  to  satisfy.  A  wretched  (poor) 
body  and  a  weak  (one)  I  bear  on  earth,  and  that,  such  as  it  is,  I  have 
given  thee,  and  will  give  to  thy  service.  Let  my  body  hang  with 
thy  body  nailed  on  the  rood,  and  enclosed  transversely  within  four 
Avails ;  and  hang  I  will  with  thee,  and  never  more  from  my  cross 
come  until  I  die  ;  for  then  shall  I  leap  from  the  rood  into  rest,  from 
woe  to  weal  and  into  eternal  bliss.  Ah !  Jesus,  so  sweet  it  is  with 
thee  to  hang  ;  for  when  I  look  on  thee  that  hangest  beside  me,  the 
great  sweetness  of  thee  bei'eaves  me  of  many  pains.  But,  sweet  Jesus, 
what  is  my  body  worth  in  comparison  Avith  thine  %  for  if  I  might  a 
thousandfold  give  thee  myself,  it  AArould  be  nothing  compared  to  thee 
that  gavest  thyself  for  me  ;  and  yet  I  have  a  heart,  vile  and  un- 
Avorthy,  and  destitute  and  poor  of  all  good  virtues ;  and  that,  such 
as  it  is,  take  to  thyself  now,  dear  life,  with  true  love,  and  suffer  me 
never  to  love  anything  against  thy  will,  for  I  may  not  set  my  love 
better  anywhei-e  than  on  thee,  Jesu  Christ,  that  didst  redeem  it  so 
dearly.  There  is  none  so  worthy  to  be  loved  as  thou,  SAveet  Jesu,  that 
hast  in  thyself  all  things  for  which  a  man  ought  to  be  love-Avorthy 
to  another.  Thou  art  most  Avorthy  of  my  Ioa-c,  thou  that  didst  die 
for  the  love  of  me.     Yet  if  I  offered  my  love  for  sale  and  set  a  value 


wurSe   sune.    was  wi^iwne    martird  ibi   rnoderliche  herte.    bat 

seh  to  cleue  his  heorte  wrS  be  speres  ord.     Bote  lafdi  for  be   Mother  of 

Christ,  aid  me 

Ioie  bat  tu  hefdes  of  his  ariste  be  bridde  dai  ber  after!  leue  me   tobewaflwitii 

'  r     r  r  tliee  the  suf_ 

vnderstonde  bi  dol  and  herteli  to  felen  su??^  hwat  of  be  sorhe   ferings  of  thy 

'  '  son. 

bat  tu  ba  hefdes  and  helpe  be  to  wepe.  bat  i  wrS  him  and  vtvS 
be  muhe  i  min  ariste  o  domes  dai  gladien  and  wrS  3U  beon 
i  blisse  bat  he  me  swa  bitterliche  wrS  his  blod  bohte.  Ihesu 
swete  ihesu  bus  tu  faht  for  me  asaines  mine  sawle  fan.  bu  me   Thou,  Jesus, 

'  J  '  didst  right  for 

derennedes  \\'v6  like,   and  makedes  of  me  wrecche  bi  leofnum  me  against 

'  my  foes, 

and  spvse.     Broht  tu  haues  me  fra  be  world  to  bur  of  bi  burSe.   and  hast 

1  '  wade  nie  thy 

steked  me  i  chaumbre.     I  mai  ber  be   swa  sweteli  kissen  and  spouse. 

cluppeu.    and  of  bi   luue   haue   gastli  likinge.     A  swete   ihesu 

mi  Hues  luue  wrS  bi  blod  bu  haues  me  boht.  and  fram  be  world 

bu  haues  me  broht.     Bote  nu  mai  i  seggen  wi^  be  salmewrihte.